Chapter 21 Vocab – AP World History

Flashcard maker : Ruth Jones
Ottoman Empire
Turkic empire established in Asia Minor and eventually extending throughout Middle East; responsible for conquest of Constantinople and end of Byzantine Empire in 1453; succeeded Seljuk Turks following retreat of Mongols
Safavid dynasty
Originally a Turkic nomadic group; family originated in Sufi mystic group; espoused Shi’ism; conquered territory and established kingdom in region equivalent to modern Iran; lasted until 1722
Mughal Empire
Established by Babur in India in 1526; the name is taken from the supposed Mongol descent of Babur, but there is little indication of any Mongol influence in the dynasty; became weak after rule of Aurangzeb in first decades of 18th century
Ottomans
Turkic people who advanced from strongholds in Asia Minor during 1350s; conquered large part of Balkans; unified under Mehmed I; captured Constantinople in 1453; established empire from Balkans that included most of Arab world
Mehmed II
(1432-1481) Ottoman sultan called the \”Conqueror\”; responsible for conquest of Constantinople in 1453; destroyed what remained of Byzantine Empire
Janissaries
Ottoman infantry divisions that dominated Ottoman armies; forcibly conscripted as boys in conquered areas of Balkans, legally slaves; translated military service into political influence, particularly after 15th century
vizier
Ottoman equivalent of the Abbasid wazir; head of the Ottoman bureaucracy; after 5th century often more powerful than sultan
Sail al-Din
Early 14th century Sufi mystic; began campaign to purify Islam; first member of Safavid dynasty
Red Heads
Name given to Safavid followers because of their distinctive red headgear
Ismâ’il
(1487-1524) Sufi commander who conquered city of Tabriz in 1501; first Safavid to be proclaimed shah or emperor
Chaldiran
Site of battle between Safavids and Ottomans in 1514; Safavids severely defeated by Ottomans; checked western advance of Safavid Empire
Abbas the Great
Safavid ruler from 1587 to 1629; extended Safavid domain to greatest extent; created slave regiments based on captured Russians, who monopolized firearms within Safavid armies; incorporated Western military technology
imams
According to Shi’ism, rulers who could trace descent from the successors of Ali
Mullahs
Local mosque officials and prayer leaders within the Safavid Empire; agents of Safavid religious campaign to convert all of population to Shi’ism
Isfahan
(1592-1629) Safavid capital under Abbas the Great; planned city laid out according to shah’s plan; example of Safavid architecture
Nadir Khan Afshar
(1688-1747) Soldier-adventurer following fall of Safavid dynasty in 1722; proclaimed himself shah in 1736; established short-lived dynasty in reduced kingdom
Babur
Founder of Mughal dynasty in India; descended from Turkic warriors; first led invasion of India in 1526; died in 1530
Humayan
Son and successor of Babur; expelled from India in 1540, but restored Mughal rule by 1556; died shortly thereafter
Akbar
(1542-1605) Son and successor of Humayan; oversaw building of military and administrative systems that became typical of Mughal rule in India; pursued policy of cooperation with Hindu princes; attempted to create new religion to bind Muslim and Hindu populations of India
Din-i-Ilahi
Religion initiated by Akbar in Mughal India; blended elements of the many faiths of the subcontinent; key to efforts to reconcile Hindus and Muslims in India, but failed
Aurangzeb
Son and successor of Shah Jahan in Mughal India; determined to extend Mughal control over whole of subcontinent; wished to purify Islam of Hindu influences; incessant warfare exhausted empire despite military successes; died in 1707
Taj Mahal
Most famous architectural achievement of Mughal India; originally built as a mausoleum for the wife of Shah Jahan, Mumtaz Mahal
Nur Jahan
(1577-1645) Wife of Jahangir; amassed power in court and created faction of male relatives who dominated Mughal Empire during later years of Jahangir’s reign
Mumtaz Mahal
(1593-1631) Wife of Shah Jahan; took an active political role in Mughal court; entombed in Taj Mahal
Marattas
Western India peoples who rebelled against Mughal control early in 18th century
Sikhs
Sect in northwest India; early leaders tried to bridge differences between Hindu and Muslim, but Mughal persecution led to anti-Muslim feeling

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