Chapter 13 Ap Psychology Terms Essay

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biomedical therapy
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treatment that focuses on alternating the brain, especially with drugs, psychosurgery, or electroconvulsive therapy
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paraprofessional
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individual who has received on the job training in mental health treatment in lieu of graduate education and full professional certification
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psychological therapy
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therapy based on psychological principles rather than on the biomedical approach
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therapeutic alliance
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the relationship between the therapist and hte client, with both parties working together to help the client deal with mental or behavioral issues
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therapy
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a general term for any treatment process; in psychology and psychiatry, therapy refers to a variety of psychological and biomedical techniques aimed at dealing with mental disorders or coping with problems
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active listeners
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person who gives the speaker feedback in such forms as nodding, paraphrasing, maintaining an expression that shows interest, and asking questions for clarifications
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analysis of transference
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the freudian technique of analyzing and interpreting the patient’s relationship with the therapist, based on the assumption that this relationship mirrors unresolved conflicts in the patient’s past
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aversion therapy
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as a classical conditioning procedure, aversive counterconditioning involves presenting the individual with an attractive stimulus paired with unpleasant (aversive) stimulation to condition a repulsive reaction
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behavior modification
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another term for behavior therpay
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behavior therapy
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any form of psychotherapy based on the principles of behavioral learning, especially operant conditioning and classical conditioning
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client – centered therapy
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a humanistic approach to treatment developed by carl rogers, emphasizing an individual’s tendency for healthy psychological growth through self actualization
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cognitive therapy
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emphasizes rational thinking as the key to treating mental disorder
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cognitive behavioral therapy
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a newer form of psychotherapy that combines the techniques of cognitive therapy with those of behavioral therapy
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contingency management
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an operant conditioning approach to changing behavior by alternating the consequences, especially reward and punishments, of behavior
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exposure therapy
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a form of desensitization therapy in which the patient directly confront the anxiety provoking stimulus
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group therapy
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any form of psychotherapy done with more than one client/ patient at a time. often done from a humanistic perspective
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humanistic therapy
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treatment technique based on the assumption that people have a tendency for positive growth and self-actualization, which may be blocked by an unhealthy environment that can include negative self-evaluation and criticism from others
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insight therapy
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psychotherapy in which the therapist helps the patient/client understand his or her problems
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neo-Freudian psychodynamic therapy
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therapy for a mental disorder that was developed by psychodynamic theorists who embraced some of Freud’s dies but disagreed with others
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participant modeling
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a social learning technique in which a therapist demonstrates and encourages a client to imitate a desired behavior
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positive psychotherapy
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a relatively new form of cognitive behavioral treatment that seeks to emphasize growth, health, and happiness
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psychoanalysis
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the form of psychodynamic therapy developed by Sigmund Freud. The goal of psychoanalysis is to release conflicts and memories from the unconscious
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rational emotive behavior therapy
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albert Ellis’s brand of cognitive therapy, based on the idea that irrational thoughts behaviors are the cause of mental disorders
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reflection of feeling
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Carl Roger’s technique of paraphrasing the client’s’ words attempting to capture the emotional tone expressed
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self help support groups
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groups, such as alcoholics anonymous, that provide social support and an opportunity for sharing ideas about dealing with common problems. such groups are typically organized and run by laypersons, rather than professional therapists
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systematic desensitization
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a behavioral therapy technique in which anxiety is extinguished by exposing the patient or an anxiety provoking stimulus
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token economy
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an operant technique applied to groups, such as classrooms, or mental hospital wards, involving the distribution of ‘tokens’ or other indicators of reinforcement contingent on desired behaviors. the tokens can later be exchanged for privileges, food, or other reinforces
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anidepresants
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medicines that treat depression, usually by their effects on the serotonin and/or norepinephrine pathways in the brain
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antianxiety drugs
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a category of medicines that includes the barbiturates and benzodiazepines, drugs that diminish feelings of anxiety
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antipsychotics
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medicines that diminish psychotic symptoms, usually by effects on the dopamine pathways in the brain
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community mental health movement
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an effort to deinstitutionalize mental patient and to provide therapy for outpatient clinics. proponents of community mental health envisioned that recovering patients could live with their families, in foster homes, or in group homes
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deinstitutionalization
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the policy of removing patients, whenever possible, from mental hospitals
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electroconvulsive therapy
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a treatment used primarily for depression and involving the application of an electric current to the head, producing a generalized seizure; sometimes called ‘shock treatment’
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psychosurgery
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general term for surgical intervention in the brain to treat psychological disorders
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stimulants
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drugs that normally increase activity level by encouraging communication among neurons in the brain
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tardive dyskinesia
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an incurable disorder of motor control, especially involving muscles of the face and head, resulting from long term use of antipsychotic drugs
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transcranial magnetic stimulation
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a treatment that involves magnetic stimulation of specific regions of the brain. does not produce a seizure like etc
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combination therapy
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a therapeutic approach that involves both psychological and medical techniques- most often a drug therapy with a behavioral or cognitive- behavioral therapy
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empirically supported treatment
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treatment regimen that has been demonstrated to be effective through research. also called empirically supported therapies

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