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Chapter 12 Fundamentals Abnormal Psychology Schizophrenia

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Schizophrenia
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A psychotic disorder in which personal social and occupational functioning deteriorates as a result of strange perceptions, unusual emotions, and motor abnormalities. Page 364
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Psychosis
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A psychological disorder in which a person loses contact with reality, experiencing irrational ideas and distorted perceptions.Page 364
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Downward drift theory
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Some theorists believe that schizophrenia causes victims from higher social levels to fall to lower social levels and remain at lower levels. What is this theory called? Down ward drift theory Page 364
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What are three groups of symptoms of schizophrenia
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1. Positive symptoms: excesses of thought, emotions and behaviors (365) 2. negative symptoms: deficits of thoughts, emotions and behaviors (368-369) 3. psychomotor symptoms: unusual movements or gestures (368) Page 365
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Delusions
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False beliefs about reality that have no basis in fact. Delusions of persecution are most common in Schizophrenia Page 365
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delusions of reference
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Everything refers back to you. Ex. When ever someone is doing something-it’s about you. Think anyone is talking about you even if it’s completely absurd. Page 366
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delusions of grandeur
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a delusion (common in paranoia) that you are much greater and more powerful and influential than you really are Page 366
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delusions of control
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schizophrenics believe their feelings, thoughts, and actions are being controlled by other people page 366
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Formal thought disorder
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People with schizophrenia may not be able to think clearly and speak in peculiar ways. They suffer from great confusion and make communication difficult Page 366
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loose associations
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A common thinking disturbance in schizophrenia, involving rapid shifts from one topic of conversation to another. Also known as derailment. Page 366
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hallucinations
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-False sensory perceptions that are not in response to an external stimulus. Page 366
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Inappropriate affect
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Expressing contradictory behavior when describing or experiencing an emotion (e.g., smiling when discussing something sad; laughing when talking about the death of a loved one). page 367
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Negative symptoms
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Schizophrenic symptoms that involve behavioral deficits, such as flattened emotions, social withdrawal, apathy, impaired attention, and poverty of speech. page 367
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restricted affect
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Reduction in intensity of feeling tone, which is less severe than in blunted affect, but clearly reduced. See also constricted affect sometimes called a flat affect. Page 368
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anhedonia
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Inability to experience pleasure, associated with some mood and schizophrenic disorders. page 368
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avolition
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A symptom of schizophrenia marked by apathy and an inability to start or complete a course of action. page 368
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ambivalence
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The state of having contradictory or conflicting emotional attitudes page 368
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psychomotor symptoms
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awkward movements or repeated grimaces and odd gestures page 368
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catatonia
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A state of unresponsiveness to one’s outside environment, usually including muscle rigidity, staring, and inability to communicate page 368
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catatonic rigidity
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Fixed and sustained motoric position that is resistant to change. page 368
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catatonic posturing
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Voluntary assumption of an inappropriate or bizarre posture. Generally maintained for long periods of time. page 368
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What are three phases of Schizophrenia?
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1. prodromal phase 2. Active Phase 3. Residual Phase Page 369
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prodromal phase
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The first phase in schizophrenia where the symptoms are not yet obvious, but the individuals are beginning to deteriorate. Page 369
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Active Phase
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A period in the course of schizophrenia in which psychotic symptoms are present. Can be triggered by stress or trauma. Page 369
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Residual Phase
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A period in the course of schizophrenia, following the active phase, in which there are continuing indications of disturbance, evidenced by the same kinds of behaviors that characterize the prodromal phase. page 369
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Alogia
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A decrease in speech or speech content; a symptom of schizophrenia. Also known as poverty of speech.page 368
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diathesis-stress relationship
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People with a biological predisposition will develop schizophrenia only if certain kinds of events or stressors are also present. page 369-370
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Biological Views of Schizophrenia
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Genetic Factors: Follows principales of diathesis-stress relationship genetic research show that people inherit a biological predisposition to develop schizophrenia when they face extreme stress in adolescents and early adulthood Research Supports this in three ways. 1. relatives with schizophrenia 2. twins with the disorder 3. People with schizophrenia that are adopted 4. genetic linkage and molecular biology
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polygenic disorder
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Genetic linkage and Molecular Biology suggests that Schizophrenia is caused by a combination of gene defects. Page 371
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Dopamine Hypothesis
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Schizophrenia is a result of the overactivity of Dopamine. page 371
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antipsychotic drug
