Chapter 13: Aging & Elderly Quiz and Terms

In most countries, elderly women ______ than elderly men.
a. are mistreated less
b. live a few years longer
c. suffer fewer health problems
d. deal with issues of aging better
b. live a few years longer

America’s baby boomer generation has contributed to all of the following except:
a. Social Security’s vulnerability
b. improved medical technology
c. Medicaid being in danger of going bankrupt
d. rising Medicare budgets
c. Medicaid being in danger of going bankrupt

The measure that compares the number of men to women in a population is ______.
a. cohort
b. sex ratio
c. baby boomer
d. disengagement
b. sex ratio

The “graying of the United States” refers to ________.
a. the increasing percentage of the population over sixty-five years old
b. faster aging due to stress
c. dissatisfaction with retirement plans
d. increased health problems such as Alzheimer’s
a. the increasing percentage of the population over sixty-five years old

What is the approximate median age of the United States?
a. eighty-five
b. sixty-five
c. thirty-seven
d. eighteen
c. thirty-seven

Thanatology is the study of _____.
a. life expectancy
b. biological aging
c. death and dying
d. adulthood
c. death and dying

In Erik Erikson’s developmental stages of life, with which challenge must older people struggle?
a. Overcoming despair to achieve integrity
b. Overcoming role confusion to achieve identity
c. Overcoming isolation to achieve intimacy
d. Overcoming shame to achieve autonomy
a. Overcoming despair to achieve integrity

Who wrote the book On Death and Dying, outlining the five stages of grief?
a. Ignatz Nascher
b. Erik Erikson
c. Elisabeth Kübler-Ross
d. Carol Gilligan
c. Elisabeth Kübler-Ross

For individual people of a certain culture, the life course is ________.
a. the average age they will die
b. the lessons they must learn
c. the length of a typical bereavement period
d. the typical sequence of events in their lives
d. the typical sequence of events in their lives

In the United States, life expectancy rates in recent decades have ______.
a. continued to gradually rise
b. gone up and down due to global issues such as military conflicts
c. lowered as healthcare improves
d. stayed the same since the mid-1960s
a. continued to gradually rise

Today in the United States the poverty rate of the elderly is ______.
a. lower than at any point in history
b. increasing
c. decreasing
d. the same as that of the general population
b. increasing

Which action reflects ageism?
a. Enabling WWII veterans to visit war memorials
b. Speaking slowly and loudly when talking to someone over age sixty-five years old
c. Believing that older people drive too slowly
d. Living in a culture where elders are respected
b. Speaking slowly and loudly when talking to someone over age sixty-five years old

Which factor most increases the risk of an elderly person suffering mistreatment?
a. Bereavement due to widowhood
b. Having been abusive as a younger adult
c. Being frail to the point of dependency on care
d. The ability to bestow a large inheritance on survivors
c. Being frail to the point of dependency on care

If elderly people suffer abuse, it is most often perpetrated by ______.
a. spouses
b. caregivers
c. lawyers
d. strangers
b. caregivers

Veterans are two to four times more likely to ______ as people who did not serve in the military.
a. be a victim of elder abuse
b. commit suicide
c. be concerned about financial stresses
d. be abusive toward care providers
b. commit suicide

Which assertion about aging in men would be made by a sociologist following the functionalist perspective?
a. Men view balding as representative of a loss of strength.
b. Men tend to have better retirement plans than women.
c. Men have life expectancies three to five years shorter than women.
d. Men who remain active after retirement play supportive community roles.
d. Men who remain active after retirement play supportive community roles.

An older woman retires and completely changes her life. She is no longer raising children or working. However, she joins the YWCA to swim every day. She serves on the Friends of the Library board. She is part of a neighborhood group that plays Bunco on Saturday nights. Her situation most closely illustrates the ______ theory.
a. activity
b. continuity
c. disengagement
d. gerotranscendence
a. activity

An older man retires from his job, stops golfing, and cancels his newspaper subscription. After his wife dies, he lives alone, loses touch with his children, and stops seeing old friends. His situation most closely illustrates the _______ theory.
a. activity
b. continuity
c. disengagement
d. gerotranscendence
c. disengagement

What is the primary driver of modernization theory? a. Industrialization
b. Aging
c. Conflict
d. Interactions
b. Aging

The Age Discrimination in Employment Act counteracts which theory?
a. Modernization
b. Conflict
c. Disengagement
d. Age stratification
d. Age stratification

activity theory
activity theory: a theory which suggests that for individuals to enjoy old age and feel satisfied, they must maintain activities and find a replacement for the statuses and associated roles they have left behind as they aged

age stratification theory
a theory which states that members of society are stratified by age, just as they are stratified by race, class, and gender

ageism
discrimination based on age

baby boomers
people in the United States born between approximately 1946 and 1964

centenarians
people 100 years old or older

cohort
a group of people who share a statistical or demographic trait

continuity theory
a theory which states that the elderly make specific choices to maintain consistency in internal (personality structure, beliefs) and external structures (relationships), remaining active and involved throughout their elder years

dependency ratio
the number of nonproductive citizens (young, disabled, elderly) to productive working citizens

disengagement theory
a theory which suggests that withdrawing from society and social relationships is a natural part of growing old

elder abuse
the act of a caretaker intentionally depriving an older person of care or harming the person in their charge

exchange theory
a theory which suggests that we experience an increased dependence as we age and must increasingly submit to the will of others, because we have fewer ways of compelling others to submit to us

filial piety
deference and respect to one’s parents and ancestors in all things

geriatrics
a medical specialty focusing on the elderly

gerontocracy
a type of social structure wherein the power is held by a society’s oldest members

gerontology
a field of science that seeks to understand the process of aging and the challenges encountered as seniors grow older

gerotranscendence
the idea that as people age, they transcend limited views of life they held in earlier times

grief
a psychological, emotional, and social response to the feelings of loss that accompanies death or a similar event

hospice
healthcare that treats terminally ill people by providing comfort during the dying process

life course
the period from birth to death, including a sequence of predictable life events

life expectancy
the number of years a newborn is expected to live

modernization theory
a theory which suggests that the primary cause of the elderly losing power and influence in society are the parallel forces of industrialization and modernization

physician-assisted suicide
the voluntary use of lethal medication provided by a medical doctor to end one’s life

primary aging
biological factors such as molecular and cellular changes

secondary aging
aging that occurs due to controllable factors like exercise and diet

selective optimization with compensation theory
a theory based on the idea that successful personal development throughout the life course and subsequent mastery of the challenges associated with everyday life are based on the components of selection, optimization, and compensation

senescence
the aging process, including biological, intellectual, emotional, social, and spiritual changes

social gerontology
a specialized field of gerontology that examines the social (and sociological) aspects of aging

subculture of aging theory
a theory that focuses on the shared community created by the elderly when they are excluded (due to age), voluntarily or involuntarily, from participating in other groups

supercentenarians
people 110 of age or older

thanatology
the systematic study of death and dying