chapter 18 LIFE SPAN AND DEVELOPMENT

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erik eriksons last stage of psychosocial development is called
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ego-integrity-vs-despair stage
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period that is characterized by a process of looking back over on’es life evealutating it, and coming to terms with it
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ego-integrity-versus-despair stage
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what is pecks view of comprehensive description of change across adulthood – the first task in old age is?
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in old age that people must redefine themselves in ways that do not relate to tehir work roles or occupations
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in old age that people must redefine themselves in ways that do not relate to tehir work roles or occupations, what stage is this of pecks?
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self versus preoccupation with work role
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second major developmental task in late adulthood by pecks stage is called?
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transcednce vs body preoccupation
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a period in where physical capabilities as a rest of aging, people must learn to cope with and move beyond physical changes if they don’t they become obsessed with their physical deterioration
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transcendence vs body preoccupation
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the stage of pecks where elderly people must come to grips with their coming death. death is inevitable.
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ego transcendence vs ego preoccupation
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if people in late adulthood see the contributions where the form of children or work activities are lasting beyond their own lives they will experience?
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ego transcendence
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daniiel levinsons theory of adult development does not focus as much as eriksons theory and pecks theories on challanges that aging adults overcome but _____?
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processes that can lead to personality change as we grow old
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according to levinson people enter adulthood by passing through a transition stage that typically occurs around the age of
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60-65
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during levinsons transition stage of late adulthood they ultimatley see it as
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“being old” and societys steryotypes
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according to levinson with age people come to realize they are no long on the __________ but are increasingly playing ___
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center of stage, playing bit parts
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how does old age affect people?
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less respect, power but more freedom to do things they like
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bernice neugarten examined different ways people cope with aging, there are __ different personality types when people reach their ___
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4; 70’s
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disintegrated and disorganized
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unable to accept aging, despair as they get older, nursing homes hospitalized
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passive-dependent personalities
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fearful with age, scared of falling ill, fear the future, fear inablity to cope, seek out family help even if they don’t need it
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defended personality
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try to stop aging in its tracks, attempt to act young, exercise a lot, youthful activities
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integrated personalities
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cope comfortably with aging, sense of self dignity
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neugarten found the majority of people she studied fell into what category?
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integrated personalities
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the point in life in which people examine and evaluate their lives
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life review
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reminiscence may have ____ benefits improving the _____ in older people.
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cognitive, memory
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this theory suggests that economic resources power priveleg are distributed unequally among people at different stages of the life course.
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age stratification theory
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what are the peak earning years?
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50’s
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cultures with agricultural activities predominate older people can accumulate control over what
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important rescouces, animals, land
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expert knowledge in the practical aspects of life
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wisdom
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wisdom is not the same as
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intelligence
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knowledge is dervied from _____
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intelligence
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here-and-now _____ is a more timeless quality
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wisdomo
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_____ permits a person to think logically and systematically but ____ provides an understanding of human behavoir
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intelligence ; wisdom
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______ permits humans to invent the atom bomb, while ___ prevents them from using it
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intelligence ; wisdom
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wisdom in terms of the development of theory of mind
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ability to make inferences about others thoughts, feelings and intentions along with their mental state
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late adulthood often involves a gradual withdraw from the world on a physical psychological and social level and tend to slow down.
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disengagement theory
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what theory says that psychologlcally elders tend to be withdrawn from others, lest interested in the world around them and thinking of inward.
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disengagement theory
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disengagement theory is a _____ process
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mututal ; society
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disengagement is not an ____ or ______ process, most people remain active and busy throughout old age
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automatic or universal
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this theory is successful aging occurs when people maintain their interests in activities they pursued during middle age and resist any decrease in the amount and type of social interaction they have with others
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activity theory
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they theory that suggesting that people need to maintain their desired level of involvement in society in order to max their sense of well being and self esteem
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continuity theory
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according to what theory will people that are highly active and social will be happiest if they largely remain so (old age)
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continuity theory
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older age gives the ability to become more skilled in what regarding their emotions?
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become more skilled in regulating emotions
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process by which people concentrate on selected skill areas to compensate for losses in other areas
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selective optimization
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process by which people concentrate on particular skill areas to compensate ; focus on motivational, cognitive, physical resources while process of selection
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selective optimization
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selective optimization with compensation, a general model of successful aging says elderly engage in
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first being selective (at what he accomplishes), then optimization (practice) finally compensation
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people who focus on making most of their achievements in particular areas are able to
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compensate for any limitations and losses that occur
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some people finish their lives in nursing homes but thats only __%
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5%
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most people live out their entire lives in home environments typically in the company of at least one other
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family member
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people over 65 represent a ____ of americas 9.6 million sing person households
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a quarter
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roughly ____ of 65 live with other members of the family
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two thirds
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african Americans are more likely than whites to live in what type of household?
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multigenerational
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what percent of those in late adulthood say that home is an institution?
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10%
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what communities offer an enviorment in which all residents are of retirement age or older?
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continuing-care community
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in continuing-care community residents start living in ____ homes independently or with occasional home care
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seperate house/apartment
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continuing-care communities tend to be fairly homogeneous in terms of?
