Chapter 2 Research questions, Hypothesis, Clinical questions

Research Question
– refined from a process of identical ion of a general idea of interest to the
definition of more specific circumscribed topic
– research question can be used instead of the hypotheses
* exploratory
* descriptive
* qual research studies
– purpose us to provide information about the intent of the research question / hypotheses
– suggest the level of evidence to be obtained from that study
– beginning of research article
– embedded in the
* purpose
* Aims
* Goals result section of research report

Research problem


– gap in knowledge
– need in patient care
– something wrong with current care- lil is known
– conflict

Critiquing the Hypotheses
-strength and the weakness
-either implied or clearly stated
-clearly delineated
* hypotheses section,
– after literature review
– theoretical framework
-implied in the results or discussion
Infer the hypothesis from the purpose
Type the analysis used

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col-md-5 col-lg-5 central-block">Presented hypotheses
-data analysis should directly answer it

– consistent with literature review and theoretical framework
– can legitimately be nondirectional
– preferred that the author mention the direction if the relationship between
the variables in the hypotheses
– foundational elements of the study

Nondirectional hypotheses
– appropriate if there is lack of data available for literature review
– the researcher had chosen to study relatively undefined area of interest

Preliminary literature review
– reveals relayed factors that appear critical to the research topic
-literature review helps to further define the research question
-significance of the research question must be identified
In terms of its potential contribution
Medical community

– applicability of the question for nursing practice
– theoretical relevance must be established
-findings should have potential for altering nursing practice or policies

– research question
– must be examined, in the light of pragmatic considerations
– availability of subjects
Experience of the research

– Central to the soundness of hypothesis
– criteria
* stated in such a way that it can be clearly supported or not
– never proven through hypotheses testing
– grave reservation for researchers who claim that the data have proven the
validity of their hypothesis
– best findings that support the hypotheses are tentative
– if repeated replication yield the same results p, more confidence placed on
the conclusion advanced by researchers

Objectivity and testability
– quantifiable words such as less than
, * increase
* decrease
* positively
* negatively
*or related convey
the idea of objectivity and testability
– Be suspicious of hypotheses that are not step bjectively

Final Research Question
Consist of a statement about relationship of two or more variable
– clearly identifies relation between dependent and independent variables
-specifies the nature of the population being studied
-implies the possibility of the empirical testing

– is a declarative statement about the relationship two or more variables
gat predicts an expected outcome.
Relationship statement
Implications Regarding testability
Consistency with theory base
– can be formulated in a directional or none directional
-can be categorized as research hypotheses or statistical hypotheses
– provide information about the intent of the hypothesis.
– provide the level of information that will be obtain from that study findings

Focused Clinical question
Arise from the clinical practice
– guide the literature search for the best available evidence to answer the

Key preliminary steps of the research process
Formulation of the research question and the hypothesis

– provide information about the intent of the hypothesis or research question
– provide the level if information that will be obtained from the findings

For specificity of the
Implications of testability

How wording suggest
Research design
-wording or phrasing will suggest the
*design that will be
*Level of evidence to be derived from the findings
appropriate for the study
* hypothesis proposes treatment X will have a greater effect on Y than X2
* experiment design Level II evidence
* Quasi- experimental design (Level III ) is suggested c8
If hypotheses proposes there will be a positive relationship between variable X and Y
* nonexperimental design (Level VI) is suggested c9

How research question and hypothesis
Other components of research process

Research question/ hypotheses
Identify and refine

Research question v Hypotheses
Appropriate use of

Research question/ hypotheses
Criteria for determining the significance

Level of evidence
Purpose, research question, hypotheses

Developing a clinical question

Research question and clinical question
Difference- EBP

Apply Critiquing criteria
Evaluation of the research question/ hypotheses

Clinical question
– ,clinical question guides to search for the best available evidence

Complex hypothesis
Dependent variables

InDependent variables
Causes the dependent variable to
Never occur in Correlational hypotheses
Correlational hypotheses examines association not causation


Directional hypotheses

– attempts to answer the research question
– intelligent hunches
– intelligent guesses
– predictions
Help researchers seek solutions if answer a research question
– vehicle for testing validity of theoretical frameworks assumptions
– bridge between theory and real world c4
* interrelated concepts
* definitions
* propositions

Independent variable

Nondirectional hypotheses



Research hypothesis

Research question
Usually generated by situation emerge from practice
– key preliminary step of the research process
– sometimes called problem statement
– present idea to be examined in the study
-foundation of research study
– hypotheses attempts to answer the research question

Statistical hypotheses




Applied research
Tests the practical limits of descriptive theories

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