Chapter 17 Flashcards

question
What was the type of economy in Europe at the end of the seventeenth century?
answer
agrarian
question
How many percent of the people of western Europe drew livelihoods from agriculture?
answer
80%
question
What two places did not have majority of people involved in agriculture?
answer
Dutch Republic and England
question
Were people in eastern Europe more involved in agriculture than western Europe?
answer
Yes
question
What was average number of bushels of grain were available to harvest from time wheat seed sown?
answer
five or six
question
What were years of famine caused by, which resulted in deaths?
answer
poor climatic conditions
question
How much material abundance was there in Middle Ages?
answer
Not much, but sustained large numbers of people
question
What is open-field system?
answer
Land is divided into several large fields and were open. They were then cut in long, narrow strips.
question
What did peasants do in field?
answer
plow, sow, harvest the land
question
What was a problem in the Middle Ages in the field?
answer
soil exhaustion
question
What is soil exhaustion?
answer
insufficient nitrogen in the soil
question
How did people solve soil exhaustion before eighteenth century?
answer
They lie fallow, which are like clover or grasses, since manure for fertilizer was limited.
question
What was the rotation of crops in early Middle Ages like?
answer
A year of fallow was alternated with a year of cropping.
question
How did peasants make sure that food was always available with three year rotation?
answer
staggering the rotation of crops
question
How did the new rotaiton of crops in the early Middle Ages differ from before?
answer
Cash crops could be gorwn two years out of three, rather than only one year in wo
question
What reinforced communal or collective patterns of farming?
answer
traditional village rights
question
WWhy did villages have open meadows?
answer
for hay and natural pasture. pastured their animals on the wheat or rye stubble
question
What happened on open meadows besides pasturing animals for wheat or rye stubble?
answer
glenaing of grain
question
What were many villages surrounded by? what did it provide?
answer
woodlands, which provided firewood, building materials, and nutritional roots and berries
question
Why were peasants of eastern Europe worst off?
answer
worse social conditions, with serfodm
question
Who stripped peasants of their meager earnings? How?
answer
state and landlords. levied heavy taxes and high rents
question
What was reality for most people in village?
answer
poverty
question
How much of population in Britain and Dutch republic work in agriculture?
answer
less than half
question
What was secret in eliminating fallow, which was unproductive? developing in seventeenth century
answer
alternating grain with corps that restored nutrients to the soil, like peas, beans, root crops such as turnips and potatoes, and clover
question
Why was clover one of most important corps?
answer
restores nitrogen directly to the soil
question
Originally, what did people think of potatoes?
answer
fit only for animal feed
question
How did peasants and larger farmers build up herds of cattle and sheep
answer
more fodder, hay, root vegetables
question
What did more animals mean for the soil? what else?
answer
more manure to fertilize and restore soil. meat and dairy proudcts, pull ploughs in the fields
question
What did government officials, experimental scientists, and landowners believe about open fields and common rights?
answer
new methods were scarcly possible
question
What did a famer have to do to experiment with new methods?
answer
get landholders approval
question
What is enclosure?
answer
movement to fence in fields in order to farm more effectively, at expense of poor peasants, who relied on common fields for farming and pasture
question
Why were enclosures opposed by small landholders and poor?
answer
Threatened traditional rights. Poor could not use commmonly held pasture land to graze livestock, and marshalnds of forest outside village as source of goods.
question
Why were some larger, predominantly noble landowners opposed tothe econlsure?
answer
required large investments in urchasing and fencing land
question
Where were the new system fo ecnlsures adopted?
answer
Low Countries and England
question
Which country pioneered advancements in agriculture?
answer
Dutch Republic
question
Where specificially was agirculture highly specialized and commercialized in Dutch Republic
answer
Holland
question
What are reasons for Dutch leaderhsip in famring?
answer
most densely populated, growth of towns and cities
question
What were Dtuch forced to do to feed temsleves and provide employment?
answer
seek maximum yields from land and increase cultivated area through steady draining of marshed and swamps
question
What did growing urban population mean?
answer
Provided Dutch peasants with markets for all they could produce and allowed each region to specialize in what it did best
question
Where was mecca of foreign agricultural experts?
answer
low countires
question
How did English take form Ducth?
answer
used their system of continuous crop rotation, draininga nd water control
question
Who directed large drainage proejct in Yorkshire and in Cambridgeshire?
answer
cornelius vermuyden
question
Who was Jethro Tull?
answer
Adopted ciritcial atttiude toward accpeted ideas about farming and tried to develop better methods through empirical research. Advocated sowing seed with drilling equiment. Use horses.
question
What were improvements in livestock caused by?
answer
Selective breeding
question
Before 1700, how much farmland in Englandwas enclosed
answer
more than half
question
Who econlsoed remaining common land in England?
answer
Parliament
question
Who celebrated large-scale enclosure as a necessary means to achieve progress?
answer
arthur young
question
What were two major historical developments in England as a result of the enclosure?
answer
Rise of market-oriented estate agriculture and emergence of a landless rural proletariat
question
Who held most of the land in England Scotland?
answer
Wealthy landowners
question
What did imporvments in agricultural technology mean?
answer
fewer laborers needed=unemployment
question
What is proletarianization?
answer
transformation of large numbers of small peasant farmers into landless rural wage earners
question
What did Black Death cause?
answer
sharp drop in population and food prices, and labor shortage
question
By what time was Ruope back to pre-plauge population levels?
answer
mid-sixteenth century
question
When did a great surge of pouplation growth occur?
answer
after 1500
question
What did surge of pouplation growth after 1500 mean?
answer
outstripped growth of agricultural production
question
Why did price revolution occur?
answer
less food per person, high food prices
question
How much populaiton growth annually?
answer
.5 to 1 percent France less than .5% Russia New England greater than 1 In 300 years=16x more poeple
question
Were there siginifcant increases in agrarian Eruope before 1700
answer
no
question
What checked population growht until after 1700
answer
demographic crises (savage incrasing in deaths)
question
What are the three grim reapers of demographic crisis?
answer
famine, epidemic disease, and war
question
What was weather in much of Europe in seventeenth century?
answer
cold and wet weather
question
What were diseases in Eruope?
answer
typhus, smallpox, syphailis, bubonic plague
question
How was indirect effects of war more harmful?
answer
solider and camp followers passed contagious diseases. Armies requisitioned scarce food supplies, disrupting agricultural cycle
question
What was populaiton numbers after Thirty Years' War?
answer
2/3 in Germany, almost 1/3 elsewhere
question
What was pouplation of Europe between 1700 and 1835??
answer
2x
question
Why did women have more babies than before 1700?
answer
new oppurtunities for employment in rural industry allowed them to marry at an earlier age
question
What was basic cause of Eruopena populaiton increase?
answer
decline in mortality
question
What was one of primary reasons behind population decline?
answer
disappearance of bubonic plague
question
Where was last place plague struck? How many die?
answer
Marseilles, France. 100,000
question
When had plague disappeared form ewestern and central Erupe
answer
1722
question
Reasons for disappearance of plague?
answer
chance and plain good luck, quarantine
question
Were advances in medical knowledge important in reducing death?
answer
not much
question
Most important advance in preventive medicine?
answer
inocualtion against smallpox, mostly England
question
What things improved public health and reduce diseases such as typhoid and typhus in some urban areasa of western Eruope?
answer
improvements in water supply and sewage - supported by absolutist monarchies
question
What reduced Rueope's large insect pouplaiton
answer
drainage of swamps, improvements in water supply
question
How did Eurpe safeguard supply of food and lessen impact of local crop failure and fmaine?
answer
Advances in transportation, like canal and road building
question
Why did transportation safeguard supply of food?
answer
emergency supplies could be brought in and starvation became less frequent
question
What is primary reason for population growth in the eighteenth century
answer
Years of higher-than-average death retes were less catastrophic
question
What is cottage industry?
answer
Stage of industrial developemnt in which rural workers used hand tools in thier homes to manufacture goods on a large scale for sale in a market
question
What is putting-out system?
answer
Eighteenth-century system of rural industry in which a merchant loaned raw material to cottage workers, who processed them and returne dht efinished products to the merchant
question
Who were two mani participants in the putting-out system?
answer
merchant capitalist and the rural worker
question
What happened as industries grew in scale and complexity?
answer
production was broke into many stages
question
How did merchants pay outworkers?
answer
by the piece
question
Why did putting-out system grow?
answer
competitive advantages. undermeployed labor was abundant and poor peasants and landless alborers woudl work for low wages
question
What did the workers not needing to meet rigid guild standards mean?
