Answers on Chapter 22 Test Answers Flashcards Essay

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1) According to your text, the progressives were (556) A) challenging the fundamental principles of capitalism. B) a totally brand-new movement. C) never a single group seeking a single objective. D) strong advocates of equality for blacks. E) united in their vision of how to reform America.
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C
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2) One of the roots of progressivism was the late 19th century (556) A) effort to regulate and control big business. B) decline in immigration. C) attempt to build an overseas empire. D) reform administration of Harrison. E) harmony between management and labor.
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A
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3) A major economic development between 1897 and 1904 was the (557) A) devaluation of the dollar. B) acceleration of the tendency toward industrial concentration. C) successful unionization of basic industries such as steel. D) major depression brought on by Cleveland?s tight money policies. E) reversal of the tendency toward industrial concentration.
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B
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4) Many in the middle-class were attracted to progressive reforms because they (557) A) sought to join conservative business forces in their triumph over working-class socialism. B) feared that their sense of personal importance and ambitions were undermined by aggressive labor unions. C) could make a pragmatic alliance with the ?new? urban immigrants who were the backbone of new militant labor unions. D) viewed themselves as the natural leaders of their communities who already commanded the respect necessary to lead these dramatic revolutionary changes. E) felt their ambitions and sense of importance were undermined by the new giant corporations.
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E
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5) A leading magazine editor and crusading reformer of the early 20th century was (557) A) Eugene V. Debs. B) S.S. McClure. C) Theodore Roosevelt. D) E.A. Ross. E) Charles Foster Kane.
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B
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6) ?This is. . .a collection of articles reprinted from McClure?s Magazine. . .And here is my justification for. . .republishing. . .my accounts of the shame of American cities. They were written with a purpose,…and they are reprinted now together to further that same purpose. . .to sound for the civic pride of an apparently shameless citizenship.? The above author was (557) A) Lincoln Steffens. B) Robert La Follette. C) Samuel M. ?Golden Rule? Jones. D) Jane Addams. E) ?Big Tim? Sullivan.
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7) Theodore Roosevelt called the progressive-era journalists who investigated corruption and fraud in American business and politics (558) A) muckrakers. B) yellow journalists. C) paper tigers. D) whistle blowers. E) heroes with typewriters.
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A
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8) Progressive reformers tended to believe that (558) A) social evils were due to human sinfulness. B) the solution to social problems was individual conversion to Christianity. C) social evils were due to human weakness. D) the solution to social problems was to change faulty institutions. E) social evils were God?s ways of testing his people.
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D
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9) The painters, such as Robert Henri and George Luks, who sympathized with the progressive reforms and who painted city slum scenes were called the (559) A) impressionists. B) progressive realists. C) abstract expressionists. D) ashcan artists. E) socialist realists.
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D
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10) How did the theories of Sigmund Freud affect the ideas and behavior of progressive intellectuals? (560) A) They were especially influenced by Freud?s essentially dark view of human nature. B) They strongly agreed with his view that almost all human behavior was determined by an individual?s genetic inheritance. C) They thought that Freud?s focus on behavior alone and total rejection of the existence of the unconscious was a mistake. D) They agreed with him that eternal archetypes were the fundamental factors in understanding psychology. E) They often used Freud?s ideas as an excuse to reject Victorian prudery.
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E
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11) The progressives attempted their first political reforms in the (560) A) Senate. B) cities. C) political parties. D) South. E) House of Representatives.
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B
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12) Samuel M. ?Golden Rule? Jones, Tom L. Johnson, and Seth Low were all (561) A) progressive mayors. B) machine politicians. C) progressive governors. D) Greenwich Village intellectuals. E) progressive senators.
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A
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13) The ________ plan was an urban reform, pioneered in Dayton, Ohio, whereby city affairs were administered on a nonpartisan basis by a professional. (561) A) mayoralty B) city manager C) direct-democracy D) home rule E) city commission
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B
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14) The banner ?progressive? state during the early years of the twentieth century was (561) A) New York. B) California. C) Wisconsin. D) Massachusetts. E) South Carolina.
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15) Russian immigrant and political activist Emma Goldman (562-3) A) strongly opposed birth control. B) lived and died in almost total obscurity. C) was careful to avoid arrest for her activities. D) vigorously supported the Great War because it would make the world safe for democracy. E) was in many ways a typical American immigrant.
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E
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16) Robert La Follette was particularly associated with (564) A) muckraking journalism and character assassination of leading businessmen. B) municipal socialism and labor organizing. C) prohibitions on selling alcohol and tobacco. D) promotion of specialized technical knowledge and legislative reference services to promote progressive reform. E) faith that the average citizen, rather than a trained expert, made the best government official.
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D
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17) Legislation protecting workers against on-the-job accidents was inspired by the disastrous (565) A) Iroquois Theater fire. B) Hormel packinghouse collapse. C) Triangle shirtwaist factory fire. D) San Francisco earthquake and fire. E) Homestead Steel fire.