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religious, racial, and ethnic backgrounds
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what facilities are where elderly receive care only during the day but spend nights and weekends in their own homes. during the day the experience nursing care, meals, and scheduled activities
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adult day care facilitates
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what facilities proved full time nursing care who have chronic illness or recovering from medical condition?
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skilled nursing facilities
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only __% of age __ and older are living in a nursing home
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4.5% of age 65 +
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around __% of over 65 years old live in nursing homes while around ___% of over 85 living in the nursing home
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3% ; 10%
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a psychological state in which people in nursing homes develop apathy, indifference and lack of caring about themselves
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institutionalsim
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institutionalism brough a sence of _____ _____
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learned helplessness
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learned helplessness is a belief that
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one has no control over ones enviorment
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loss of control over certain aspects of daily life as a profound effoct on a persons
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well-being
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people who are rich remain ___ while poor people remain ___
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rich , poor
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just under 10% of people age 65+ are living in
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poverty
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women are ___ as likely to be living in poverty than men
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twice
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what percent of whites in late adulthood live in poverty? hispanics? african americans?
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8 ; 19; 24
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minority women fare the worse in living in poverty in late adulthood, divorced black women aged 65- 74 have a poverty rate of
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47%
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the average older person spends close to 20 percent on his or her income for what
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health care costs
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the rising cost of health care is another source of financial
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volnurabiltiy in older adults
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what is a common age to retire
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55-60
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life spans are expanding so many people spend far more time in what than other generations
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retirement
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retirement may beging with the what period where former workers engage in variety of activites like travel
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honeymoon
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the second phase of retirement where retirees conclude that retirement isn’t all they thought it would be is called
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disenchantment
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the third phase of retirement where retirees reconsider their option and become engaged in more fulfilling activities is called ? if successful it is called?
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reorientation ; retirement routine (not all people reach this stage)
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last phase of retirement is called? where major physical deterioration occurs and health becomes so bad
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termination
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the proportion of men who are married at the age of 65 is greater than?
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women
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70% of women outlive their ___ by at least a few years
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husbands
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15% of americans over the age of ___ are what
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50 ; divorced
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women who divorce often do because their husbands are?`
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abusive or alcholics
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common reason why men divorce
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found a younger woman
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often divorce occurs soon after ____ when men who have been highly involved in their careers are in psychological turmoil
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retirement
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5 percent of the population have remained ____ throughout their lives
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single
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late adulthood for singles bring ___ transitions and report feeling ___ than most people do their age, but have a ___ sense of independence
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fewer ; lonelier ; greater
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in contrast to early years of marriage when wives wanted more companionship with their spouse, in late adulthood husbands companionship are affected how?
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men’s companionship needs tend to be greater than their wives
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retirement means that a relationship needs to be what
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renegotiated
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caregivers report ____ satisfaction with life than noncaregivers
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lower
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under 3/4 of people who prove care to a spouse are
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women
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widows often feel lonley and friendships change because they often feel like the
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5th wheel
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adjusting to widowhood ecompases how many stages ?
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3, preparation, grief and mournig and adaptation
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first stage of widowhood spouse prepare, life einsurance, develop skills and ablities, anticaption
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preparation
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second stage of widowhood , immediate reaction to the death of a spouse, shock pain and loss
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grief and mourning
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last stage of adjustment to death of a spouse is __ individual starts a new life
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adaptation
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not every one follows the three stage model of loss and change. a lot of widows experience _____ ___ from unrelenting mourning that continuous into months and even years. hard to let go of a loved one
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complicated grief
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during widowhood for most people life returns to what after the death of a spouse
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normal and becomes enjoyable once again
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do elderly enjoy friends as much as younger people?
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yes they do
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time spent with friends is often more valued during late adulthood than time spent with ? why?
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with family; friends are often seen as more important providers of support than family members
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a third of old people report they have made a
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new friend within the past year
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friendships provide a social basic need called
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social support
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assistance and comfort supplied by a network of caring interested people
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social support
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people who offer support experience feelings of what
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usefulness and high self esteem
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the expectation that if someone provides something postive to another person, eventually the favor will be returned
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reciprocity
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with increasing age reciprocity is more difficult and relationships may become more what? how does it affect the other person?
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asymmetrical placing the recipient in a difficult psychological position?
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75 percent of children live within a close what to their grandparents
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thirty minute drive
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do sons or daughters tend to be more frequent contact with their parents
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daughters
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bonds between parents and children seem to be more
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asymmetrical, parents seeking closer relationship to child while their trying to be more distant (from independence)
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do grandmas or grandpas tend to be more involved in kids life?
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grandmothers
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most young adult grandchildren feel close to what gender of grandparent
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grandmothers
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grandathres seem to play a more centeral role in the lives of what race compared to whites
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african americans
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grandparents usually play a central role in childbearing with african americans is what types of households?
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multigenerational
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great grandchildren play less of a role in lives of both white and African american __________
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great grandparents
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although great grandparents don’t usually have a close emotional tie to great grandchildren due to psychological turmoil, they affect them how
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represents their family’s continuation and provides concrete sign of their longevity
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the physical or psychological mistreatment or neglect of elderly indiviudals
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elder abuse
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as many as 11 % of elder consulted being a victim of
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elder abuse
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combination of economic, psychological and social pressures on caregivers who must provide high levels of care 24 hours a day relate to
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elder abuse

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