answer
cottage industyr became capable of producing many kinds of goods
question
Where did rural manufacturing develop most successfully in ?
answer
England
question
How much of Engalnd's textiles were produced int eh countryside by 1500?
answer
1/2. also by 17000 Engish industry was more rual than urban and heavily reliant on the putting-out system
question
When was growth in agriculture, pioneered by the dutch republic and England?
answer
1600-1850
question
What time experienced remarkable expansion of rural industyr?
answer
later part of eighteenth century
question
What industyr employed most people in Euroe?
answer
textiles
question
What is most important in cottage making textiles?
answer
weaver's loom
question
What invention enabled weaver to throw the shuttle back and forth between the threads on one hand?
answer
John Kay's invention of flying shuttle
question
Why was handloom weaving a fmaily enterprisse?
answer
All members of the family helped in the work. Women and children did auxiliary tasks. Man usually operated the loom.
question
HOw many spinners were needed to keep one weaver steadily employed?
answer
four or five
question
Who were hired to produce thread?
answer
merchants hired wives and daughters of agricutlural workers
question
Why did spinster became synonomous for unmarried women?
answer
many widows and single women became spinsters
question
Man's wage vs. women's
answer
12 shillings, 3.5 shillings
question
What were conditions like for female workers?
answer
hard. did not earn much. illness or unemployment=disaster for her and children
question
What was problem in merchant capitalist's point of view?
answer
maintaining contorl over the labor force
question
When was there shortages in the supply of thread?
answer
ccottage workers worked on planting and haymaking in spring and late summer
question
WHy did merchants bitterly resent their lack of contorl over rural labor?
answer
their livelihood depended on ability to meet orders on time. They accused workers of laziness, drunkenness, and immorality. They said that if workers failed to rpoduce enough thread it was because wages were too high and little incentive to work
question
What did merhcants lobby for in terms of rural labor?
answer
police power
question
What did merchants insist on wages of rural laborers?
answer
lowest possible wages
question
What is the industrious revoluiton?
answer
The shift that occurred as fmailies in northwestern Europe focused on earning wages instead of producing goods for household consumption; this reducing their eocnomic self-sufficiency but increased their ability to purchase consumer goods
question
What happened to female employment in industrious Revolution?
answer
Rise. more work outside of the home
question
What were downsides of industrious revolution? postivies?
answer
longer work hours and stircter discipline. families could make decious based on their own self-interests
question
What did households seeking cash income allow for?
answer
Participation in an emerging consumer economy
question
What was rele of women and girls in the more consumer eocnomy?
answer
menial, tedious jobs for low wages. Greater role in household deciison making. Scant earinngs for food cltohing, household necessities, clothing
question
When did the idea male "breadwinner" who was expected to earn enough to support the whole family and women and children were relegrated back to the domestic sphere emerge?
answer
19th century, with rising industrial wages
question
HOw did growht of rural indsutyr affect guild system?
answer
undermined it
question
What is the guild system?
answer
organizaiton of artisanal production into trade-based associations, or guilds, each of which received a monopoly over its trade and the right to train apprentices and hire workers
question
What did guilds provide for their masters?
answer
eocnomic privileges as wella s a proud social dientity
question
Who dominated produciton in town and cities?
answer
guilds
question
WHo worked on the margins of urban economy
answer
Those exluded from guild membership: women, day laborers, Jews, and foreigners
question
When and what did critics attack guilds for?
answer
second half of eighteenth century. outmoded institutions that obstructed technical progress and innovation
question
When did the guild system reach its peak in most of Europe?
answer
seventeenth and eighteenth centuries
question
What did Jean-Baptiste Colbert do to urban guilds?
answer
revived them and used them to encourage high-quality production and to collect taxes
question
Who occupied the summit of world of work?
answer
guild masters
question
What were guild privilegs?
answer
exclusive right sto produce and sell certain goods, access to restricted markets in raw materials, and the rights to train apprentices, hire workers, and open shops
question
Besides work what did guilds serve as?
answer
social and religoius funcitons
question
Who were guilds restricted to?
answer
Good christians, several years of work experience, stiff emmberhsip fees, and compelted a masterpiece. fmaily connections were favored
question
What did most urban men and women work?
answer
domestic servants, as manual laborers, and as vendors of food, used clothing, and other goods
question
Where were guilds most conservative and powerful?
answer
Germany
question
What was English attitude toward guild rules? France?
answer
naitonal regulations superseded guild rules. reliance on them for taxes and enforcement of quality standards, but non-guild produciton could fluourish in countryside
question
What types of guilds acceptd women?
answer
most involved needlework and textile proeduction. joined tailors' guilds.
question
Did some male masters higher female workers?
answer
Yes, in defiance of own guild statues
question
What questioned the very existence of the guild system?
answer
new Enlightenment ideals
question
What did eighteenth-century critics say about guilds?
answer
They were outmoded and exclusionary institutions that obstructed technical innovation and progress
question
Who was Adam Smith?
answer
Leading igure of the Scottish Enlightenemnt who criticized government regulation of trade and industry
question
What was Inquiry into the Nature and CAuses fo the Wealth of Naiotns about?
answer
idea of freedom of enterprise and established basis for modern economics
question
What three institutions did Smith critizcized?
answer
state monopolies, guilds, privileged companies
question
What did Adam Smith argue for in economy?
answer
Free competition
question
What did Smith argue for in terms of labor?
answer
division of labor, which entailed separating craft production into individual tasks to increase workers' speed and efficiency
question
What did Smith call his system of free competition?
answer
"system of natural liberty"
question
What did Smith say that government should limit itself to, "only three duties"?
answer
provide a defense against foreign invasion, maintain civil order with courts and police protection,a dn sponsor certain public works and institutions that could never adequately profit private investors.
question
What is economic liberalism?
answer
A belief in free trade and competition based on Adam Smith's argument that the invisible hand of free competition would benefit all individuals, rich and poor.
question
Did Smith support modest rise in real wages of British workers int eh eighteenth century?
answer
Yes
question
What did adam smiths say about the rise in producivity?
answer
celebrated division of labor, but called for govenrment intervention to raise workers' living standards. He said it had demoralizing effects on workers
question
What did Anne-Robert Jacques Turgot?
answer
In 1776, the economics minister abollished all French guilds
question
When was Wealth of Nations published
answer
1776
question
HOw did French respond to eradication of guilds?
answer
protest leading to Turgot's disgrace
question
When was guild disbanded again?
answer
French Revolution in 1791
question
Where did guilds survive? until when
answer
central Eruope and Italy. second 1/2 of nineteenth century
question
How did artisans respond to SMith's ideas?
answer
welcomed economic liberalizaiton, but continued to uphold the ideals of guilds
question
How have recent schoalrs challenged criticism of guilds?
answer
mephasized the flexibility and adapatability of the guild system and the role it played in fostering confidence in quality standards
question
By the middle of the ninetheenth century what did most European government and elites champion in terms of economy?
answer
economic deregulation
question
What characterized expansion of Eruope?
answer
agricultural imporvement, population pressure, and growing cotage industry, increase of world trade
question
What characterized expansion of Europe besides agricultural improvement, population pressure, and growing cottage industry,
answer
increase of world trade
question
What did innovators say about village's natural pastureland?
answer
enclose it into individual shares
question
What is natural pastureland also called?
answer
common
question
What did Adam Smith say was the two greatest and most important events recorded itn he history of mankind?
answer
discovery of America and passage to the East Indies by the Cape of Good Hope
question
Which countires benefited most from coolonial development in eighteenth century? Who revitalized empires?
answer
Northwester Europe- Dutch Republic, France, and above all Gerat Britain most benefited. Spain and Portugal revitalized
question
What proved crucial in building a global economy?
answer
Atlantic economy
question
Who became the leading maritime power?
answer
Great Britain
question
What did Great Britain consist of?
answer
England and Scotalnd
question
Who did Great Britain compete with for trade and territory in Asia?
answer
France and Netherlands
question
What did Britain's commercial leadership originate from?
answer
mercanitlism of the seventeenth century
question
What is European mercantilism?
answer
System of economic regulations aimed at increasing the power of state
question
What did country's treasure chest consist of?
answer
gold
question
What was reasons for Navigation Acts?
answer
incrase boht military power and private wealth?
question
What si Navigation Acts?
answer
A series of English laws that controlled the import of goods to Britaina dn British colonies.
question
What did Navigation Acts require?
