Chapter 12 AP Gov Vocab

22nd Amendment
sets a term limit for election and overall time of service to the office of President of the United States
25th Amendment
codifies the Presidential line of succession. It explains to whom the presidency passes in the event that the President is unable to serve his entire term
formal process in which an official is accused of unlawful activity, the outcome of which, depending on the country, may include the removal of that official from office as well as criminal or civil punishment
a group consisting of the heads of the cabinet executive departments, who are appointed by the president, subject to confirmation by the Senate. the cabinet was once the main advisory body to the president but it no longer plays this role
honeymoon period
the president’s first months in office, a time when Congress, the press, and the public are more inclined than usual to support presidential initiatives
open party caucuses
meetings at which a party’s candidates for nomination are voted on and that are open to all the party’s rank-and-file voters who want to attend
presidential approval ratings
a measure of the degree to which the public approves or disapproves of the president’s performance in office
imperial presidency
term used to describe the modern presidency of the United States. a U.S. presidency that is characterized by greater power than the Constitution allows
pyramid approach
chief of staff
highest ranking employee of the White House. The position is a modern successor to the earlier role of the President’s private secretary
vice president
an officer in government or business who is below a president
press secretary
senior White House official whose primary responsibility is to act as spokesman for the United States government administration, especially with regard to the president, senior executives, and policies
balancing the ticket
political candidate chooses a running mate, usually of the same party, with the goal of bringing more widespread appeal to the campaign
formal powers
powers clearly outlined in the Constitution. constitutional powers/enumerated powers
informal powers
powers not explicitly written in the Constitution. similar to “necessary and proper” powers of Congress
inherent powers
the President derives these powers from the loosely worded statements in the Constitution that “the executive Power shall be vested in a President” and the president should “take care that the laws be faithfully executed
expressed powers
powers that are specifically named in the U.S. Constitution
National Security Council
principal forum used by the President of the United States for a peaceful consideration of national security and foreign policy matters with his senior national security advisors and Cabinet officials and is part of the Executive Office of the President of the United States
Council of Economic Advisers
agency within the Executive Office of the President that advises the President of the United States on economic policy
Office of Management and Budget
largest office within the Executive Office of the President of the United States. The main function of OMB is to produce the President’s Budget. OMB also measures the quality of agency programs, policies, and procedures and to see if they comply with the president’s policies
Stewardship theory
a theory that argues for a strong, assertive presidential role, with presidential authority limited only at points specifically prohibited by law
unit rule/winner-take-all
the rule that grants all of a state’s electoral votes to the candidate who receives most of the popular votes in the state
whig theory
a theory that prevailed in the nineteenth century and held that the presidency was a limited or restrained office whose occupant was confined to expressly granted constitutional authority
an official order or commission to do something
power of persuasion
State of the Union Address
presented by the President of the United States to a joint session of the United States Congress, typically delivered annually. The address not only reports on the condition of the nation but also allows the President to outline his or her legislative agenda and national priorities
Chief Executive
Executes the laws, appoints key federal officials, grants pardons and reprieves
Runs the armed forces
Chief Dimplomat
Negotiates with other countries
Chief Economic Planner
the president is concerned with such things as unemployment, high prices, taxes, business profits, and the general prosperity of the country
Chief Legislator
Signs or vetoes legislation, introduces legislation, works with Congress on the budget
Chief of Party
In this role, the president helps members of his political party get elected or appointed to office
Chief of State/Head of State
Acts as the symbolic leader of the country
Appointment power
President has power to appoint key officials in all executive departments and agencies. US Senate must confirm presidential appointments
pocket veto
legislative maneuver that allows a president or other official with veto power to exercise that power over a bill by taking no action (instead of affirmatively vetoing it)
presidential coattails
tendency for a popular political party leader to attract votes for other candidates of the same party in an election
War Powers Resolution
federal law intended to check the president’s power to commit the United States to an armed conflict without the consent of the U.S. Congress
Legislative veto
a veto exercised by a legislature nullifying or reversing an action, decision, etc., of the executive branch.
bully pulpit
a public office or position of authority that provides its occupant with an outstanding opportunity to speak out on any issue
Executive Office of the President
consists of the immediate staff of the current President of the United States and multiple levels of support staff reporting to the President. The EOP is headed by the White House Chief of Staff
the formal admission of someone to office
signing statements
written pronouncement issued by the President of the United States upon the signing of a bill into law
Budget and Impoundment Act
created standing budget committees in both the House and the Senate, established the Congressional Budget Office, and moved the beginning of the fiscal year from July 1 to October 1
executive agreements
an international agreement, usually regarding routine administrative matters not warranting a formal treaty, made by the executive branch of the US government without ratification by the Senate
executive order
A presidential policy directive that implements or interprets a federal statute, a constitutional provision, or a treaty
inner cabinet
consists of the Secretaries of the State, Treasury, Defense, and the Attorney General. They are called “inner” because their jobs cover more of a national jurisdiction rather than something more specific such as the Department of Education or Transportation
inner circle
an exclusive group close to the center of power of an organization or movement, regarded as elitist and secretive
two presidencies
thesis is that presidents fare better with Congress on foreign policy than on domestic policy. based on the principle that there are two versions of the American President: one who is concerned with domestic policy and one concerned with foreign policy
executive privilege
power claimed by the President of the United States and other members of the executive branch to resist certain subpoenas and other interventions by the legislative and judicial branches of government to access information and personnel relating to the executive branch
illusion of presidential government
the presidential image-building through public relations that contributes to the idea that the president is in charge of the national government

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