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8) Headed by Florence Kelley and associated with lawyer Louis Brandeis, the most effective women?s organization of the Progressive Era was the (565) A) Consumer?s League. B) Congressional Union. C) Women?s Trade Union League. D) League of Women Voters. E) National American Woman Suffrage Association.
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E
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19) In Muller v. Oregon (1908) attorney Louis Brandeis presented a so-called ?Brandeis brief? to the Supreme Court, which was based on (565-6) A) English, not American, common law. B) abstract, rational principles, not legal precedent. C) economic and sociological evidence. D) American legal precedent. E) principles drawn from the Federalist Papers.
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C
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20) On the national level, the Progressive Era saw the completion of the struggle for (566) A) unemployment insurance. B) direct election of the House of Representatives. C) black voting rights. D) old age and survivor?s insurance. E) women?s suffrage.
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E
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21) Late 19th-century feminists were handicapped in their campaign for women?s suffrage by (566) A) their support for legalized abortion. B) strong opposition in western states. C) their demand for an equal rights amendment. D) Victorian sexual inhibitions. E) their support for equal pay for equal work.
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D
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23) One of the suffragists? more successful justifications was the ?purity? argument that (568) A) women?s moral superiority would clean up politics if they were given the vote. B) because women were no more pure or impure than men, they had nothing to lose by voting. C) women?s moral superiority would be destroyed by voting unless immoral immigrants were disenfranchised. D) women must first purify politics through religion, then they should get the vote. E) women?s moral superiority would be endangered by voting unless illiterate blacks and immigrants were disenfranchised.
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A
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24) One example of the progressive drive for political democracy was the Seventeenth Amendment which (568) A) prohibited the literacy tests which the South used to prevent most blacks from voting. B) required the popular election of senators. C) gave women the right to vote. D) required the popular election of the president. E) authorized federal income taxes.
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25) Theodore Roosevelt believed that the most effective means of dealing with big corporations was to (570-1) A) rely on the laws of supply and demand function. B) nationalize basic industries. C) break up all trusts and monopolies. D) regulate rather than eliminate them. E) take a hands off approach.
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D
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26) Roosevelt reacted to the creation of the Northern Securities Company by (571) A) suing to have it dissolved under the Sherman Antitrust Act. B) summoning J. P. Morgan and James J. Hill to the White House for a tongue -lashing. C) threatening to nationalize the railroads involved unless they voluntarily dissolved their merger. D) hailing it as an example of responsible behavior by big business. E) threatening to invade Canada unless they quit interfering in American markets.
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A
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27) According to ?Debating the Past,? since the 1930s most historians have agreed that the progressives (571) A) sought and achieved revolutionary changes to check concentrated industrial power. B) were actually conservatives who wanted to preserve capitalism. C) did not completely succeed with their reform efforts, especially in challenging the trusts. D) were wild-eyed revolutionaries who wanted to turn American society inside out and upside down. E) presented their reforms as mere window dressing to distract the public.
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28) The first progressive president and the advocate of the ?Square Deal? was (573) A) William McKinley. B) Woodrow Wilson. C) Theodore Roosevelt. D) William H. Taft. E) Grover Cleveland.
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29) The primary result of the 1906 Hepburn Act was to (573-4) A) prohibit child labor in goods sold in interstate commerce. B) make the Federal Food and Drug Administration more powerful and active. C) require federal inspection of meat sold overseas. D) preserve millions of wilderness acres in the West. E) make the Interstate Commerce Commission more powerful and active.
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30) Upton Sinclair?s novel The Jungle exposed (574) A) filthy conditions in Chicago slaughterhouses. B) corruption in Philadelphia?s police department. C) rigged voting in the Senate. D) insider manipulations in the stock market. E) bribery and fraud in Boston elections.
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31) ?It was late, almost dark, and the government inspectors had all gone. . .That day they had killed about four thousand cattle, and these cattle had come in freight trains from far states, and some of them had got hurt. There were some with. . .gored sides; there were some that had died, from what cause no one could say; and they were all to be disposed of, here, in darkness and silence. . .It took a couple of hours to get them out of the way, and. . .into the chilling rooms with the rest of the meat, being carefully scattered here and there so that they could not be identified.? The source of the above was (574) A) Kurt Vonnegut, Jr., Slaughterhouse-Five. B) Upton Sinclair, The Jungle. C) Jack London, Stockyard! D) Hamlin Garland, Crumbling Idols. E) Frank Norris, The Octopus.
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32) During his second term, when the progressive movement became steadily more liberal, Theodore Roosevelt (574) A) criticized it as socialistic. B) refused to advance beyond his earlier moderate reforms. C) rejected it completely in favor of a pro-business conservatism. D) also took more liberal positions. E) flirted with socialism.