answer
Most goods imported from Europe into England and Scotland be carried on British-owned ships with British crews or on ships of the country producing the article
question
Who established Navigation Acts? Who extended them?
answer
Oliver Cromwell. Charles II
question
What did the Navigation aCts give British merchants and shipowners?
answer
virtual monopoly ofver trade
question
What were colnists required to do wiht Navigation Acts?
answer
Ship products on British ships and to buy almost all Eruopean goods form Britain
question
British navy called?
answer
Royal Navy
question
How was Navigation Acts a form of economic warfare?
answer
It targetted the Dutch, far ahead of the English in shipping and foreign trade in the mid-seventeenth centry. It damaged Dutch shipping and commerce
question
What two things damaged Dutch shipping and commerce?
answer
Anglo-Dutch wars and Navigation acts
question
What Dutch colony did Great Britain cede?
answer
New Amsterdam and renamed New York
question
Who became England's most serious rival in the competiotn for overseas empire after defeatin gDutch?
answer
Fance
question
Population of France in comparison to England?
answer
3 to 4x more
question
Why was France such a big overseas empire?
answer
Since it was a leading military power it was already buildnig a powerful fleet and worldwide system fo rigidly monopolized colonial trade
question
What time period did Britain and France fight for overseas expansion?
answer
1701-1763
question
What was first round between Britain and French?
answer
War of the Sapnish Succession
question
What did union of France and Spain mean for colonies?
answer
Threatens to encircle and destory the Birtish colonies in North America
question
What was treaty solving War fo the Spanish Succession?
answer
Peace of Utrecht
question
What happened as a result of the Peace of Utrecht?
answer
In 1713, Louis XIV ceded his North American holdings in Newfoundland, Nova Scotia, and the Hudson Bay territory to Britain
question
What was Sapin compelled to give Britain in terms of slaves?
answer
Give contorl of its WEst African slave trade and let Britain send one ship of merchandise into the Spanish colonies annually?
question
What is asiento?
answer
Spainsih slave tradw tih AFrica
question
What was second conflict between French and English?
answer
War of the Austria Succession?
question
What caused War of the Austrian Succession?
answer
Frederick the Gerat of Prussia seized Silesia from Austria's Maria Theres
question
HOw was War fo the Austrian Succession a world war?
answer
Included Anglo-French conflicts in India and North America, but no change happened.
question
What was the last conflict between French and British in terms of overseas empire?
answer
Seven Years' War
question
What was cause of Seven Years' War?
answer
France aided Austria's Maria Theresa in her quest to win back Silesia from the Purssians, hwo had formed an alliance with England.
question
What is Seven Years' War also known as?
answer
French-Indian war
question
What was the Seven Years' War conflict in America?
answer
French and Birtish settlers engaged in territorial skirmishes in North America, resulitng in an all-out war that drew Native American allies on both sides fohte conflict
question
What is Treaty of Paris?
answer
Treaty that ended the Seven Years' War in Europe and the colonies in 1763, and ratified British victory on all colonial fronts
question
Who won as a result of Seven Years' War in north american conflict
answer
British. They won all colonial fronts
question
How was British naval power built?
answer
In large part on the rapid growth of the British shipping industry after the passage fo the Navigation Acts.
question
What had Britain realized after defeating French in 1763?
answer
Its goal of monopolizing a vast trading and colonial empire
question
What is commerical exchange in the Atlantic referred toas?
answer
Triangle trade.
question
What is the "triangle trade" like?
answer
European commodities, like guns and textiles, to Africa; enslaved Africans to the colonies and colonial goods, such
question
What did economies of European nations bordering hte Atlantic Ocean rely on?
answer
colonial exports. especially England
question
What was number of sales to Eruopean countires, England's traditional partners?
answer
1/2 of exports, down from 3/4 a century earlier. This is because of colonial products
question
What did colonial monopolies allow English to do?
answer
Obtain a steady supply of goods at beneficial prices and to re-export htem to other nations at high profits
question
Where was the West's largest and richest city?
answer
London, stimulated by trade and emprie building
question
How did colonial goods contribute new manufacturing jobs in England?
answer
Processing was required before consumption
question
What country stood on threshold of epoch-making changes that would become known as Industrial Revolution?
answer
England
question
Did French profit from colonial trade desipte losing possessions to the English i the Seven Years' War?
answer
Yes
question
What were colonies important to French? What did they do?
answer
Saint-Dominque (today's Haiti), Martinique, and Guadeloupe. They provided immense fortunes in plantation agricutlure and slave trading during the second half of the eighteenth century
question
Where was the world's leading producer of coffee and sugar?
answer
Saint-Domingue
question
what was the most profitable plantation colony in the New World?
answer
Saint-Domingue
question
What did wealth from colonies do for merchants?
answer
merhcnats gained confidence from wealth and merchants joined other groups clamoring for political reforms
question
Besides Britain and France what was a major player in the Atlantic eocnomy?
answer
Spain
question
What territory did Spain gain form France? When?
answer
Louisiana 1763.
question
Where did Spain expand its influence?
answer
Westward all the way to northern California through the efforts of Spanish missionaries and ranchers
question
Why were Spain's mercantilist goals boosted?
answer
They recovered in silver produciton which had dropped signifcantly in the seventeenth century
question
What is debt peonage? Where was it developed
answer
A form of serfdom that allowed a planter or rancher to keep his workers or slaves in perpetual debt bondage by periodically advancing food, shelter, and a little money. Spanish colonies
question
Why was debt peonage developed?
answer
to keep indigenous workers on their estates. by wealthy Spanihs landowners.
question
What did silver mining stimulate for mining camps in Spain?
answer
food production
question
What i one exception of triangle trade?
answer
brisk intercolonial trade wth the Caribbena slave colonies importing food in the form of fish, flour, and livestock from the northern colonies and rice form the south.
question
How did colonial traders violate imperial monopolies?
answer
traded with the most profitable partners, regardless of nationality
question
Why was Atlantic economy not just the Atlantic?
answer
It linked trade with the INdian and Pacific Oceans
question
What is the ATlantic Slave trade?
answer
forced migration of Africans across the Atlantic for slave labor on plnatations and in other industires; the trade reached its peak in the egighteenth century and ultimately involved more than 12 million Africans.
question
When did slave trade intensify dramatically? Especially when?
answer
After 1700 Especailly after 1750 with the growth of trade and demand for slave-produced goods like sugar and cotton
question
# of enslaved Africans across the Atlantic between 1701 and 1800?
answer
6.5 million
question
What was responsible for the tremendous growht of the alve trade?
answer
rise of plantation agriculture
question
What did shipments average in peak of the 1780s annually?
answer
eighty thousand individuals per year
question
Which plantations received the largest number of enslaved Africans over the entire period of slave trade? How much?
answer
Brazil. 45%. rEst into caribbean colonies
question
HOw much percent slaves in North America
answer
3%
question
Who beame the undisputed leaders in shipping slaves across the Atlantic?
answer
Britain
question
What did European governments and ship captains focus on instad of fighitng among themselves by 1700?
answer
commerce
question
What new method of trading eventually developed in around 1700?
answer
shore method of trading?
question
What is shore method of trading in Africa?
answer
European ships sent boats ashore or invited African dealers to bring traders and slaves out to their ships. It allowed ships to move easliy along hte coast form market to market and to depart more quickly for the AMericas
question
What happened before shore method of trading?
answer
fortified trading posts
question
What did African merchants and rulers gain from Europe?
answer
European and colonial goods, including firearms
question
What were negative consequences of slave trade?
answer
Wars among aFrican states to obtain captives and leaders used slave profits to purchase more arms than textiles and consumer goods
question
What was population of Africa during Atlantic slave trade?
answer
stagnated or possible declined
question
What did Europeans think of slave trade between Africa and Americas?
answer
Did not personally witness the horrors and considered the African slave trade a legitimate business until early part of the eighteenth century
question
When had a campaign to abolsih slavery developed in Britain?
answer
When details of the plight of ensalved people became known
question
When did the aboliton campaign grow into a massive movement of public opinoin
answer
late 1780s
question
What was first mass movement of public opionion
answer
abolition campaign against slavery
question
Who was prominent in movement against slavery in Britain?
answer
British women who denounced the immorality of human bondage and stressing the cruel and sadistic treatment of enslaved women and families
question
What happened to British slave trade eventually after protest?
answer
Parliament abolished British slave trade (1807), although slavery continued in British colonies and the Americas for decades
question
What circulated through the eighteenth-century Atlantic world besides alves and commodities?
