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Chapter 14-Psychological Disorders

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Psychological Disorder
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a syndrome marked by a clinically significant disturbance in an individual’s cognition, emotion regulation, or behavior. (a symptom collection)
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Medical Model
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the concept that diseases, in this case psychological disorders, have physical causes that can be diagnosed, treated, and, in most cases, cured often through treatment in a hospital.
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Epigenetics
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the study of environmental influences on gene expression that occur without a DNA change.
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DSM-5
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the American Psychiatric Association’s Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fifth Edition; a widely used system for classifying psychological disorders.
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Are psychological disorders universal, or are they culture-specific?
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Some psychological disorders are culture-specific. For example, anorexia nervosa occurs mostly in North American cultures, and taijin-kyofusho appears largely in Japan. Other disorders, such as schizophrenia, are universal-occurring in all cultures.
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What is the biopsychosocial approach, and why is it important in our understanding of psychological disorders?
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Biological, psychological, and social-cultural influences combine to produce psychological disorders. This broad perspective helps us understand that our well-being is affected by our genes, brain functioning, inner thoughts and feelings, and the influences of our social and cultural environmental.
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Insomnia Disorder
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-Feeling unsatisfied with amount or quality of sleep (trouble falling asleep, staying asleep, or returning to sleep). -Sleep disruption causes distress or diminished everyday functioning. -Happens three or more nights each week -Occurs during at least three consecutive months -Happens even with sufficient sleep opportunities -Independent from other sleep disorders (such as narcolepsy) -Independent from substance use or abuse -Independent from other material disorders or medical condition
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Rates of psychological disorders
Rates of psychological disorders
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Risk and protective factors for mental disorders
Risk and protective factors for mental disorders
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What is the relationship between poverty and psychological disorders?
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Poverty-related help trigger disorders, but disabling disorders can also contribute to poverty. Thus, poverty and disorders are often a chicken-and-egg situation: it’s hard to know which came first.
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Anxiety disorders
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psychological disorders characterized by distressing, persistent anxiety or maladaptive behaviors that reduce anxiety.(It can lead to physical problems, such as high blood pressure.
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Three Anxiety disorders
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1. generalized anxiety disorder 2. panic disorders 3. phobias
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Generalized anxiety disorder
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an anxiety disorder in which a person is continually tense, apprehensive, and in a state or autonomic nervous system arousal. (may lead to physical problems, such as high blood pressure)
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Panic disorder
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an anxiety disorder marked by unpredictable, minutes-long episodes of intense dread in which a person experiences terror and accompanying chest pain, choking, or other frightening sensations. Often followed by worry over a possible next attack.
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Panic disorders symptoms
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irregular heartbeat, chest pains, shortness of breath, choking, trembling, or dizziness may accompany the panic.
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Phobia
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an anxiety disorder marked by a persistent, irrational fear and avoidance of a specific object, activity
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Unfocused tension, apprehension, and arousal are symptoms of
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generalized anxiety disorder
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those who experience unpredictable periods of terror and intense dread, accompanied by frightening physical sensations, may be diagnosed with a
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panic disorder
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if a person is focusing anxiety on specific feared objects or situations, that person may have a
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phobia
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Obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD)
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a disorder characterized by unwanted repetitive thoughts (obsessions), actions (compulsions), or both.
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Obsessions (repetitive thoughts) are
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concern with dirt, germs, and toxins something terrible happening (fire, death, and illness) symmetry, order, and exactness
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Compulsions (repetitive behaviors) are
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Excessive hand washing, bathing, tooth brushing, or grooming repeating rituals Checking doors, locks, appliances, car breaks, and homework
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Those who express anxiety through unwanted repetitive thoughts or actions may have a
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Obsessive-compulsive disorder
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Post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD)
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a disorder characterized by haunting memories, nightmares, social withdrawal, jumpy anxiety, numbness or feeling, and insomnia that lingers for four weeks or more after a traumatic experience.
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Those with symptoms of recurring memories and nightmares, social withdrawal, jumpy anxiety, numbness of feeling, and insomnia for weeks after a traumatic event may be diagnosed with
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post-traumatic stress disorder
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researchers believe that conditioning and cognitive processes contribute to anxiety disorders, OCD, and PTSD. What biological factors also contribute to these disorders?
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Biological factors include inherited temperament differences and other gene variations; learned fears that have altered brain pathways; and outdated, inherited responses that had survival value for our distant ancestors.
