Chapter 12 team building

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Leadership Challenges in a Changing Workplace
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-Managers must motivate employees who are expected to do more work with fewer resources and as a result, become tired and frustrated -companies today are increasingly looking to attain specific skills as well as operational efficiencies by hiring independent contractors and outsourcing work
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Team Building
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-Research indicates that a leadership style that emphasizes team building is positively associated with high productivity and profitability TEAM BUILDING A leadership initiative associated with high productivity and profitability. Problems in interpersonal relations are also less common where teamwork is evident. Teamwork ensures not only that a job gets done but also that it gets done efficiently and harmoniously. -Teamwork ensures not only that a job gets done but that it gets done efficiently and harmoniously. -When employees are working together as a team, the leader and members often experience higher levels of job satisfaction and less stress.
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Synergy
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-The interaction of two or more parts to produce a greater result than the sum of the parts taken individually. -Mathematically speaking, synergy suggests that two plus two equals five -“You lead by example. If people sense how committed you are, what the standard is, what you believe in, what you expect, they respond to that. And if they care as deeply as you do, it doesn’t take a motivational speech.”
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Characteristics that Influence Team Dynamics
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-include having a shared vision and values, clear goals and objectives, and establishing team practices in the areas of accountability, communication, and decision making -Leaders must also continuously build trust among team members so they share ideas and knowledge without fear of being criticized. Trust is the result of open, honest communication, and team members following through on their commitments.
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Team Core Values
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-One of the most effective ways to align how a department or business unit team will work together is to create team core values. -The leader facilitates team involvement by developing values that are congruent with the company values, yet are unique to an individual team. -Research has shown that when people work closely as a team with strong feelings of “us,” morale and productivity rise -If a leader wants to create a team that will move forward against difficult challenges or work together to complete a significant project, the best way to do this is by instilling a strong sense of mission within the group
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Common types of work teams
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-including cross-functional teams, department teams, management teams, project teams, virtual teams, and special project teams SELF MANAGED TEAM -High-performance work teams that assume responsibility for traditional management tasks as part of their regular work routine -A typical self-managed team usually has 5 to 15 members who are responsible for producing a well-defined product (such as a computer) or service (such as processing an insurance claim) -Self-managed teams typically follow three principles: -Hierarchy is based on competence. Leaders naturally emerge even though there are no job titles, and everyone knows who they are because they have a passion for the work being done and they have clear commitment to the project and to team members, even though there may not be a selection process. -Clear goals. The memorandum of understanding outlines exactly what must be done, by whom, the expected results, and how they will be measured. -Shared values. Teams are focused, disciplined, and committed to accomplish specific objectives even though team members may change.
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Cross-functional teams
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-are task groups staffed with a mix of specialists, focused on a common objective – Team members provide a link among separate functions, such as production, distribution, finance, and customer service -During the hiring process, every effort is made to screen out persons who would not be effective team players
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Virtual teams
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-composed of employees physically dispersed throughout the nation or around the world -for virtual workers, the workplace is not a building, but the networks -The advantages of virtual teams include speed, agility, expanded expertise, improved communication, and real-time collaboration. – the real purpose of virtual work is to create synergy for mission accomplishment without the limitations of time or space.
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How to effectively manage a virtual team
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-Make sure everyone has a clear concept of the overall goal. If it is not possible to meet in person, host a virtual web conference with webcams for the team to get to know each other and to learn each other’s roles. -Communicate why each team member was selected to be on the team; share strengths and passions. Structure ways for them to get to know each other as both team members and individuals. -Redefine roles and reassign tasks within the team in order to ensure better outcomes for the project as a whole. -Require detailed status reports and meeting results, and find structured methods to stay abreast of deadlines and the completion of milestones. This keeps the manager and entire team up-to-date. -Encourage peer collaboration to continuously improve work structure.
