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Chapter 15: Treatment of Psychological Disorders

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Psychotherapy
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An interaction between a therapist and someone suffering from a psychological problem, with the goal providing support or relief form the problem
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Eclectic Psychotherapy
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Treatment that draws on techniques from different forms of therapy, depending on the client and the problem
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Psychodynamic Psychotherapies
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A general approach to treatment that explores childhood events and encourages individuals to develop insight into their psychological problems
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Resistance
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A reluctance to cooperate with treatment for fear of confronting unpleasant unconscious material
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Transference
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An event that occurs in psychoanalysis when the analyst begins to assume a major significance in the client’s life and the client reacts to the analyst based on unconscious childhood fantasies
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Interpersonal Psychotherapy (IPT)
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A form of psychotherapy that focuses on helping clients improve current relationships
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Behavior Therapy
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A type of therapy that assumes that disordered behavior is learned and that symptom relief is achieved through changing overt maladaptive behaviors into more constructive behaviors
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Token Economy
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A form of behavior therapy in which clients are given “tokens” for desired behaviors, which they can later trade for rewards
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Exposure Therapy
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An approach to treatment that involves confronting an emotion-arousing stimulus directly and repeatedly, ultimately leading to a decrease in the emotional response
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Systematic Desensitization
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A procedure in which a client relaxes all the muscles of his or her body while imagining being in increasingly frightening situations
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Cognitive Therapy
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A form of psychotherapy that involves helping a client identify and correct any distorted thinking about self, others, or the world
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Cognitive Restructuring
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A therapeutic approach that teaches clients to question the automatic beliefs, assumptions, and predictions that often lead to negative emotions and to replace negative thinking with more realistic and positive beliefs
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Mindfulness Meditation
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A form of cognitive therapy that teaches an individual to be fully present in each moment; to be aware of his or her thoughts, feelings, and sensations; and to detect symptoms before they become a problem
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Cognitive Behavioral Therapy (CBT)
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A blend of cognitive and behavioral therapeutic strategies
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Person-centered Therapy
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an approach to therapy that assumes all individuals have a tendency toward growth and that this growth can be facilitated by acceptance and genuine reactions from the therapist
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Gestalt Therapy
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An existentialist approach to treatment with the goal of helping the client become aware of his or her thoughts, behaviors, experiences, and feelings and to “own” or take responsibility for them
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Group Therapy
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Therapy in which multiple participants (who often do not know one another at the outset) work on their individual problems in a group atmosphere
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Antipsychotic Drugs
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Medications that are used to treat schizophrenia and related psychotic disorders
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Psychopharmacology
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The study of drug effects on psychological states and symptoms
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Antianxiety Medications
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Drugs that help reduce a person’s experience of fear or anxiety
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Antidepressants
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A class of drugs that help life people’s mood
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Electroconvulsive Therapy (ECT)
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A treatment that involves inducing a mild seizure by delivering an electrical shock to the brain
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Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation (TMS)
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A treatment that involves placing a powerful pulsed magnet over a person’s scalp, which alters neuronal activity in the brain
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Phototherapy
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A therapy that involves repeated exposure to bright light
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Psychosurgery
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surgical destruction of specific brain areas
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Placebo
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An inert substance or procedure that has been applied with the expectation that a healing response will be produced
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Iatrogenic Illness
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A disorder or symptom that occurs as a result of a medical or psychotherapeutic treatment
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What are reasons for why people fail to get treatment for mental illness?
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May not realize that their disorder needs to be treated, there may be barriers to treatment, such as beliefs and circumstances that keep people from getting help, and people who acknowledge they have a problem may not know where to look for services
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Eclectic psychotherapy involves
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Drawing on techniques from different forms of therapy
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The different psychodynamic therapies all share an emphasis on
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Developing insight into the unconscious sources of psychological disorders
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Which psychoanalytic technique involves the client reporting every though that enters his or her mind, without censorship or filtering?
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Free association
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Which type of therapy would likely work best for someone with an irrational fear of heights?
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Behavioral
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Mindfulness meditation is part of which kind of therapy?
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Cognitive
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Which type of therapy emphasizes action on the part of the patient, as well as complete transparency as to the specifies of the treatment?
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Cognitive behavioral
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Examining the failure to reach one’s potential reflects the ______ approach while examining one’s failure to find meaning in life reflects the ______ approach.
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Humanistic; existential
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Self-help groups are an important offshoot of
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Group therapy
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Antipsychotic drugs were developed to treat
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Schizophrenia
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Atypical antipsychotic drugs
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Act on both the dopamine and serotonin systems
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What do electroconvulsive therapy, transcranial magnetic stimulation, and phototherapy all have in common?
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They are considered biological treatments beyond medication
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Which treatment illusion occurs when a client or therapist attributes the client’s improvement to a feature of treatment, although that feature wasn’t really the active element that caused improvement?