answer
cultural ideas
question
What does the term Creole refer to?
answer
People of Spanish ancestry born in the Americas
question
How did Creoles live?
answer
They followed Eruopean ways of life and had lavish plantation estates. They had townhouses in colonial cities and purchased luxury goods. Children were often sent to be educated in the home country
question
Did colonial elite have same interests and characteristics from home pouplation?
answer
no. they were accustomed to a different soil, so they were detached from native soil sort of
question
What did creole traders and planters oppose from colonial bureaucrats?
answer
regulations and taxes imposed
question
What did resentment of colonial bureaucrat's regualtions and taxes
answer
regualtions against colonial powers
question
Were all Europeans in colonies wealthY?
answer
No, there were poor or middling whites working as clerks, shopkeepers, craftsmen, and plantation managers.
question
Were white Eruopeans majority of population? Where were they a majority?
answer
no. british north america
question
What was gender of most Eruopean migrants? What did this lead to?
answer
male. Population of Atlantic world descned from unions of European men and indigenous or African women
question
Did mixed-race populations ever rise to colonial elite?
answer
yes
question
How did mixed-race become part of colonial elite in Spanish colonies?
answer
Spanish conquistadors marry daughters of local rulers, and descendants became powerful
question
Where did masters acknowlbean, as in Braziledge and freed mixed-race children?
answer
Spanish and French Carib
question
Who gave backlash to prosperity of some free people of color in the colony?
answer
White population of Saint-Domingue who formed new race laws prohibiting nonwhites from marrying whites and forcing them to adopt distinctive attire
question
What were British colonies like in terms of their racial patterns?
answer
Whole famlies migrated resulting in a rapid increase in the white population. Colonial law forbade marriage between English men and women and Africans or Native Americans.
question
What happened to mixed-race hcildren in British colonies of Caribebean and southern mainland?
answer
masters tended to leave them in slavery rahter than freeing them
question
What is a mulatto?
answer
Person of mixed descent, typically white and black
question
Where were mixed children left in slavery rather than freed?
answer
British colonies in Caribbean and southern mainland
question
How were colonial elites Americanized
answer
They adopted native foods, like chocolate and potatoes, and sought relief from tropical disease in nativve remedies.
question
How did free people of color establish their own social hierarchies?
answer
based on wealth, family connections, occupations, and skin color
question
What was a key ambition for all Eruopean powers in the New World?
answer
converting indigenous people to Christianity
question
Who sponsored missionary efforts?
answer
Catholic powers
question
Who establisheed missions throughout Spanish, Portuguese, and French colonies?
answer
Jesuits Franciscans, Dominicans, and other religous orders
question
Where were Catholic cultures successfully developed?
answer
Central and South America by Portuguese and Spanihs colonies
question
Why were conversion efforts in North America less effective?
answer
indiengous seettlements wer eless scattered and native poeple were less integrated into colonial communities
question
Were Protestants active as missionaries?
answer
no
question
Which Protestant dissenters sought converts among indigenous and enslaved people?
answer
moravian, quakers, and methodists
question
How did slavery embrace Christianity?
answer
Slave owners often refused to baptize their slaves, because it might give them more rights. Also, Afircan-born slavs othe Caribbean had elemtns of African religous belief and practice with Christian traditions
question
What was Jews involvement in the Atlantic economy?
answer
They were eager participants and established a network of mercantile communities along its trade routes. They faced discirmination, but were ineligible to be slaves
question
Who was Olaudah Equiano?
answer
A freed slave whow as abducted and transported across ATlantic. He was educated by British Royal Navy Officer, but was sold to Quaker merchant. He eventaully bought freedom and returned to ENgland.
question
What Enlightenment were colonies of British North America influenced by? Why?
answer
scottish enlightenment. It emphasized pragmatic approaches to the problems of life
question
How did colonies adopt the Scottish model?
answer
They adopted "common-sense" version of the Enlightenment that emphasized self-improvement and ethical conduct
question
Was Scottish Enlightenment compatible with religion? What were college and universities of the colonies like?
answer
yes. educational institutions were church-based
question
How did Benjamin's writings and political career relate to Scottish Enlightenment.
answer
He combined pragmatism and economic interests of the Scottish Enlightenment with constitutionals of John Locke, Rousseau, Montesquieu
question
What was Ben Franklin's religion?
answer
deism
question
Did Ben Franklin go to church and respect religious proprities?
answer
yes
question
What did Northern Enlightenment thinkers think about Spanish American colonies?
answer
the colonies were the epitome of the superstition and barbarity they contested
question
How was Spanish America influenced by Enlightenment, despite banned books by the Catholic Church?
answer
Educated elites were aware of the new currents of thoughts. Spanish America produced their own reform ideas. A mining school was eventually established in Mexico City.
question
In all European colonies, what was one effect of Enlightenment thought?
answer
Encourage colonists to criticize the policies of the mother country and aspire toward greater autonomy
question
Who was the major player in the Indian Ocean trading world between 1500 and 1600?
answer
Portuguese
question
Who did Portuguese eliminate as Eruope's chief supplier of spices and other Asian luxury goods when they became major player in Indian Ocean trading world?
answer
Venice
question
Which company took control of the Portuguese spice trade in the Indian Ocean?
answer
Dutch East India Company
question
Where were centers of operations of Dutch East India Company?
answer
Batavia (Jakarta) and Java
question
HOw did the Dutch transform the Indian Ocean trading world?
answer
Dutch established outright control and reduced business partners in East Indian states and peoples.
question
Why did Dutch hold in Asia falter in the eighteenth century?
answer
The company failed to diversity to meet changing consumption paatterns
question
What composed most of Dutch's shipping in the Indian Ocean trade world?
answer
spices -they were declining in importance, probably because of changing fashions in food and luxcury
question
Who was Dutch East India Company's main rival?
answer
English East India Company
question
Where did British turn to in the Indian Ocean proviting lucrative profits? What was it a source of
answer
India. Silks, textiles, and peppers
question
Who did English East India Company rely on trade concessions from?
answer
powerful Mugahl emperor, who granted only piecemeal access to subcontinent
question
At what point were British gaining more influence India?
answer
In 1716, Mughals conceded empirewide trading privileges. Mughal power waned. The company inervened in local affairs and made alliances or wages war against Indian princes
question
Who was Britain's great rival for influence in India
answer
France
question
During what war did British and French forces in INdia support opposing rulers in local power sturggles?
answer
War of the Austrian Succession
question
Who led East India Company forces and conquered rich northeastern province of Bengal at the Battle of Plassey?
answer
Robert Clive
question
What is Battle of Plassey?
answer
Conquer of rich northeastern province of BEngal
question
When was French-English rivalry solved? What happened?
answer
Treaty of Paris. It granted all of France's possessions in India to the British with the exception of Pondicherry, an Indian Ocena port city
question
What did the Mughal shah grant the East India Company in mid 1700's?
answer
diwani
question
What is diwani?
answer
Right to civili administraiton and tax collection, in Bengal and neighboring provinces
question
What happened after there was a large-scale rebellion in 1857 against rule of East India Company?
answer
Direct adminstration replaced them.
question
Where did British start settling located in Indian OceaN?
answer
Australia
question
Who claimed the east coast of Australia for England?
answer
Captain James Cook (1770)
question
What did Captain James call the east coast of Australia?
answer
New South Wales
question
What did Australia rely on for labor?
answer
Convicted prisoners form Britain
question
When was first colony settled (east)? When was west settled?
answer
178s. 1790s
question
Where was Cook killed?
answer
In Hawaii, by islanders
question
What is an exmaple where the rising economic and political power of Euroepans drew on connections etablished between Asian and Atlantic trade worlds?
answer
Trade in cowrie shells, from Maldive Islands in Indian Ocean. It was used as a form of currency in West Africa
question
Where did Euorpean traders obtain cowrie shells?
answer
Asia (as well as porcelains, spices, and silks for the journey home)
question
What did Europeans trade with Afircans?
answer
cowrie shells, Indian textiles
question
Why did France experience low population growth rate?
answer
high population density
question
Why did Russia and New England experience high population growth rate?
answer
More frontier to settle into
question
Where was rural manufacturing most successful?
answer
England
question
Why did Britain and the Dutch Republic enjoy higher agricultural production than other countries in eighteenth-century Europe?
answer
They found new ways of crop rotation
question
How did the rights of textile workers change over the course of the eighteenth century? Give example.
answer
Workers lost traditional rights and safeguards. For exmaple, they could not keep bits and pieces of cloth left over in production
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question
What was the type of economy in Europe at the end of the seventeenth century?