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33) Theodore Roosevelt handpicked ________ to succeed him and carry out his policies. (574-5) A) William McKinley B) Woodrow Wilson C) Charles Evans Hughes D) William Howard Taft E) Warren G. Harding
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34) Taft?s major liability as president was his (575) A) sweeping use of executive power. B) total reversal of Roosevelt?s major policies. C) impetuous, aggressive, and spiteful personality. D) almost total lack of previous political experience. E) lack of physical and mental stamina.
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35) Taft got into political hot water in the 1910 ?Ballinger-Pinchot? controversy, which dealt with (576) A) railroad legislation. B) life-insurance scandals. C) conservation. D) tariff matters. E) adulterated food.
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36) The politician who advocated a New Nationalism was (576) A) Theodore Roosevelt. B) William Howard Taft. C) Robert La Follette. D) Woodrow Wilson. E) Charles Evans Hughes.
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37) ?Combinations in industry are the result of an. . .economic law which cannot be repealed by political legislation. . .The way out lies, not in attempting to prevent such combinations, but in completely controlling them in the interest of the public welfare. . .? The above author was (602-3) A) William McKinley. B) Theodore Roosevelt. C) William H. Taft. D) William Jennings Bryan. E) Woodrow Wilson.
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38) In 1912 the breakup of the Republican party produced an independent third party, the Progressives, led by (577) A) Louis Brandeis. B) William Howard Taft. C) Albert J. Beveridge. D) Theodore Roosevelt. E) Charles Evans Hughes.
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39) Woodrow Wilson advocated a program called the (577) A) New Nationalism. B) Square Deal. C) New Era. D) Fair Deal. E) New Freedom.
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40) Woodrow Wilson?s New Freedom included (604-5) A) political centralization. B) close economic integration. C) strict regulation and control of corporations. D) restoration of competition. E) government ownership of basic industries.
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41) ?American industry is not free, as once it was free; American enterprise is not free; the man with only a little capital is finding it. . .more and more impossible to compete with the big fellow. . .What this country needs above everything else is a body of laws which will look after the men who are on the make rather than the men who are already made.? The above author was (577) A) William McKinley. B) Theodore Roosevelt. C) William H. Taft. D) Woodrow Wilson. E) William Jennings Bryan.
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42) When it was passed in 1913, the Federal Reserve Act (579) A) gave the country a central banking system for the first time since Andrew Jackson. B) decentralized and democratized the federal banking system. C) deprived the federal government of its power to provide flexibility or safety to the currency. D) removed America from the gold standard for the first time. E) immediately weakened the power of the great New York banks.
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43) As part of the New Freedom, the ________ Act prohibited both price discrimination, which encouraged monopolies, and interlocking directorates created to control competition. (579) A) Hepburn B) Sherman Antitrust C) Clayton Antitrust D) Federal Trade E) Interstate Commerce
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44) In his first term as president, Woodrow Wilson (579) A) used his power imaginatively and aggressively. B) courageously fought against racial segregation. C) failed to achieve most of his goals because of congressional opposition. D) was an inept and uninspiring leader. E) thought it was inappropriate for him to try to influence Congress.
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45) What happened to Wilson?s program of New Freedom once he was president? (579-80) A) The differences between the New Freedom and the New Nationalism tended to disappear in practice. B) Wilson insisted upon enacting it in a rigid and doctrinaire way. C) Wilson was so poor a politician that he was unable to persuade Congress to pass any legislation he wanted. D) Wilson used it as an excuse for entering the Great War. E) Because Wilson refused to compromise, he was able get Congress to pass a series of measures that took a sharp turn away from Roosevelt?s New Nationalism.
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46) When it came to non-whites, the progressives tended to be (580) A) firm defenders of their civil rights. B) strongly prejudiced against them. C) advocates of special job and welfare programs for them. D) indifferent and unconcerned about them. E) prejudiced against blacks, but defenders of Indians and Asians.
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47) One of the most prominent black militants of the progressive era was (581) A) Booker T. Washington. B) W. E. B. Du Bois. C) Oswald Garrison Villard. D) William English Walling. E) Frederick Douglass.
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48) ?Mr. Washington. . .has tended to make whites, North and South, shift the burden of the Negro problem to the Negro?s shoulders and stand aside as critical and rather pessimistic spectators; when in fact the burden belongs to the nation. . .? The above author was (581) A) Frederick Douglass. B) Marcus Garvey. C) W. E. B. Du Bois. D) Carter G. Woodson. E) Oswald Garrison Villard.
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49) The organization formed in 1909 by a group of liberal whites and blacks to eradicate racial discrimination was the (582) A) Southern Christian Leadership Conference. B) National Association for the Advancement of Colored People. C) Urban League. D) Congress of Racial Equality. E) Fellowship of Reconciliation.
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50) Which statement about the Progressives? reaction to black militancy is correct? (582) A) Taft was a staunch champion of black rights. B) Roosevelt was a founding member of the NAACP. C) Wilson was actively hostile to blacks. D) Roosevelt believed that justice for blacks in the South would come only by federal intervention. E) Wilson sponsored the first significant civil rights legislation since Reconstruction.
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