Chapter 20 History

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The presidents during the last quater of the nineteenth century
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were weak leaders.
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During the late 1800’s, the legislative body known as a “rich man’s club” was the
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Senate
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During the late nineteenth century, the House of Representatives was
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disorderly and inefficient
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The distinction between the Democrats and the Republicans during the late nineteenth century arose
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in religious affiliation, geographic location, and ethnic background
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During the latter part of the nineteenth century, Republicans were particularly strong in the _________states.
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New England
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National elections between 1856 and 1912 were characterized by
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close elections with an even balance of power
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The “bloody shirt” issue of the late 1800’s refers to
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post-Civil War sectional tensions.
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How did politicians respond to the demand for civil service reform?
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Both Democrats and Republicans insisted it would destroy the political parties.
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Political campaigns during the late nineteenth century were characterized by
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character assassination, bribery, and fraud.
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The presidents during the late nineteenth century
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were lackluster leaders who showed little interest in important contemporary questions.
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Rutherford B. Hayes was nominated for the presidency because of his reputation for
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being honest and moderate.
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In 1881 President___________ was assassinated by Charles Guiteau, an unbalanced office-seeker.
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James A. Garfield.
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The Pendleton Act of 1883 was a triumph for those Americans who sought ___________reform.
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civil service
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The New York Democrat who won the “dirty” presidential election of 1884 was
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Grover Cleveland.
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Blacks in the South were not totally disfranchised or segregated until
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southern states enacted literacy tests and poll taxes in the 1890’s
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“If one race be inferior to the other socially, the Constitution of the United States cannot put them upon the same plane.” The source of this quote was
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Plessy V. Ferguson
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The doctrine of “separate but equal” facilities was handed down by the Supreme Court in
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Plessy V. Ferguson
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The black militant who founded the Afro-American league and called on blacks to use violence when attacked by whites was
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T. Thomas Fortune
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The black leader who identified with the Atlanta Compromise was
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Booker T. Washington
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Big-city political bosses and their machines emerged in the late nineteenth century because
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most immigrants knew little about democracy
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The most notorious of all city bosses was
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William Marcy Tweed
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Many urban reformers resented the boss system because it
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gave political power to poor immigrants
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The vacuity of American politics in the late nineteenth century may have stemmed from the
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complacency of the middle-class majority
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In the late 1880’s the Farmers’ Alliance
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tried but failed to establish marketing cooperatives for their crops because they could not raise the necessary capital from banks.
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The earlier group from which the Populist movement emerged was the
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knights of labor
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In 1892 the Populist nominee for president was former Union General
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James B. Weaver
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The platform of the Peoples or Populist Party called for a
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graduated income tax.
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Populist Party members saw themselves as
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a victimized majority betrayed by the establishment.
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National ownership of the railroads, unlimited coinage of silver, and the creation of a “sub-treasury” were all a part of the platform of which party?
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Populist in 1892
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The Minnesota Populist who saw himself as an authority on Shakespeare, economics, and science was
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Ignatius Donnelly.
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Southern black populists often joined the
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Colored Farmer’s Alliance.
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After the election of 1892, it became clear that___________ was of utmost importance interest to voters.
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the coinage of silver.
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The debate over the coinage of silver in the late nineteenth century was
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superficial because the key question was halting the deflationary spiral of the economy.
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The Coinage Act of 1873, which demonetized silver, came to be known as the _____________by the silver interests.
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“Crime of ’73”
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During 1894 and 1895, at the beginning of the Grover Cleveland’s presidency, the economy
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floundered in one of the worst depressions in American history
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The small-town businessmen who led an “army” of the unemployed on a march to Washington, D.C. in 1894 was
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Jacob Coxey
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In early 1895, when the Treasury’s gold reserves reached a desperately low point,
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a banking syndicate headed by J.P. Morgan underwrote a new bond issue and saved the government from bankruptcy.
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The dramatic “Cross of Gold” speech won the 1896 Democratic presidential nomination for
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William Jennings Bryan
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What was the main issue propounded by the candidate William Jennings Bryan in the election of 1896?
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the proposal to coin both silver and gold
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William Jennings Bryan discarded the tradition in 1896 by
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traveling throughout the country giving hundreds of speeches.
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In the election 1896, McKinley’s campaign manager, who raised an enormous campaign fund from business was
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Marcus Alonzo Hanna.
