Chapter 2: The self in a social world

question

Define Spotlight Effect
answer

the belief that others are paying more attention to one’s appearance and behavior than they really are
question

Define illusion of transparency
answer

the illusion that our concealed emotions leak out and can easily be read by others
question

Identify 4 aspects of the self
answer

– self-concept (who am i) – self- knowledge (explain self) – self-esteem (sense of self worth) – social self (social roles)
question

Define self-schema
answer

– beliefs about self that organize the processing of self-relevant info –
question

Define collectivism
answer

giving priority to the goals of one’s groups and defining one’s identity accordingly
question

Define interdependent self
answer

construing one’s identity in relation to others.
question

Define Planning fallacy
answer

the tendency to under-estimate how long it will take to complete a task
question

Define impact bias
answer

overestimating the enduring impact of emotion-causing events.
question

Define immune neglect
answer

the human tendency to underestimate the speed and strength of the \”psychological immune system,\” which enables emotional recovery and resilience after bad things happen.
question

Define Dual attitudes
answer

– differing implicit (automatic) and explicit (consciously controlled) attitudes toward the same object – verbalized explicit attitudes may change with education and persuasion; implicit attitudes change slowly, with practice that forms new habits.
question

Define self-esteem
answer

a person’s overall self evaluation or sense of self-worth *narcism and self-esteem interact to influence aggression
question

Define self-efficacy
answer

a sense that one is competent an effective *a bombardier might feel high self-efficacy and low self-esteem
question

Define locus of control
answer

the extent to which people perceive outcomes as internally controllable by their own efforts or as externally controlled by change or outside forces
question

Define learned helplessness
answer

the sense of hopelessness and resignation learned when a human or animal perceives no control over repeated bad events
question

Define self-serving bias
answer

– explanation for positive and negative events – the tendency to perceive oneself favorably
question

Define self-serving attributions
answer

a form of self-serving bias; the tendency to attribute positive outcomes to oneself and negative outcomes to other factors
question

Define defensive pessimism
answer

the adaptive value of anticipating problems and harnessing one’s anxiety to motivate effective action
question

false consensus effect
answer

the tendency to overestimate commonality of one’s opinions and one’s undesirable or unsuccessful behaviors
question

false uniqueness effect
answer

the tendency to underestimate the commonality of one’s abilities and one’s desirable or successful behaviors
question

group-serving bias
answer

explaining away outgroup members’ positive behaviors; also attributing negative behavior to their dispositions (while excusing such behavior by one’s own group)
question

self-handicapping
answer

protecting one’s self image with behaviors that create a handy excuse for later failure
question

self-presentation
answer

the act of expressing or behaving in a particular way in order to present oneself to a certain level of ideals
question

self-monitoring
answer

being attuned to the way one presents oneself in social situations and adjusting one’s performance to create the desired impression
question

Explain James (1890) levels of the empirical self (in order of importance)
answer

1. spiritual self (inner self- personal perceived abilities, attitude, emotions, etc.) 2. social self (stats, background, role) 3. material self (body and extended self) *most damage=no recognition
question

Describe the 8 contemporary components of the self-concept
answer

1. interpersonal attributes (daughter) 2. ascribed characteristics (female, 19) 3. interests/activities (photography) 4. self-determination (educational goals) 5. existential aspects (friendly, kind) 6. internalized beliefs (democrat, feminist) 7. self-awareness (good person) 8. social differentiation (idahoan, come from small, lower class family)
question

Name a few of the aspects that relate development of the social self
answer

-the roles we play – social identities – social comparison – success/failure experience – other people’s judgements – self and culture

Get instant access to
all materials

Become a Member