answer
agrarian
question
How many percent of the people of western Europe drew livelihoods from agriculture?
answer
80%
question
What two places did not have majority of people involved in agriculture?
answer
Dutch Republic and England
question
Were people in eastern Europe more involved in agriculture than western Europe?
answer
Yes
question
What was average number of bushels of grain were available to harvest from time wheat seed sown?
answer
five or six
question
What were years of famine caused by, which resulted in deaths?
answer
poor climatic conditions
question
How much material abundance was there in Middle Ages?
answer
Not much, but sustained large numbers of people
question
What is open-field system?
answer
Land is divided into several large fields and were open. They were then cut in long, narrow strips.
question
What did peasants do in field?
answer
plow, sow, harvest the land
question
What was a problem in the Middle Ages in the field?
answer
soil exhaustion
question
What is soil exhaustion?
answer
insufficient nitrogen in the soil
question
How did people solve soil exhaustion before eighteenth century?
answer
They lie fallow, which are like clover or grasses, since manure for fertilizer was limited.
question
What was the rotation of crops in early Middle Ages like?
answer
A year of fallow was alternated with a year of cropping.
question
How did peasants make sure that food was always available with three year rotation?
answer
staggering the rotation of crops
question
How did the new rotaiton of crops in the early Middle Ages differ from before?
answer
Cash crops could be gorwn two years out of three, rather than only one year in wo
question
What reinforced communal or collective patterns of farming?
answer
traditional village rights
question
WWhy did villages have open meadows?
answer
for hay and natural pasture. pastured their animals on the wheat or rye stubble
question
What happened on open meadows besides pasturing animals for wheat or rye stubble?
answer
glenaing of grain
question
What were many villages surrounded by? what did it provide?
answer
woodlands, which provided firewood, building materials, and nutritional roots and berries
question
Why were peasants of eastern Europe worst off?
answer
worse social conditions, with serfodm
question
Who stripped peasants of their meager earnings? How?
answer
state and landlords. levied heavy taxes and high rents
question
What was reality for most people in village?
answer
poverty
question
How much of population in Britain and Dutch republic work in agriculture?
answer
less than half
question
What was secret in eliminating fallow, which was unproductive? developing in seventeenth century
answer
alternating grain with corps that restored nutrients to the soil, like peas, beans, root crops such as turnips and potatoes, and clover
question
Why was clover one of most important corps?
answer
restores nitrogen directly to the soil
question
Originally, what did people think of potatoes?
answer
fit only for animal feed
question
How did peasants and larger farmers build up herds of cattle and sheep
answer
more fodder, hay, root vegetables
question
What did more animals mean for the soil? what else?
answer
more manure to fertilize and restore soil. meat and dairy proudcts, pull ploughs in the fields
question
What did government officials, experimental scientists, and landowners believe about open fields and common rights?
answer
new methods were scarcly possible
question
What did a famer have to do to experiment with new methods?
answer
get landholders approval
question
What is enclosure?
answer
movement to fence in fields in order to farm more effectively, at expense of poor peasants, who relied on common fields for farming and pasture
question
Why were enclosures opposed by small landholders and poor?
answer
Threatened traditional rights. Poor could not use commmonly held pasture land to graze livestock, and marshalnds of forest outside village as source of goods.
question
Why were some larger, predominantly noble landowners opposed tothe econlsure?
answer
required large investments in urchasing and fencing land
question
Where were the new system fo ecnlsures adopted?
answer
Low Countries and England
question
Which country pioneered advancements in agriculture?
answer
Dutch Republic
question
Where specificially was agirculture highly specialized and commercialized in Dutch Republic
answer
Holland
question
What are reasons for Dutch leaderhsip in famring?
answer
most densely populated, growth of towns and cities
question
What were Dtuch forced to do to feed temsleves and provide employment?
answer
seek maximum yields from land and increase cultivated area through steady draining of marshed and swamps
question
What did growing urban population mean?
answer
Provided Dutch peasants with markets for all they could produce and allowed each region to specialize in what it did best
question
Where was mecca of foreign agricultural experts?
answer
low countires
question
How did English take form Ducth?
answer
used their system of continuous crop rotation, draininga nd water control
question
Who directed large drainage proejct in Yorkshire and in Cambridgeshire?
answer
cornelius vermuyden
question
Who was Jethro Tull?
answer
Adopted ciritcial atttiude toward accpeted ideas about farming and tried to develop better methods through empirical research. Advocated sowing seed with drilling equiment. Use horses.
question
What were improvements in livestock caused by?
answer
Selective breeding
question
Before 1700, how much farmland in Englandwas enclosed
answer
more than half
question
Who econlsoed remaining common land in England?
answer
Parliament
question
Who celebrated large-scale enclosure as a necessary means to achieve progress?
answer
arthur young
question
What were two major historical developments in England as a result of the enclosure?
answer
Rise of market-oriented estate agriculture and emergence of a landless rural proletariat
question
Who held most of the land in England Scotland?
answer
Wealthy landowners
question
What did imporvments in agricultural technology mean?
answer
fewer laborers needed=unemployment
question
What is proletarianization?
answer
transformation of large numbers of small peasant farmers into landless rural wage earners
question
What did Black Death cause?
answer
sharp drop in population and food prices, and labor shortage
question
By what time was Ruope back to pre-plauge population levels?
answer
mid-sixteenth century
question
When did a great surge of pouplation growth occur?
answer
after 1500
question
What did surge of pouplation growth after 1500 mean?
answer
outstripped growth of agricultural production
question
Why did price revolution occur?
answer
less food per person, high food prices
question
How much populaiton growth annually?
answer
.5 to 1 percent France less than .5% Russia New England greater than 1 In 300 years=16x more poeple
question
Were there siginifcant increases in agrarian Eruope before 1700
answer
no
question
What checked population growht until after 1700
answer
demographic crises (savage incrasing in deaths)
question
What are the three grim reapers of demographic crisis?
answer
famine, epidemic disease, and war
question
What was weather in much of Europe in seventeenth century?
answer
cold and wet weather
question
What were diseases in Eruope?
answer
typhus, smallpox, syphailis, bubonic plague
question
How was indirect effects of war more harmful?
answer
solider and camp followers passed contagious diseases. Armies requisitioned scarce food supplies, disrupting agricultural cycle
question
What was populaiton numbers after Thirty Years' War?
answer
2/3 in Germany, almost 1/3 elsewhere
question
What was pouplation of Europe between 1700 and 1835??
answer
2x
question
Why did women have more babies than before 1700?
answer
new oppurtunities for employment in rural industry allowed them to marry at an earlier age
question
What was basic cause of Eruopena populaiton increase?
answer
decline in mortality
question
What was one of primary reasons behind population decline?
answer
disappearance of bubonic plague
question
Where was last place plague struck? How many die?
answer
Marseilles, France. 100,000
question
When had plague disappeared form ewestern and central Erupe
answer
1722
question
Reasons for disappearance of plague?
answer
chance and plain good luck, quarantine
question
Were advances in medical knowledge important in reducing death?
answer
not much
question
Most important advance in preventive medicine?
answer
inocualtion against smallpox, mostly England
question
What things improved public health and reduce diseases such as typhoid and typhus in some urban areasa of western Eruope?
answer
improvements in water supply and sewage - supported by absolutist monarchies
question
What reduced Rueope's large insect pouplaiton
answer
drainage of swamps, improvements in water supply
question
How did Eurpe safeguard supply of food and lessen impact of local crop failure and fmaine?
answer
Advances in transportation, like canal and road building
question
Why did transportation safeguard supply of food?
answer
emergency supplies could be brought in and starvation became less frequent
question
What is primary reason for population growth in the eighteenth century
answer
Years of higher-than-average death retes were less catastrophic
question
What is cottage industry?
answer
Stage of industrial developemnt in which rural workers used hand tools in thier homes to manufacture goods on a large scale for sale in a market
question
What is putting-out system?
answer
Eighteenth-century system of rural industry in which a merchant loaned raw material to cottage workers, who processed them and returne dht efinished products to the merchant
question
Who were two mani participants in the putting-out system?
answer
merchant capitalist and the rural worker
question
What happened as industries grew in scale and complexity?
answer
production was broke into many stages
question
How did merchants pay outworkers?
answer
by the piece
question
Why did putting-out system grow?
answer
competitive advantages. undermeployed labor was abundant and poor peasants and landless alborers woudl work for low wages
question
What did the workers not needing to meet rigid guild standards mean?