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McKinley’s campaign manager Marcus Hanna
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blanketed the country with campaign literature
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Ultimately, the battle between gold and silver,
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was insignificant because within two decades the country abandoned basing the volume of currency on bullion
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Comparing and contrasting McKinley and Bryan in the election of 1896,
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Bryan’s approach was parochial, whereas McKinley’s was national.
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McKinley won by carrying states in the
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East, Midwest, and Pacific Coast.
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The progressives were
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never a single group seeking a single objective.
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One of the roots of progressivism was the late-nineteenth-century
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effort to regulate and control big business.
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A major economic development between 1897 and 1904 was the
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acceleration of the tendency toward industrial concentration
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Many in the middle class were attracted to progressive reforms because they
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felt their ambitions and sense of importance were undermined by the new giant corporations .
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A denunciation of the “American character” came from the editor of which of the following publications?
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McClure’s
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A leading magazine editor and crusading reformer of the early twentieth century was
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S.S. McClure
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Theodore Roosevelt called the progressive-era journalists who corruption and fraud in American business and politics
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muckrackers.
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Progressive reformers tended to believe that
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the solution to social problems was to change faulty institutions
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The painters, such as Robert Henri and George Luks, who sympathized with the progressive reforms and who painted city slum scenes were called the
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Aschcan artists.
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How did the theories of Sigmund Freud affect the ideas and behavior of progressive intellectuals ?
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They often used Freud’s ideas as an excuse to reject Victorian prudery.
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The progressives attempted their first political reforms in the
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cities
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Samuel M. “Golden Rule” Jones, Tom L. Johnson, and Seth Low were all
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progressive mayors
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The ____________plan was an urban reform, pioneered in Dayton, Ohio whereby city affairs were administered on a nonpartisan basis by a professional.
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city manager.
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Russian immigrant and political activist Emma Goldman
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was in many ways a typical American immigrant.
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The banner “progressive” state during the early years of the twentieth century was
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Wisconsin.
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Robert La Follette was particularly associated with
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promotion of specialized technical knowledge and legislative reference services to promote progressive reform.
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Headed by Florence Kelley and associated with lawyer Louis Brandeis, the most effective women’s organization of the Progressive Era was the
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National American Woman Suffrage Association.
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In Mueller V. Oregon (1908) attorney Louis Brandeis presented a “Brandeis Brief” to the Supreme Court, which was based on
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economic and sociological evidence.
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On the national level, the Progressive Era saw the completion of the struggle for
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women suffrage
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Late-nineteenth century feminists were handicapped in their campaign for woman suffrage by
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Victorian sexual inhibitions.
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Most states that did not have have woman suffrage by 1914 and opposed the Nineteenth Amendment in the House of Representatives were in the
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South
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One of the suffragists’ more successful justifications was the “purity” argument that
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women’s moral superiority would clean up politics if they were given the vote.
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As opposed to his successors form Hayes to McKinley, Theodore Roosevelt was
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energetic, aggressive, and outspoken.
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Theodore Roosevelt believed that the most effective means of dealing with big corporations was to
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regulate rather than eliminate them.
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Roosevelt reacted to the creation of the Northern Securities Company by
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suing to have it dissolved under the Sherman Antitrust Act.
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The first progressive president and the advocate of the “Square Deal” was
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Theodore Roosevelt.
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The primary result of the 1906 Hepburn Act was to
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make the Interstate Commerce Commission more powerful and active.
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Upton Sinclair’s novel The Jungle exposed
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filthy conditions in Chicago’s slaughterhouses.
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Roosevelt sent officials to Chicago to investigate the condition of its slaughterhouses based on which of the following books?
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Upton Sinclair’s The Jungle
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During his second term, when the progressive movement became steadily more liberal, Theodore Roosevelt
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also took more liberal positions.
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Theodore Roosevelt handpicked_________to succeed him and carry out his policies.
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William Howard Taft.
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Taft’s major liability as president was his
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lack of physical and mental stamina.
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Taft got into political hot water in 1910 Ballinger-Pinchot controversy, which dealt with
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conservation.
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The politician who advocated New Nationalism was
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Theodore Roosevelt.