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Nonspecific treatment effects
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Current studies indicate that the psychotherapy client is better off than ______ of untreated individuals
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3/4
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If 100 adults were randomly selected from the population and assessed, about how many of them would meet the diagnostic criteria for a psychological disorder?
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20
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_________ have a Ph.D. or a Psy.D., which qualifies them to assess, diagnose, and treat psychological disorders, but they usually do not prescribe medication.
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Clinical psychologists
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Electric psychotherapy is often rated as the most commonly used treatment among practicing therapists and involves using
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A variety of techniques depending on the client and the problem
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The psychodynamic approach to therapy generally focuses on exploring _________ to develop insight into an individual’s psychological problems
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Childhood events
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Freud suggested that patients are able to gain insight into their unconscious through each of these techniques except:
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Introspecting about the structure of consciousness
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One major factor that distinguishes cognitive and behavioral treatments from psychodynamic psychotherapy is that
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Cognitive and behavioral treatments focus on dysfunctional thoughts and behaviors
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A father is having trouble with the conduct of his teenage son. The son does not like to study or perform his assigned household chores. The therapist suggests that the father identify activities that his son enjoys, such as playing video games, and only provide access to these activities upon completion of the homework and chores. The therapist is implementing a __________ therapy.
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Behavioral
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A highly effective way to reduce the fear associated with specific objects and eventually overcome a phobia is to
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Confront the fear by gradually increasing exposure to the feared object or event.
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Will went into therapy for depression. The depression started when his three-year relationship ended. Will reported thinking that “something was wrong with him, no one wanted him, and he would be alone for the rest of his life.” The therapist focused on reminding Will of his other intimate relationships and getting Will to see that he was not alone because he had friends and family. Which kind of therapy was Will’s therapist using?
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Cognitive restructuring
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Koby went into therapy for generalized anxiety disorder. Her therapist made her make a list of things that made her anxious and then assigned rewards to be earned if she confronted and successfully dealt with these things. Each week, she was assigned an event on the list as homework. During therapy sessions, Koby discussed her weekly progress, and her therapist was careful to detect and challenge irrational beliefs about her anxiety and replace them with more realistic beliefs. Koby received __________ therapy.
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Cognitive-behavioral therapy
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The empty chair technique, which involves role-playing an imaginary exchange between the client and another person, is associated with what therapy treatment?
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Gestalt therapy
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Group therapy, such as couples or family therapy, addresses problems with
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The relationship that is the source of conflict
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Traditional antipsychotic drugs, such as Thorazine, do very well in reducing _________ symptoms associated with schizophrenia but show little to no improvement for the _________ symptoms
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Positive; negative
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Herbal remedies and natural products that can be purchased in the United States
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May be effective in treating certain psychological disorders but further research must be done.
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The placebo effect is an example of
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A nonspecific treatment effect
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The goal of psychoanalysis is for the client to understand _________ by developing _________.
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The unconscious; insight
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Over time, Heather has begun to feel a strong emotional attachment to her therapist, treating him like a father figure. This represents the process of:
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Transference
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What form of psychodynamic therapy focuses on helping clients improve their current relationships?
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Interpersonal psychotherapy
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Token economy is a technique used in what type of therapy?
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Behavior Therapy
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Cognitive therapy focuses on:
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Changing an individual’s distorted thought processes
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A common therapy used to treat anxiety and depression, known as _________, stresses that some behaviors are not controlled through rational thought but, nevertheless, there are ways of helping people to think more rationally when thought does play a role.
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Cognitive Behavioral Therapy
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Alison and her therapist have agreed that Alison will control the length and frequency of her sessions. Her therapist also tries not to give advice but rather to rephrase Alison’s concerns in order to help Alison feel safe expressing her thoughts and feelings. Alison is probably in what type of therapy?
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Person-centered therapy
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One of the most common treatments of depression is to use SSRIs, which work by:
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Blocking the reuptake of serotonin in the brain
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Which of the following is the best treatment for anxiety?
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A combination of cognitive-behavioral therapy and medication
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Sometimes during treatment a client develops _________, in which the therapist induces a disorder or symptom because the therapist becomes convinced that the client has the disorder, which in fact the client does not have.
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Iatrogenic illness
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The two main types of treatments for mental disorders are
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Psychotherapy and medical/biological treatment
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Which of the following is not used to treat major depressive disorder?
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Benzodiazepines
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Researchers at a pharmaceutical company are studying a new drug’s effectiveness in reducing depression and are specifically interested in how the drug affects men vs. women. What may be the best type of treatment study for them to use
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Process studies
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_________ have a master’s degree, are often employed by government or private social service agencies, and are trained to work with people in dire circumstances, such as poverty, homelessness, or severe family conflict.
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Social workers