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Influential Thought Leaders
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-managers often failed to recognize the potential for growth of most workers and their desire for fulfillment -Several characteristics of an effective work team, which included the following: an informal, comfortable work environment where people are engaged and freely express their feelings and ideas; a near-absence of hidden agendas; encouragement of constructive disagreement; and a clear understanding and acceptance of tasks or objectives of the group -In order to achieve effective results, team members must be willing to openly voice their concerns and collectively hold themselves accountable for the results of their decisions -“The best way to predict the future is to create it” meaning companies must be attuned to social changes in order to drive innovation to meet unmet customer needs
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The Ohio State model
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-The wide range of types of leadership positions may cause you to ask: Do people in these positions have much in common? Will team-building strategies work in most situations? The answer to both questions is yes. -Two of the most important dimensions of supervisory leadership—consideration and structure—have been identified in research studies conducted by Edwin Fleishmanhttp://college.cengage.com/nextbook/shared/helping_professions/reece_9781305576162/images/reece_0000_0000_0_12_img0006-t2.png?token=DC2C260FF61F4616576D792E0EE2C57C6173DF45ABCE0D9E15FFA1924F86F2CABAA11C4DED42970C3E4D0AE1B09F690EB8C0331CE8649B19F91317EA05CAAC34E149A609C2D80193 at Ohio State University
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Consideration
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-the extent to which a leader’s relationships with subordinates are characterized by mutual trust, respect for the employees, consideration of their feelings, and warmth in interpersonal relationships.
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Structure
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-reflects the extent to which a leader is likely to define and direct his or her role and the roles of subordinates toward goal attainment -People who work under the direction of a highly structured leader know what is expected of them.
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Improving consideration skills
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-Brian Tracy says that effective leaders are guided by the law of empathy: “Leaders are sensitive to and aware of the needs, feelings, and motivations of those they lead. RECOGNIZE ACCOMPLISHMENTS -When individual achievements are overlooked, leaders miss a valuable opportunity to boost employee self-confidence and build morale PROVIDE FOR EARLY AND FREQUENT SUCCESS -A supervisor should provide each employee with as many opportunities to succeed as possible. -Successful leaders are successful teachers TAKE A PERSONAL INTEREST IN EACH EMPLOYEE -Taking a personal interest means learning the names of spouses and children, finding out what employees do during their leisure time, asking about their families, and acknowledging birthdays ESTABLISH A CLIMATE OF OPEN COMMUNICATION -to establish a climate of open communication, the leader must be available and approachable -efforts to improve the communication process represent a good use of the supervisor’s time and energy. DISCOVER INDIVIDUAL EMPLOYEE VALUES -Leaders should encourage employees to explore their values and determine whether there is a match between what matters most to them and the work they are doing -If a value conflict turns up, determine whether it is possible to redesign the job or give the employee a new assignment
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Improving structure skills
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-The leader who incorporates structure into his or her leadership style plays an active role in directing group activities COMMUNICATE YOUR EXPECTATIONS -The law of expectations, according to Brian Tracy, states, “Whatever you expect, with confidence, becomes your own self-fulfilling prophecy.” -establish baseline performance data so progress can be assessed PROVIDE SPECIFIC FEEDBACK OFTEN -Feedback should be relevant to the task performed by the employee and should be given soon after performance. -Feedback is especially critical when an employee is just learning a new job -A person can make a mistake and still be a valuable employee. DEAL WITH PERFORMANCE ISSUES IMMEDIATELY -When members of the group are not held accountable for doing their share of the work or for making mistakes, group morale may suffer -Other members of the group will quickly observe the poor performance and wonder why you are not taking corrective action -focus feedback on the situation, issue, or behavior, not on the employee -Avoid demoralizing the person or impairing his or her self-confidence COACHING FOR PEAK PERFORMANCE -coaching: Personal tactics for developing people to become effective employees; a critical competency for leaders in every organization. -Blanchard says it is important to shift from managing performance to focusing on development 1.Performance coaching is used when people need help returning their performance to acceptable standards. 2.Development coaching is used when high-performing workers are ready to become more fully rounded in their current roles. 3.Career coaching is employed when people are ready to plan their next career moves. 4.Coaching to support learning occurs when managers or direct reports need support, encouragement, and accountability to sustain recent training and turn insights into action. 5.Creating an internal coaching culture is what happens when leaders recognize the value of coaching and use it to develop others.