answer
cottage industyr became capable of producing many kinds of goods
question
Where did rural manufacturing develop most successfully in ?
answer
England
question
How much of Engalnd's textiles were produced int eh countryside by 1500?
answer
1/2. also by 17000 Engish industry was more rual than urban and heavily reliant on the putting-out system
question
When was growth in agriculture, pioneered by the dutch republic and England?
answer
1600-1850
question
What time experienced remarkable expansion of rural industyr?
answer
later part of eighteenth century
question
What industyr employed most people in Euroe?
answer
textiles
question
What is most important in cottage making textiles?
answer
weaver's loom
question
What invention enabled weaver to throw the shuttle back and forth between the threads on one hand?
answer
John Kay's invention of flying shuttle
question
Why was handloom weaving a fmaily enterprisse?
answer
All members of the family helped in the work. Women and children did auxiliary tasks. Man usually operated the loom.
question
HOw many spinners were needed to keep one weaver steadily employed?
answer
four or five
question
Who were hired to produce thread?
answer
merchants hired wives and daughters of agricutlural workers
question
Why did spinster became synonomous for unmarried women?
answer
many widows and single women became spinsters
question
Man's wage vs. women's
answer
12 shillings, 3.5 shillings
question
What were conditions like for female workers?
answer
hard. did not earn much. illness or unemployment=disaster for her and children
question
What was problem in merchant capitalist's point of view?
answer
maintaining contorl over the labor force
question
When was there shortages in the supply of thread?
answer
ccottage workers worked on planting and haymaking in spring and late summer
question
WHy did merchants bitterly resent their lack of contorl over rural labor?
answer
their livelihood depended on ability to meet orders on time. They accused workers of laziness, drunkenness, and immorality. They said that if workers failed to rpoduce enough thread it was because wages were too high and little incentive to work
question
What did merhcants lobby for in terms of rural labor?
answer
police power
question
What did merchants insist on wages of rural laborers?
answer
lowest possible wages
question
What is the industrious revoluiton?
answer
The shift that occurred as fmailies in northwestern Europe focused on earning wages instead of producing goods for household consumption; this reducing their eocnomic self-sufficiency but increased their ability to purchase consumer goods
question
What happened to female employment in industrious Revolution?
answer
Rise. more work outside of the home
question
What were downsides of industrious revolution? postivies?
answer
longer work hours and stircter discipline. families could make decious based on their own self-interests
question
What did households seeking cash income allow for?
answer
Participation in an emerging consumer economy
question
What was rele of women and girls in the more consumer eocnomy?
answer
menial, tedious jobs for low wages. Greater role in household deciison making. Scant earinngs for food cltohing, household necessities, clothing
question
When did the idea male "breadwinner" who was expected to earn enough to support the whole family and women and children were relegrated back to the domestic sphere emerge?
answer
19th century, with rising industrial wages
question
HOw did growht of rural indsutyr affect guild system?
answer
undermined it
question
What is the guild system?
answer
organizaiton of artisanal production into trade-based associations, or guilds, each of which received a monopoly over its trade and the right to train apprentices and hire workers
question
What did guilds provide for their masters?
answer
eocnomic privileges as wella s a proud social dientity
question
Who dominated produciton in town and cities?
answer
guilds
question
WHo worked on the margins of urban economy
answer
Those exluded from guild membership: women, day laborers, Jews, and foreigners
question
When and what did critics attack guilds for?
answer
second half of eighteenth century. outmoded institutions that obstructed technical progress and innovation
question
When did the guild system reach its peak in most of Europe?
answer
seventeenth and eighteenth centuries
question
What did Jean-Baptiste Colbert do to urban guilds?
answer
revived them and used them to encourage high-quality production and to collect taxes
question
Who occupied the summit of world of work?
answer
guild masters
question
What were guild privilegs?
answer
exclusive right sto produce and sell certain goods, access to restricted markets in raw materials, and the rights to train apprentices, hire workers, and open shops
question
Besides work what did guilds serve as?
answer
social and religoius funcitons
question
Who were guilds restricted to?
answer
Good christians, several years of work experience, stiff emmberhsip fees, and compelted a masterpiece. fmaily connections were favored
question
What did most urban men and women work?
answer
domestic servants, as manual laborers, and as vendors of food, used clothing, and other goods
question
Where were guilds most conservative and powerful?
answer
Germany
question
What was English attitude toward guild rules? France?
answer
naitonal regulations superseded guild rules. reliance on them for taxes and enforcement of quality standards, but non-guild produciton could fluourish in countryside
question
What types of guilds acceptd women?
answer
most involved needlework and textile proeduction. joined tailors' guilds.
question
Did some male masters higher female workers?
answer
Yes, in defiance of own guild statues
question
What questioned the very existence of the guild system?
answer
new Enlightenment ideals
question
What did eighteenth-century critics say about guilds?
answer
They were outmoded and exclusionary institutions that obstructed technical innovation and progress
question
Who was Adam Smith?
answer
Leading igure of the Scottish Enlightenemnt who criticized government regulation of trade and industry
question
What was Inquiry into the Nature and CAuses fo the Wealth of Naiotns about?
answer
idea of freedom of enterprise and established basis for modern economics
question
What three institutions did Smith critizcized?
answer
state monopolies, guilds, privileged companies
question
What did Adam Smith argue for in economy?
answer
Free competition
question
What did Smith argue for in terms of labor?
answer
division of labor, which entailed separating craft production into individual tasks to increase workers' speed and efficiency
question
What did Smith call his system of free competition?
answer
"system of natural liberty"
question
What did Smith say that government should limit itself to, "only three duties"?
answer
provide a defense against foreign invasion, maintain civil order with courts and police protection,a dn sponsor certain public works and institutions that could never adequately profit private investors.
question
What is economic liberalism?
answer
A belief in free trade and competition based on Adam Smith's argument that the invisible hand of free competition would benefit all individuals, rich and poor.
question
Did Smith support modest rise in real wages of British workers int eh eighteenth century?
answer
Yes
question
What did adam smiths say about the rise in producivity?
answer
celebrated division of labor, but called for govenrment intervention to raise workers' living standards. He said it had demoralizing effects on workers
question
What did Anne-Robert Jacques Turgot?
answer
In 1776, the economics minister abollished all French guilds
question
When was Wealth of Nations published
answer
1776
question
HOw did French respond to eradication of guilds?
answer
protest leading to Turgot's disgrace
question
When was guild disbanded again?
answer
French Revolution in 1791
question
Where did guilds survive? until when
answer
central Eruope and Italy. second 1/2 of nineteenth century
question
How did artisans respond to SMith's ideas?
answer
welcomed economic liberalizaiton, but continued to uphold the ideals of guilds
question
How have recent schoalrs challenged criticism of guilds?
answer
mephasized the flexibility and adapatability of the guild system and the role it played in fostering confidence in quality standards
question
By the middle of the ninetheenth century what did most European government and elites champion in terms of economy?
answer
economic deregulation
question
What characterized expansion of Eruope?
answer
agricultural imporvement, population pressure, and growing cotage industry, increase of world trade
question
What characterized expansion of Europe besides agricultural improvement, population pressure, and growing cottage industry,
answer
increase of world trade
question
What did innovators say about village's natural pastureland?
answer
enclose it into individual shares
question
What is natural pastureland also called?
answer
common
question
What did Adam Smith say was the two greatest and most important events recorded itn he history of mankind?
answer
discovery of America and passage to the East Indies by the Cape of Good Hope
question
Which countires benefited most from coolonial development in eighteenth century? Who revitalized empires?
answer
Northwester Europe- Dutch Republic, France, and above all Gerat Britain most benefited. Spain and Portugal revitalized
question
What proved crucial in building a global economy?
answer
Atlantic economy
question
Who became the leading maritime power?
answer
Great Britain
question
What did Great Britain consist of?
answer
England and Scotalnd
question
Who did Great Britain compete with for trade and territory in Asia?
answer
France and Netherlands
question
What did Britain's commercial leadership originate from?
answer
mercanitlism of the seventeenth century
question
What is European mercantilism?
answer
System of economic regulations aimed at increasing the power of state
question
What did country's treasure chest consist of?
answer
gold
question
What was reasons for Navigation Acts?
answer
incrase boht military power and private wealth?
question
What si Navigation Acts?
answer
A series of English laws that controlled the import of goods to Britaina dn British colonies.
question
What did Navigation Acts require?