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“The betterment we seek must be accomplished…mainly through the National Government.” This 1901 call for the expansion of federal power was made by progressive
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Theodore Roosevlt
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In 1912 the breakup of the Republican Party produced an independent third party, The Progressives, led by
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Theodore Roosevelt
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Woodrow Wilson advocated a program called the
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New Freedom
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Woodrow Wilson’s 1912 platform inclduded
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restoration of competition
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When it was passed in 1913, the Federal Reserve Act
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gave the country a central banking system for the first time since Andrew Jackson.
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As part of the New Freedom, the ____________Act prohibited both price discrimination, which encouraged monopolies, and interlocking directorates created to control competition.
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Clayton Antitrust
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In his first term as president, Woodrow Wilson
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used his power imaginatively and agressively
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What happened to Wilson’s New Freedom once he was president?
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The differences between the New Freedom and the New Nationalism tended to disappear in practice.
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When it came to non-whites, white progressives tended to be
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strongly prejudiced against them
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One of the most prominent black militants of the Progressive Era was
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W.E.B. Du Bois
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Of whom was W.E.B. Du Bois speaking when he said: “He belittles the emasculating effects of caste distinctions, and opposes the higher training and ambitions of our brightest minds”?
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Booker T. Washington
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The organization formed in 1909 by a group of liberal whites and blacks to eradicate racial discrimination was the
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National Association for the Advancement of Colored People
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Which statement about the progressives’ reaction to black militancy is correct?
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Woodrow Wilson was actively hostile to blacks
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After the Civil War, most Americans’ attitude toward foreign affairs was that they
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gave little thought to foreign affairs
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American attitudes toward Europe in the late nineteenth century were characterized by
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suspicion of European society as decadent and aristocratic
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During the Civil War,______established a protectorate over Mexico and installed Archduke Maximilian as emperor.
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France
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In 1867, the United States purchased Alaska from
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Russia
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The aggressive secretary of state who instigated the purchase of Alaska and pushed his expansionist policies was
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William H. Seward
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President Grant tried and failed to annex the
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Dominican Republic
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One reason for growing support for an overseas empire among Americans after the Civil War was the desire to
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carry out God’s will to spread the virtues of the Anglo-Saxon race beyond North America.
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Alfred Thayer Mahan argued in the 1890’s that national security and prosperity rested on a powerful
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Navy
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Queen Liliuokalani’s “Hawaii for Hawaiians” movement led to
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an American led coup and the abolition of the monarchy.
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Queen Liliuokalani is best described as a(n)
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determined nationalist
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After the Civil War, America its extended overseas influence and empire in the
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Pacific and Latin America
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From 1893 to 1898, American expansionists tried to annex the
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Hawaiian Islands
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President Cleveland’s reaction to the possibility of annexing Hawaii was to
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withdraw the treaty annexing Hawaii from the Senate, but refuse to oust the American revolutionaries by force
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Americans had stronger reasons for extending their influence in Latin America rather than in the Pacific because they
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feared they would be shut off from Latin American markets by European imperialism.
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In the 1800’s a nasty dispute erupted between the United States and Great Britain over
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the boundary between Venezuela and British Guiana
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An unfortunate effect of the dispute between America and Great Britain over Venezuela’s boundary was that it
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encouraged Americans to believe they could achieve their foreign policy goals by threat and bluster.
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Before the Spanish-American War, newspapers tried to increase circulation by
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publishing tales of Spanish atrocities
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The major issue in the Spanish-American War was the independence of
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Cuba
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Faced with public clamor for war with Spain, McKinley
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refused to panic, but reluctantly and hesitantly sent Congress a war message
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In February 1898 the American battleship__________mysteriously exploded in Havana Harbor.
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Maine
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Around the same time McKinley was sending a war message to Congress, the Spanish
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ordered troops to end the fighting, but the Cubans began insisting on complete independence.
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The leader of the Filipino nationalist forces during the 1890’s was
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Emilio Aguinaldo.
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In the first battle of the American-Spanish War, Commodore George Dewey
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devastated the Spanish fleet in Manila Bay.
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The American politician who formed a volunteer unit, the “Rough Riders,” and participated in storming San Juan Hill was
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Theodore Roosevelt.
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After the Spanish-American War, heated debates raged over the imperialism of annexing
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the Philippe Islands.
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Expansionists who wished to annex the Philippines seemed most interested in
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establishing the Philippines as the gateway to Asian markets.