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Situational leadership
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-The Situational Leadership Model, developed by Paul Hersey and his colleagues at the Center for Leadership Studies -SITUATIONAL LEADERSHIP: is based on the theory that the most successful leadership occurs when the leader’s style matches the situation -Situational leadership theory emphasizes the need for flexibility -Task behavior, as Hersey describes it in his book The Situational Leader, is very similar to the “concern for production” dimension of the Leadership Grid -relationship behavior is very similar to the “concern for people” dimension. -Hersey says that, when trying to influence others, you must (1) diagnose the readiness level of the follower for a specific task and (2) provide the appropriate leadership style for that situation -Servant-leadership encourages collaboration, trust, and the ethical use of power and empowerment
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Additional leadership qualities
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-Effective leadership is characterized by honesty, truthfulness, and straight dealing with every person -Without character it is impossible to build a trusting relationship with the people you lead. -A second important quality is emotional intelligence -Emotional intelligence is a much more powerful predictor of leadership success than IQ because it gives you the ability to monitor your own and others’ emotions and deal with them effectively. -One very important key to growth in both of these areas is self-awareness. Without self-awareness we may behave in ways that are potentially ineffective, limiting our potential for growth and opportunity
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Team work: The employees role
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-every member of the work group can and should be a team member and a team builder -Today’s most valued employees are those who are willing to assume leadership responsibilities.
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Employees as leaders
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-Today, the most effective leaders are helping their work team members develop leadership skills so that they can develop their capacity to lead, and the team’s success will not ride on one person – If we are willing to expand our definition of leadership, we can see leaders everywhere: -The quiet “worker bee” often serves as a leader when the issue is how to get the work done during a crisis situation. -The “corporate counselor,” who informally guides coworkers through stressful problems by merely listening, is an emotional leader. -The rigid “rule follower” keeps our creativity from becoming irresponsible.
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Becoming a valued team member
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1. Avoid becoming part of a clique or subgroup within the team. As a member of a clique, you are very likely to lose the trust and respect of other team members. 2. Avoid any action that might sabotage the team. By engaging in frequent criticism of other team members, gossip, or other unconstructive behaviors, you undermine team efforts. 3. Keep in mind that effective team participation depends on honest, open communication among team members. Use the fundamentals of constructive self-disclosure discussed in Chapter 8. 4. As a team member, do not feel the need to submerge your own strong beliefs, creative solutions, and ideas. If the team members are about to make a decision that in your opinion is not “right,” do not hesitate to speak up and express your views.
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5 Dysfunctions of a team
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1.Absence of Trust: Trust is the foundation of effective teamwork. 2.Fear of Conflict: Teams that lack trust are not capable of engaging in open, unfiltered debate. 3.Lack of Commitment: When team members fail to voice their views openly during passionate debate, they rarely buy in and commit to decisions. 4.Avoidance of Accountability: Without commitment and buy-in, team members are often hesitant to call their peers on actions and behaviors that seem counterproductive to the good of the team. 5.Inattention to Results: Failure to hold one another accountable creates an environment where team members put their own needs above the collective goals of the team
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Managing the relationship with your boss
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-he burden for managing the relationship should not and cannot fall entirely on the one in authority. -When you take time to manage the relationship with your boss, he or she will become more effective in performing his or her job
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How do you go about managing your boss?
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ASSES YOUR OWN STRENGTHS DEVELOP AN UNDERSTANDING OF YOUR BOSS -Become familiar with this person’s strengths, weaknesses, work habits, communication style, and needs -try to determine his or her goals and expectations. FLEX YOUR COMMUNICATION STYLE -style flexing is a temporary effort to act in harmony with another person’s preferred communication style BE FRANK AND CANDID -don’t hesitate to speak up regarding your contributions -Learn how to point out your accomplishments gracefully -Effective team members are those who collaborate actively with their leader and other members of the team
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Tips for the young manager
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1.Keep in mind that watching your own bosses in action is not enough to teach you to be one. 2. Never assume that others are motivated by the same things you are. 3. Don’t ask for suggestions or opinions that you are not seriously prepared to consider. 4. Give before you take. Approach relationships (with your employees, your boss, and customers) with what you have to offer, not with what you want. 5. Reach out to people with more age and experience.

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