answer
Most goods imported from Europe into England and Scotland be carried on British-owned ships with British crews or on ships of the country producing the article
question
Who established Navigation Acts? Who extended them?
answer
Oliver Cromwell. Charles II
question
What did the Navigation aCts give British merchants and shipowners?
answer
virtual monopoly ofver trade
question
What were colnists required to do wiht Navigation Acts?
answer
Ship products on British ships and to buy almost all Eruopean goods form Britain
question
British navy called?
answer
Royal Navy
question
How was Navigation Acts a form of economic warfare?
answer
It targetted the Dutch, far ahead of the English in shipping and foreign trade in the mid-seventeenth centry. It damaged Dutch shipping and commerce
question
What two things damaged Dutch shipping and commerce?
answer
Anglo-Dutch wars and Navigation acts
question
What Dutch colony did Great Britain cede?
answer
New Amsterdam and renamed New York
question
Who became England's most serious rival in the competiotn for overseas empire after defeatin gDutch?
answer
Fance
question
Population of France in comparison to England?
answer
3 to 4x more
question
Why was France such a big overseas empire?
answer
Since it was a leading military power it was already buildnig a powerful fleet and worldwide system fo rigidly monopolized colonial trade
question
What time period did Britain and France fight for overseas expansion?
answer
1701-1763
question
What was first round between Britain and French?
answer
War of the Sapnish Succession
question
What did union of France and Spain mean for colonies?
answer
Threatens to encircle and destory the Birtish colonies in North America
question
What was treaty solving War fo the Spanish Succession?
answer
Peace of Utrecht
question
What happened as a result of the Peace of Utrecht?
answer
In 1713, Louis XIV ceded his North American holdings in Newfoundland, Nova Scotia, and the Hudson Bay territory to Britain
question
What was Sapin compelled to give Britain in terms of slaves?
answer
Give contorl of its WEst African slave trade and let Britain send one ship of merchandise into the Spanish colonies annually?
question
What is asiento?
answer
Spainsih slave tradw tih AFrica
question
What was second conflict between French and English?
answer
War of the Austria Succession?
question
What caused War of the Austrian Succession?
answer
Frederick the Gerat of Prussia seized Silesia from Austria's Maria Theres
question
HOw was War fo the Austrian Succession a world war?
answer
Included Anglo-French conflicts in India and North America, but no change happened.
question
What was the last conflict between French and British in terms of overseas empire?
answer
Seven Years' War
question
What was cause of Seven Years' War?
answer
France aided Austria's Maria Theresa in her quest to win back Silesia from the Purssians, hwo had formed an alliance with England.
question
What is Seven Years' War also known as?
answer
French-Indian war
question
What was the Seven Years' War conflict in America?
answer
French and Birtish settlers engaged in territorial skirmishes in North America, resulitng in an all-out war that drew Native American allies on both sides fohte conflict
question
What is Treaty of Paris?
answer
Treaty that ended the Seven Years' War in Europe and the colonies in 1763, and ratified British victory on all colonial fronts
question
Who won as a result of Seven Years' War in north american conflict
answer
British. They won all colonial fronts
question
How was British naval power built?
answer
In large part on the rapid growth of the British shipping industry after the passage fo the Navigation Acts.
question
What had Britain realized after defeating French in 1763?
answer
Its goal of monopolizing a vast trading and colonial empire
question
What is commerical exchange in the Atlantic referred toas?
answer
Triangle trade.
question
What is the "triangle trade" like?
answer
European commodities, like guns and textiles, to Africa; enslaved Africans to the colonies and colonial goods, such
question
What did economies of European nations bordering hte Atlantic Ocean rely on?
answer
colonial exports. especially England
question
What was number of sales to Eruopean countires, England's traditional partners?
answer
1/2 of exports, down from 3/4 a century earlier. This is because of colonial products
question
What did colonial monopolies allow English to do?
answer
Obtain a steady supply of goods at beneficial prices and to re-export htem to other nations at high profits
question
Where was the West's largest and richest city?
answer
London, stimulated by trade and emprie building
question
How did colonial goods contribute new manufacturing jobs in England?
answer
Processing was required before consumption
question
What country stood on threshold of epoch-making changes that would become known as Industrial Revolution?
answer
England
question
Did French profit from colonial trade desipte losing possessions to the English i the Seven Years' War?
answer
Yes
question
What were colonies important to French? What did they do?
answer
Saint-Dominque (today's Haiti), Martinique, and Guadeloupe. They provided immense fortunes in plantation agricutlure and slave trading during the second half of the eighteenth century
question
Where was the world's leading producer of coffee and sugar?
answer
Saint-Domingue
question
what was the most profitable plantation colony in the New World?
answer
Saint-Domingue
question
What did wealth from colonies do for merchants?
answer
merhcnats gained confidence from wealth and merchants joined other groups clamoring for political reforms
question
Besides Britain and France what was a major player in the Atlantic eocnomy?
answer
Spain
question
What territory did Spain gain form France? When?
answer
Louisiana 1763.
question
Where did Spain expand its influence?
answer
Westward all the way to northern California through the efforts of Spanish missionaries and ranchers
question
Why were Spain's mercantilist goals boosted?
answer
They recovered in silver produciton which had dropped signifcantly in the seventeenth century
question
What is debt peonage? Where was it developed
answer
A form of serfdom that allowed a planter or rancher to keep his workers or slaves in perpetual debt bondage by periodically advancing food, shelter, and a little money. Spanish colonies
question
Why was debt peonage developed?
answer
to keep indigenous workers on their estates. by wealthy Spanihs landowners.
question
What did silver mining stimulate for mining camps in Spain?
answer
food production
question
What i one exception of triangle trade?
answer
brisk intercolonial trade wth the Caribbena slave colonies importing food in the form of fish, flour, and livestock from the northern colonies and rice form the south.
question
How did colonial traders violate imperial monopolies?
answer
traded with the most profitable partners, regardless of nationality
question
Why was Atlantic economy not just the Atlantic?
answer
It linked trade with the INdian and Pacific Oceans
question
What is the ATlantic Slave trade?
answer
forced migration of Africans across the Atlantic for slave labor on plnatations and in other industires; the trade reached its peak in the egighteenth century and ultimately involved more than 12 million Africans.
question
When did slave trade intensify dramatically? Especially when?
answer
After 1700 Especailly after 1750 with the growth of trade and demand for slave-produced goods like sugar and cotton
question
# of enslaved Africans across the Atlantic between 1701 and 1800?
answer
6.5 million
question
What was responsible for the tremendous growht of the alve trade?
answer
rise of plantation agriculture
question
What did shipments average in peak of the 1780s annually?
answer
eighty thousand individuals per year
question
Which plantations received the largest number of enslaved Africans over the entire period of slave trade? How much?
answer
Brazil. 45%. rEst into caribbean colonies
question
HOw much percent slaves in North America
answer
3%
question
Who beame the undisputed leaders in shipping slaves across the Atlantic?
answer
Britain
question
What did European governments and ship captains focus on instad of fighitng among themselves by 1700?
answer
commerce
question
What new method of trading eventually developed in around 1700?
answer
shore method of trading?
question
What is shore method of trading in Africa?
answer
European ships sent boats ashore or invited African dealers to bring traders and slaves out to their ships. It allowed ships to move easliy along hte coast form market to market and to depart more quickly for the AMericas
question
What happened before shore method of trading?
answer
fortified trading posts
question
What did African merchants and rulers gain from Europe?
answer
European and colonial goods, including firearms
question
What were negative consequences of slave trade?
answer
Wars among aFrican states to obtain captives and leaders used slave profits to purchase more arms than textiles and consumer goods
question
What was population of Africa during Atlantic slave trade?
answer
stagnated or possible declined
question
What did Europeans think of slave trade between Africa and Americas?
answer
Did not personally witness the horrors and considered the African slave trade a legitimate business until early part of the eighteenth century
question
When had a campaign to abolsih slavery developed in Britain?
answer
When details of the plight of ensalved people became known
question
When did the aboliton campaign grow into a massive movement of public opinoin
answer
late 1780s
question
What was first mass movement of public opionion
answer
abolition campaign against slavery
question
Who was prominent in movement against slavery in Britain?
answer
British women who denounced the immorality of human bondage and stressing the cruel and sadistic treatment of enslaved women and families
question
What happened to British slave trade eventually after protest?
answer
Parliament abolished British slave trade (1807), although slavery continued in British colonies and the Americas for decades
question
What circulated through the eighteenth-century Atlantic world besides alves and commodities?