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Anxiety that takes the form of an irrational and maladaptive fear of a specific object, activity, or situation is called a
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Phobia
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An episode of intense dread, accompanied by trembling, dizziness, chest pains, or choking sensations and by feeling or terror, is called
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a panic attack
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Marina became consumed with the need to clean the entire house and refuse to participate in any other activities. Her family consulted a therapist, who diagnosed her as having
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Obsessive-compulsive
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When a person with an anxiety disorder eases an anxiety by avoiding or escaping a situation that inspires fear, this is called
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Reinforcement
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Major Depressive Disorder
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a disorder in which a person experiences, in the absence of drugs or another medical condition, two or more weeks with five or more symptoms, at least one of which must be either (1) depressed mood or (2) loss of interest or pleasure.
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diagnosing Major Depressive Disorder
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-Depressed mood most of the time -Dramatically reduced interest or enjoyment in most activities -Challenges regulating appetite and weight -challenges regulating sleep -Less energy/ feeling worthless
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Bipolar Disorder
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a disorder in which a person alternates between the hopelessness and and lethargy of depression and the overexcited state of mania. (Manic-depressive disorder).
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Mania
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a hyperactive, wildly optimistic state in which dangerously poor judgement is common.
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Rumination
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compulsive frettings; overthinking about our problems and their causes.
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the “gender gap” in depression refers to the finding that ________________ risk of depression is nearly double that of __________.
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Women’s and men’s
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Rates of bipolar disorder have risen dramatically in the twenty-first century, especially among
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people 19 and under
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Treatment for depression often includes drugs that increase supplies of the neurotransmitters ___________________________ and _______________________.
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norepinephrine and serotonin
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Psychologist who emphasize the importance of negative perceptions, beliefs, and thoughts in depression are working within the
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social-cognitive perspective.
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Schizophrenia
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a psychological disorder characterized by delusions, hallucinations, disorganized speech, and diminished, inappropriate emotional expression.
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Psychotic disorder
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a group of psychological disorders marked by irrational ideas, disorders marked by irrational ideas, distorted perceptions, and loss of contact with reality.
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Delusion
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a false belief, often of persecution or grandeur, that may accompany psychotic disorders.
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Chronic Schizophrenia
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process schizophrenia-a form of schizophrenia in which symptoms usually appear by late adolescence or early adulthood. As people age, psychotic episodes last longer and recovery periods shorten.
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Acute Schizophrenia
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reactive schizophrenia- a form of schizophrenia that can begin at any age, frequently occurs in response to an emotionally traumatic event, and has extended recovery periods.
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A person with schizophrenia who has ___________ symptoms may have an expressionless face and toneless voice. These symptoms are most common with ______________ schizophrenia and are not likely to respond to drug therapy. Those with ___________ symptoms are likely to experience delusions and to be diagnosed with ________ schizophrenia, which is much more likely to respond to drug therapy.
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negative; chronic; positive; and acute.
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What factors contribute to the onset and development of schizophrenia?
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Biological factors include abnormalities in brain structure and function, prenatal exposure to a maternal virus, and a genetic predisposition to the disorder. However, a high-risk environment, with many environmental triggers, can crease the odds of developing schizophrenia.
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Dissociative Disorders
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Controversial, rare disorders in which conscious awareness becomes separated (dissociated) from previous memories, thoughts, and feelings.
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Dissociative Identity Disorder (DID)
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a rare dissociative disorder in which a person exhibits two or more distinct and alternating personalities. Formerly called multiple personality disorder.
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Personality Disorders
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inflexible and enduring behavior patterns that impair social functioning.
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Antisocial Personality Disorder
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a personality disorder in which a person (usually man) exhibits a lack of conscience for wrongdoing, even toward friends and family members; may be aggressive and ruthless or clever con artist.
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Anorexia Nervosa
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(adolescent female) maintains a starvation diet despite being significantly underweight; sometimes accompanied excessive exercise. (They feel fat, fear being fat)
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Bulimia Nervosa
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(usually of high-calorie foods) with purging (by vomiting or laxative use) or fasting.
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Binge-Eating Disorder
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distress, disgust, or guilt, but without the compensatory purging or fasting that marks bulimia nervosa.
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A person with positive symptoms of schizophrenia is most likely to experience
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Delusions
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People with schizophrenia may hear voices urging self-destruction, and example of a
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Hallucination
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Chances for recovery from schizophrenia are best when
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Onset is sudden, in response to stress
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DID is controversial because
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it is almost never reported outside North America
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A personality disorder, such as antisocial personality, is characterized by
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inflexible and enduring behavior patterns that impair social functioning.
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PET scans of murderers’ brains have revealed
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lower-than-normal activation in the frontal lobes.
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Which of the statements are true about bulimia nervosa?
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Bulimia is marked by weight fluctuations within or above normal ranges.