Chapter 17 Building Software

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How companies are impacted by software solutions?
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they enables them to improve their cost their cost structure, manage people better, and develop and deliver new products to market.
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Business-Related consequences of software success and failure.
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-Increase or decrease revenues -Repair or damage brand reputation. -prevent or incur liabilities. -Increase or decrease productivity.
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Increase or decrease revenues
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organizations have the ability to directly increase profits by implementing successful IT systems.
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Repair or damage brand reputation
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Technologies such as CRM can directly enhance a company’s brand reputation.
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prevent or incur liabilities.
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Technology such as CAT scans, MRIs, and mammograms can save lives.
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Increase or decrease productivity.
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CRM and SCM software can directly increase a company’s productivity.
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SDLC
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Systems development life cycle is the overall process for developing information systems from planning and analyzes through implementation and maintenance .
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System development life cycle
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1-Planning 2-Analysis 3-Design 4-Development 5-testing 6-implementation 7-maintenence
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Planning
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The planning phase involves establishing a high-level plan of the intended project and determining project goals.
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Analysis
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The analysis phase involves analyzing end-user requirements and refining project goals into defined functions and operations of the intended system.
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Business requirements
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are the detailed set of business requests that the system must meet in order to be successful.
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Design
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The design phase involves describing the futures and operations of the system including screen layouts, business rules, process diagrams, pseudo code, and other documentations.
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Development
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The development phase involves taking all of the detailed design documents from the design phase and transforming them into the actual system
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Testing
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The testing phase involves bringing all the project pieces together into a special testing environment to test for errors, bugs and interoperability and verify that the system meets all the business requirements defined on the analysis phase.
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Implementation
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In the Implementation phase involves placing the system into production so users can begin to perform actual businesses operations with the system.
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Maintenance
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Maintenance the system is the final sequential phase of any system development effort. The maintenance phase involves performing changes, corrections, additions, and upgrades to ensure the system continues to meet the business goal
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Methodology
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Is a set of policies, procedures, standards, processes, practices, tools, techniques, and tasks that people apply to technical and management challenges.
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Waterfall methodology
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is an activity-based process in which each phase in the SDLC is performed sequentially from planning through implementation and maintenance. The success rate for software development projects that follow this approach is about 1 in 10.
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Iterative development
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Consists of a series of tiny projects.
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Agile methodology
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aims for consumer satisfaction through early and continuos delivery of useful software component developed by an iterative process with a design point that uses the bare minimum requirements. fast and efficient.
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The primary forms of agile methodologies include:
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-Rapid prototyping or rapid application development methodology. -Extreme programing methodology -Rational unified process (RUP) methodology. -scrum methodology.
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Rapid prototyping or rapid application development methodology. (RAD)
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Emphasizes extensive user involvement in the rapid and evolutionary construction of working prototypes of a system to accelerate the systems development process.
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Fundamentals of RAD
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-Focus initially on creating a prototype that looks and acts like the desired system. -Actively involve system users in the analysis, design, and development phases. -Accelerate collecting the business requirements through an interactive and iterative construction approach.
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Prototype
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is a smaller-scale representation or working model of the users’ requirements or proposed design for an information system.
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XP methodology
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Extreme programming methodology, like other agile methods breaks a project into tiny phases, and developers cannot continue on to the next phase until the first phase is complete. there are four parts: planning, designing, coding and testing.
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RUP methodology
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Rational Unified Process methodology owned by IBM, provides a framework for breaking down the development of software into four gates. Inception, Elaboration, construction, and transition.
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RUP gate one: Inception
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this phase includes inception of the business case. This phase ensures all stakeholders have a shared understanding of the system.
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RUP gate two: Elaboration
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This phase provides a rough order of magnitude.
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RUP gate three: Construction
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this phase includes building and developing the product
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RUP gate four: Transition
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Primary questions answered in this phase address ownership of the system and training of the personnel.
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Scrum Methodology
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Uses small teams to produce small pieces of deliverable software using sprints, or 30-day intervals, to achieve an appointed goal.
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Primary principles an organization should follow for successful agile software development.
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-slash the budget -If it doesn’t work, kill it -Keep requirements to a minimum -test and delivery frequently -assign non-it executives to software projects.
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Primary reasons for project failure
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-unclear or missing business requirements -skipping SDLC phases. -Failure to manage project scope -failure to manage project plan -changing technology

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