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Medications that are used to treat schizophrenia and related psychotic disorders. page 371
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phenothiazines
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A group of antihistamine drugs that became the first group of effective antipsychotic medications. page 372
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Parkinson Disease
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A progressive movement disorder marked by tremors, rigidity, slow movements (bradykinesia), posture instability. Page 372
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Atypical psychotic drug
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new wave drugs received at fewer D-2 receptors more D-1 and D-4, serotonin receptors. fewer extrapyramidal symptoms and no tardive dyskinesia. (seroquel, ability, zyprexia, clorazil, risperdal) page 372
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schizophrenogenic mother
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Fromm-Reichmann’s term for aggressive, domineering mothers thought to precipitate schizophrenia in their offspring by being cold and domineering and uninterested in their children needs. page 375
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Psychodynamic explanation of schizophrenia
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Freud believed that schizophrenia developed from two psychological processes. 1. regression to a pre-ego stage 2. efforts to restablish ego control Most people today reject this theory page 375
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Cognitive explination of schizophrenia
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The leading cognitive explanation of development agrees with the biological explanation of schizophrenia. When the brain starts to undergo hallucinations and perceptual difficulties the cognitive theory takes over when the individual starts to attempt to understand these hallucinations and perceptual difficulties. Page 375-376
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sociocultural view of schizophrenia
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People with mental disorders are subject to a wide range of social and cultural forces, claim that multicultural factors, social labeling and family dtysfunctioning all contribute to schizophrenia. Page 376
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Expressed emotion
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The general level of criticism, disapproval, hostility, and intrusiveness expressed in a family.page 377
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state hospital
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State-run public mental institutions in the United States for patients that could not afford private ones. Page 380
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Milieu therapy
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a humanistic approach by Maxwell Jones to institutional treatment based on the belief that institutions can help patients recover by creating a climate that promotes productive behavior, self-respect, responsible behavior, and individual responsability. page 381
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Token Economy Program
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a behavioral program in which a person’s desirable behaviors are reinforced systematically throughout the day by the awarding of tokens that can be exchanged for goods or privileges page 382
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conventional antipsychotic drugs
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-chlorpromazine (Thorazine) page 383
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neuroleptic drugs
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conventional antipsychotic drugs, so called because they often produce undesired effects similar to the symptoms of neurological disorders. page 383
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extrapyramidal effects
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Unwanted movements, such as severe shaking, bizarre-looking grimaces, twisting of the body, and extreme restlessness, sometimes produced by conventional antipsychotic drugs. page 384
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tardive dyskinesia
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A side effect of long-term use of traditional antipsychotic drugs causing the person to have uncontrollable facial tics, grimaces, and other involuntary movements of the lips, jaw, and tongue. page 384
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social therapy for schizophrenia
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practical advice, prob solving, decision making and social skills, help find work, financial assistance, appro. health care and proper housing page 388
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deinstitutionalization
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1960’s and 1970’s governmental policy that focused on releasing hospitalized psychiatric patients into the community and closing mental hospitals page 390
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Assertive community treatment
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integrated community based treatment approach for people with serious mental illnesses. multidisciplinary team made up of cross trained psychiatry, social work, nursing, vocational rehab, substance abuse staff, peer specialist, etc. social workers are valuable because of their training as generalists page 390
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community mental health center
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A treatment facility that provides medication, psychotherapy, and emergency care for psychological problems and coordinates treatment in the community page 390
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mentally ill chemical abuser
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o Patients with psychotic disorders as well as substance-related disorders page 391
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Aftercare
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Typically refers to individual and/or group treatment used to provide support and direction following primary treatment. page 391
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day center
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A program that offers hospital-like treatment during the day only. Aka day hospital page 391
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semi-hospital
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Houses that provide 24-hour nursing care for people with severe mental disorders. page 391
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halfway house
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A residence for people with schizophrenia or other severe problems, often staffed by paraprofessionals. Also known as a group home or crisis house. page 391
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sheltered workshop
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A supervised workplace for people who are not yet ready for competitive jobs. page 391
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supported employment
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Providing ongoing, individualized supports to a person with disabilities to help them find, learn, and maintain paid employment. page 391
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case manager
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A community therapist who offers a full range of services for people with schizophrenia or other severe disorders, including therapy, advice, medication, guidance, and protection of patients’ rights. page 392
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national intrest groups
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Groups that have formed around the world to push for better community treatments against schizophrenia and other mental disorders page 394