Chapter 13 Genetics and Biotechnology Section 2 DNA Technology

Genetic engineering
Technology that involves manipulating the DNA of one organism in order to insert exogenous DNA(the DNA of another organism).

Genome
Total DNA in each cell nucleus of an organism.

Restriction Enzyme
Bacterial protein that cuts DNA into fragments.

Gel Electrophoresis
Process that involves using electric current to separate certain biological molecules by size.

Recombinant DNA
Newly generated DNA fragment containing exogenous DNA.

Plasmid
Any of the small, circular, double-stranded DNA molecules that can be used as a vector.

DNA ligase
Enzyme that chemically links DNA fragments together.

Transformation
Process in which bacterial cells take up recombinant plasmid DNA.

Cloning
Process in which large numbers of identical recombinant DNA are produced.

Polymerase Chain Reaction(PCR)
Genetic engineering technique that can make copies of specific regions of a DNA fragment.

Transgenic Organism
Organism that is genetically engineered by inserting a gene from another organism.

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