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Some anti-imperialists objected to annexing the Philippines because it would
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be unconstitutional if statehood was not a possibility
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When America refused to withdraw its armed forces, the Filipinos
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launched a guerrilla war against the American forces
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In what became known as the “insular cases” the Supreme Court ruled that
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Congress was not bound to follow the Constitution in legislating for colonies
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In 1900, the United States insisted that the constitution of ____________grant America naval bases and authorize American intervention whenever necessary to protect life, property, and individual liberty.
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Cuba
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Under the Platt Amendment,
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Cuba was forced to promise to grant naval bases to America and to avoid treaties with any foreign power that might compromise its independce
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Early in the twentieth century, the United States announced that it must “exercise…an international police power” in the Western Hemisphere in the
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Platt Amendment
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The United States treated Cuba as a protectorate for approximately_____________years at the beginning of the twentieth century.
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35
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The principle architect of America’s Open Door Policy was
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John Hay
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The Open Door Policy attempted to preserve the chances for American business to enter the markets of
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China
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The announcement by the United States that it believed in the preservation of the “Chinese territorial and administrative entity” and in “the principle of equal and impartial trad with all parts of the Chinese Empire” was part of the
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Open Door Policy
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At the turn of the twentieth century, the so-called Boxer Rebellion broke out in
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China
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According to the “Gentleman’s Agreement” negotiated by Roosevelt in 1907,
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Japan promised not to issue passports for laborers seeking work in America
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A canal across the Isthmus of Panama was initially started by the
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French
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When Panama revolted against Colombia, Roosevelt
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dispatched the cruiser Nashville to Panama to help Colombia quell the revolt
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In order to build the Panama Canal on the terms he wanted, President Roosevelt intervened militarily to aid the Panamanian revolt against
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Colombia
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After recognizing the New Republic of Panama, Secretary Hay negotiated a treaty that gave the United States control over a ten-mile wide Canal Zone for
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perpetuity
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The Panama Canal opened for ship traffic
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on the eve of World War I.
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President___________called his policy of influencing other countries without actually controlling them “dollar diplomacy”
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William Howard Taft
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American imperialism in the post-Spanish-American War era was
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short in duration
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American statesmen who pursued a foreign policy of imperialism without colonies
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genuinely, but incorrectly, believed that they were exporting democracy along with capitalism and industrialization
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The American Foreign policy of trying to penetrate underdeveloped areas economically without the problem of governing them was
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self-defeating because it was not supported by the local people/
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On the eve of World War I the United States was a
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world power.
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By the beginning of World War I, how did most Americans view their role in the world?
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They did as they wanted in foreign affairs, unlimited by any rational analysis of the probable consequences.
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President Wilson’s basic approach to foreign relations was that he
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wanted to spread the gospel of American democracy to enlighten the unfortunate and ignorant.
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The idealistic president who set out to raise the moral tone of American foreign policy by denouncing dollar diplomacy was
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Woodrow Wilson
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Wilson became deeply involved in the Mexican politics in response to the reactionary General ___________who led the 1913 coup and had his former chief murdered.
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Francisco Villa
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After Victoriano Huerta fled from power, President Wilson made a mistake regarding his policy toward Mexico. What was it?
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He supported one of Huerta’s generals, Francisco “Pancho” Villa.
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In 1916, United States troops, commanded by General John J. Pershing, invaded ____________to capture “Pancho” Villa.
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Mexico
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The Great War was precipitated by the
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assassination of Archduke Franz Ferdinand, heir to the Austro-Hungarian throne by a Serbian nationalist.
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At the outbreak of the Great War in1914, the Allied Powers included
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Great Britain, France, and Russia.
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Many Americans favored neutrality during the Great War because
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Americans traditionally feared entanglement in European affairs.
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American attitudes towards the two sides in the Great War were mostly influenced by
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Conflicts over freedom of the seas.
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What was the effect of the Great War upon the American economy from 1914-1916?
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Trade with the Allies almost quadrupled to $3.2 billion a year, while that with the Central Powers almost disappeared.
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Wilson’s policy of holding the Germans to “strict accountability” for any American losses resulting from violations of freedom of the seas
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strongly opposed by Secretary of State Bryan
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Many Americans were shocked and outraged when the British liner_____________was torpedoed and almost 1200 people died.