answer
cultural ideas
question
What does the term Creole refer to?
answer
People of Spanish ancestry born in the Americas
question
How did Creoles live?
answer
They followed Eruopean ways of life and had lavish plantation estates. They had townhouses in colonial cities and purchased luxury goods. Children were often sent to be educated in the home country
question
Did colonial elite have same interests and characteristics from home pouplation?
answer
no. they were accustomed to a different soil, so they were detached from native soil sort of
question
What did creole traders and planters oppose from colonial bureaucrats?
answer
regulations and taxes imposed
question
What did resentment of colonial bureaucrat's regualtions and taxes
answer
regualtions against colonial powers
question
Were all Europeans in colonies wealthY?
answer
No, there were poor or middling whites working as clerks, shopkeepers, craftsmen, and plantation managers.
question
Were white Eruopeans majority of population? Where were they a majority?
answer
no. british north america
question
What was gender of most Eruopean migrants? What did this lead to?
answer
male. Population of Atlantic world descned from unions of European men and indigenous or African women
question
Did mixed-race populations ever rise to colonial elite?
answer
yes
question
How did mixed-race become part of colonial elite in Spanish colonies?
answer
Spanish conquistadors marry daughters of local rulers, and descendants became powerful
question
Where did masters acknowlbean, as in Braziledge and freed mixed-race children?
answer
Spanish and French Carib
question
Who gave backlash to prosperity of some free people of color in the colony?
answer
White population of Saint-Domingue who formed new race laws prohibiting nonwhites from marrying whites and forcing them to adopt distinctive attire
question
What were British colonies like in terms of their racial patterns?
answer
Whole famlies migrated resulting in a rapid increase in the white population. Colonial law forbade marriage between English men and women and Africans or Native Americans.
question
What happened to mixed-race hcildren in British colonies of Caribebean and southern mainland?
answer
masters tended to leave them in slavery rahter than freeing them
question
What is a mulatto?
answer
Person of mixed descent, typically white and black
question
Where were mixed children left in slavery rather than freed?
answer
British colonies in Caribbean and southern mainland
question
How were colonial elites Americanized
answer
They adopted native foods, like chocolate and potatoes, and sought relief from tropical disease in nativve remedies.
question
How did free people of color establish their own social hierarchies?
answer
based on wealth, family connections, occupations, and skin color
question
What was a key ambition for all Eruopean powers in the New World?
answer
converting indigenous people to Christianity
question
Who sponsored missionary efforts?
answer
Catholic powers
question
Who establisheed missions throughout Spanish, Portuguese, and French colonies?
answer
Jesuits Franciscans, Dominicans, and other religous orders
question
Where were Catholic cultures successfully developed?
answer
Central and South America by Portuguese and Spanihs colonies
question
Why were conversion efforts in North America less effective?
answer
indiengous seettlements wer eless scattered and native poeple were less integrated into colonial communities
question
Were Protestants active as missionaries?
answer
no
question
Which Protestant dissenters sought converts among indigenous and enslaved people?
answer
moravian, quakers, and methodists
question
How did slavery embrace Christianity?
answer
Slave owners often refused to baptize their slaves, because it might give them more rights. Also, Afircan-born slavs othe Caribbean had elemtns of African religous belief and practice with Christian traditions
question
What was Jews involvement in the Atlantic economy?
answer
They were eager participants and established a network of mercantile communities along its trade routes. They faced discirmination, but were ineligible to be slaves
question
Who was Olaudah Equiano?
answer
A freed slave whow as abducted and transported across ATlantic. He was educated by British Royal Navy Officer, but was sold to Quaker merchant. He eventaully bought freedom and returned to ENgland.
question
What Enlightenment were colonies of British North America influenced by? Why?
answer
scottish enlightenment. It emphasized pragmatic approaches to the problems of life
question
How did colonies adopt the Scottish model?
answer
They adopted "common-sense" version of the Enlightenment that emphasized self-improvement and ethical conduct
question
Was Scottish Enlightenment compatible with religion? What were college and universities of the colonies like?
answer
yes. educational institutions were church-based
question
How did Benjamin's writings and political career relate to Scottish Enlightenment.
answer
He combined pragmatism and economic interests of the Scottish Enlightenment with constitutionals of John Locke, Rousseau, Montesquieu
question
What was Ben Franklin's religion?
answer
deism
question
Did Ben Franklin go to church and respect religious proprities?
answer
yes
question
What did Northern Enlightenment thinkers think about Spanish American colonies?
answer
the colonies were the epitome of the superstition and barbarity they contested
question
How was Spanish America influenced by Enlightenment, despite banned books by the Catholic Church?
answer
Educated elites were aware of the new currents of thoughts. Spanish America produced their own reform ideas. A mining school was eventually established in Mexico City.
question
In all European colonies, what was one effect of Enlightenment thought?
answer
Encourage colonists to criticize the policies of the mother country and aspire toward greater autonomy
question
Who was the major player in the Indian Ocean trading world between 1500 and 1600?
answer
Portuguese
question
Who did Portuguese eliminate as Eruope's chief supplier of spices and other Asian luxury goods when they became major player in Indian Ocean trading world?
answer
Venice
question
Which company took control of the Portuguese spice trade in the Indian Ocean?
answer
Dutch East India Company
question
Where were centers of operations of Dutch East India Company?
answer
Batavia (Jakarta) and Java
question
HOw did the Dutch transform the Indian Ocean trading world?
answer
Dutch established outright control and reduced business partners in East Indian states and peoples.
question
Why did Dutch hold in Asia falter in the eighteenth century?
answer
The company failed to diversity to meet changing consumption paatterns
question
What composed most of Dutch's shipping in the Indian Ocean trade world?
answer
spices -they were declining in importance, probably because of changing fashions in food and luxcury
question
Who was Dutch East India Company's main rival?
answer
English East India Company
question
Where did British turn to in the Indian Ocean proviting lucrative profits? What was it a source of
answer
India. Silks, textiles, and peppers
question
Who did English East India Company rely on trade concessions from?
answer
powerful Mugahl emperor, who granted only piecemeal access to subcontinent
question
At what point were British gaining more influence India?
answer
In 1716, Mughals conceded empirewide trading privileges. Mughal power waned. The company inervened in local affairs and made alliances or wages war against Indian princes
question
Who was Britain's great rival for influence in India
answer
France
question
During what war did British and French forces in INdia support opposing rulers in local power sturggles?
answer
War of the Austrian Succession
question
Who led East India Company forces and conquered rich northeastern province of Bengal at the Battle of Plassey?
answer
Robert Clive
question
What is Battle of Plassey?
answer
Conquer of rich northeastern province of BEngal
question
When was French-English rivalry solved? What happened?
answer
Treaty of Paris. It granted all of France's possessions in India to the British with the exception of Pondicherry, an Indian Ocena port city
question
What did the Mughal shah grant the East India Company in mid 1700's?
answer
diwani
question
What is diwani?
answer
Right to civili administraiton and tax collection, in Bengal and neighboring provinces
question
What happened after there was a large-scale rebellion in 1857 against rule of East India Company?
answer
Direct adminstration replaced them.
question
Where did British start settling located in Indian OceaN?
answer
Australia
question
Who claimed the east coast of Australia for England?
answer
Captain James Cook (1770)
question
What did Captain James call the east coast of Australia?
answer
New South Wales
question
What did Australia rely on for labor?
answer
Convicted prisoners form Britain
question
When was first colony settled (east)? When was west settled?
answer
178s. 1790s
question
Where was Cook killed?
answer
In Hawaii, by islanders
question
What is an exmaple where the rising economic and political power of Euroepans drew on connections etablished between Asian and Atlantic trade worlds?
answer
Trade in cowrie shells, from Maldive Islands in Indian Ocean. It was used as a form of currency in West Africa
question
Where did Euorpean traders obtain cowrie shells?
answer
Asia (as well as porcelains, spices, and silks for the journey home)
question
What did Europeans trade with Afircans?
answer
cowrie shells, Indian textiles
question
Why did France experience low population growth rate?
answer
high population density
question
Why did Russia and New England experience high population growth rate?
answer
More frontier to settle into
question
Where was rural manufacturing most successful?
answer
England
question
Why did Britain and the Dutch Republic enjoy higher agricultural production than other countries in eighteenth-century Europe?
answer
They found new ways of crop rotation
question
How did the rights of textile workers change over the course of the eighteenth century? Give example.
answer
Workers lost traditional rights and safeguards. For exmaple, they could not keep bits and pieces of cloth left over in production