Chapter 18 mastering environmental science

Flashcard maker : Kenneth Miller
The ________ drives the move to the suburbs from cities.
desire to live in less stressful, more peaceful park-like conditions
All of the following factors have contributed to movement of people to suburbs except ________.
greater availability of mass transit
The world’s urban populations are ________.
growing faster than the population as a whole
American cities in the northern United States, such as Chicago, Illinois, ________.
have steadily lost population over the past 40 years
Throughout history, all cities have ________.
drawn resources from surrounding areas by trade, persuasion, or conquest
What are smaller communities that surround cities called?
From the 1950s-1990s, many cities experienced a loss in population as people left for the suburbs. Which one of the following is NOT a factor that led to this migration?
People sought out the better public transportation options present in the suburbs.
What is true about the importance of location for cities that were founded over 100 years ago versus the cities that are rapidly growing today?
Older cities were founded along waterways or rail hubs so that goods could be easily transported.
Which of the following was most influential in shifting the population of developed countries from the farms to the cities?
Air travel, the Internet, cheap fossil fuels and television all have allowed people to ________.
live in less centralized communities
One of the things that contribute to sprawl is ________.
the trend toward increasing land area per capita
Which of the following would be characteristic of sprawl?
widely spaced homes spread evenly across a vast tract of land
What is sprawl?
The spread of low-density urban or suburban development outward from an urban center.
Which of the following is the best description of sprawl?
having the land cover of a city grow much faster than its population
Oregon’s strong policy of enforcing UGB’s (urban growth boundaries) to create livable cities has been exemplary for many years, but between 2004 and 2007, voters ________.
passed a bill giving property owners the right to ignore UGB’s
The requirement in Oregon for every metropolitan area to establish an urban growth boundary is intended to ________.
reduce urban sprawl
The practice of classifying areas for different types of development and land use is referred to as ________.
L’Enfant’s 1791 Plan of the U.S. capital represented the first ________.
thorough city planning
The role of zoning is to ________.
classify areas for different types of urban development and land use
What type of specialists have the job of advising policy makers on development, transportation, and parks?
city planners
Which of the following follows the philosophy of \”building up, not out\”?
smart growth
Which of the following types of transportation consumes the most energy (in BTU per passenger mile)?
Which of the following occupations is tasked with designing cities in such a way as to maximize their efficiency, functionality, and beauty?
city planner
Which of the following approaches best helps congested cities deal with the problems related to transportation?
provide access to rail and bus transportation in the inner city or other high-density areas
Which of the following is true regarding zoning laws?
they usually encourage sprawl
[color] According to the graphs, the energy consumption per passenger mile ________.
is higher for all types of road use than it is for rail use
Gasoline prices have doubled in a large Midwestern city and may continue to rise in the future. What may happen in this situation?
B, C, and D
The new urbanism tries to ________.
develop walkable communities, with homes and businesses close together
Of the following, the benefits of green buildings include ________.
all of them
People who seek to improve resource sustainability of our cities urge us to ________.
use renewable energy sources and recycle materials
The urban heat island effect is caused by ________.
heat-generating buildings and dark, heat-absorbing surfaces
Cities export __________.
Which of the following is a problem that occurs within cities because of the concentrated use of energy in buildings and vehicles and the large amount of dark surfaces that absorb solar energy?
the urban heat island effect
Which of the following is a positive effect that cities have on the environment?
Cities give people places to live with smaller land use.
Which of the following is NOT something urban- sustainability advocates suggest that cities follow using ecosystem-centered models?
making recycling a low priority
As urban density increases, per capita carbon emissions decrease.
No, carbon emissions are actually lower than average in the city with average density.
50% decline
#’s + rural
high density
percentage of americans
equal housing
agricultural land supply
Measure the heat tolerance of many ants of the same species from a city center and from a rural area in the same region.
Measure the heat tolerance of many ants of the same species as a function of the distance they live from a city center.
took advantage
Which of the following is the best description of sprawl?
having the land cover of a city grow much faster than its population

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