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Lusitania
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After the German sinking of a French channel steamer in March 1916,
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the Americans protested, and the Germans pledged to stop attacks on merchant ships without warning.
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In wooing the progressives in the election of 1916, Wilson
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reversed himself and put into effect almost every important plank of the 1912 Progressive platform.
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In the presidential election of 1916, the leading issue was
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American policy toward the warring powers
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In February, 1917, the U.S. learned of the ___________Telegram in which Germany offered a military alliance to Mexico if the U.S. entered the war on the allied side
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Zimmermann
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Which of the following is an accurate description of Woodrow Wilson’s reaction toward the U.S. declaration of war in 1917?
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agonized and idealistic
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If the United States had not entered the Great War, it is likely that
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the Central Powers would have won in 1918.
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When the United States entered the Great War, from a military point of view, the country was
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poorly prepared
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As a wartime leader, Wilson was
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forceful and inspiring.
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During the Great War, the government agency which had almost dictatorial powers to allocate scarce materials and fix prices was the
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War Industries Board.
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The alliance between the leaders in the military and in business, the foundation of which was laid by President Wilson during World War I, is known as the
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industrial-military complex
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What happened as a result of Wilson’s mobilization of the home front in the war
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There was virtually no cooperation between business and the military.
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The former mining engineer and head of the Belgian Relief Commission, whom Wilson named to mobilize America’s agricultural resources, was
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Herbert Hoover
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Farm income during the Great War
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rose dramatically
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During the Great War, the federal government asked citizens to
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increase domestic food consumption
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The head of the Committee on Public Information, which portrayed Germany as determined to dominate the world was,
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George Creel
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During the Great War, those most often suspected of disloyalty were
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German-Americans
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During the Great War, mere criticism of the government became cause for arrest and imprisonment under the ______________Act.
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Espionage
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Which former presidential candidate was sentenced to ten years in prison under the Sedition Act for making an antiwar speech?
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Eugene V. Debs
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The Great War triggered a major movement of
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Southern blacks to northern cities
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Most black Americans reacted to the Great War with
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optimism that the walls of prejudice were beginning to crumble.
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The American Expeditionary Force was commanded by General
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John J. Pershing
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On what day did the Germans sign the armistice ending the fighting in World War I?
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November 11,1918
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In their greatest engagement of the war, in September, 1918, despite the heavy loss of 120,000 casualties, American troops won the Battle of
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Argonne Forest
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President Wilson’s plan for a lasting peace after the Great War was known as the
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Fourteen Points
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Woodrow Wilson’s Fourteen Points included
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freedom of the seas, ending European imperialism, and world disarmament
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When President Wilson left the United Sates to attend the peace conference in Paris he
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was the first U.S. president to leave American territory
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Georges Clemenceau, David Lloyd George, and Vittorio Orlando were
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members of the so-called Big Four at the Paris Peace Conference
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The peace settlement reached at the Paris conference of 1919 was called the _____________treaty.
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Versailles
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How did American liberals who took Wilson’s pre-treaty statements literally react to the treaty that Wilson brought home from Paris?
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They were abysmally disappointed by what they considered a betrayal of Wilson’s Fourteen Points.
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Wilson believed that any weakness in the Versailles Treaty could be overcome by the
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League of Nations
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The leader of he Republican opposition in the Senate to Wilson’s League of Nations was
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Henry Cabot Lodge
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When it appeared as if the Versailles Treaty, without reservations, would not be approved by the necessary two-thirds of the senate, Wilson
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attempted to rally support for the treaty by a nationwide speaking tour
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Due in large part to the_________, the U.S. Congress, after great debate, voted down the Treaty of Versailles.
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Lodge Reservations
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One basic reason why the U.S. Senate failed to ratify Versailles Treaty was the
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refusal of both Woodrow Wilson and Henry Cabot Lodge to compromise.
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The work of radicals in the labor movement led to
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the belief by many Americans that unions were associated with communism
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In the 1919-1920 red scare, radicals were ruthlessly suppressed by Attorney General
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Mitchell Palmer.
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The results of the presidential election of 1920 reflected most Americans’
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rejection of reform and idealism
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The most significant result of the Senate’s failure to ratify the Versailles Treaty was the
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loss of the possibility of world peace

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