Chapter 11: Social Psychology

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Person Perception
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refers to processes by which we use social stimuli to form impressions of others
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Fundamental attriubution error
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When people explain behavior based on personality instead of situation
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Attraction
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Proximity Similarity Acquaintance
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Social comparison
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comparing your thoughts, feelings, behavior, abilities to other people
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Attitudes
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evaluations of people’s behaviors, beliefs,
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Aggression
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social behavior that involves harming someone physically and verbally.
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Altruism
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helping out someone else at whatever cost even if it means a cost of oneself
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Mere exposure
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finding someone attractive only by bumping into them.
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Reduce Cognitive Dissonance
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-change attitude causing dissoncance. -change he behavior causing dissonance
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Normative Social Influence
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Miko has transferred to a new high school, and starts to dress and act like the popular students there, because he wants them to like her.
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Attribution Theory
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seeks to explain how we decide, on the basis of samples of an individual’s behavior are.
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Stereotyping
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Pam’s new friend is a librarian so Pam assumes that she intellectual, politically liberal, shy, antisocial, vegan
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When are attitudes more likely to guide behavior?
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when a person is aware, when a person rehearses and practices his or her strong attitudes, when a person has strong attitudes
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Persuasion
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involves trying to change someone’s attitudes and/or their behavior
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Fundamental attribution
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explain behavior of others in terms of personalities instead of siuations
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Social Exchange Theory
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the equity in a relationship
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Miligram’s theory involving teachers, learners, electric shock was designed to examine
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Obedience
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Social identity
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when people identify themselves with he religious or ethnic group affiliations
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Social cognition
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the area of social psychology that explores how people select, interpret, remember, and use social info.
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Bystander effect
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makes it less likely an individual will help someone in need when other people are around.
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Empathy
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feeling of oneness with the emotional state of another person.
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Social psychology
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how people think about, influence, and relate to other people.
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Normative social influence
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the influence that other people have on us because we want them to like and approve of us.
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Prejudice
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unjustified negative attitude toward an individual based on his or her group membership
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The physical attractiveness of a person can affect how persuasive is.
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TRUE
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Factors of attraction
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Physical closeness- proximity Acquaintance- similarity
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Group polarization
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solidification and further strengthening of an individual’s position as a consequence of group discussion.
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Stereotypical Threat
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well aware of stereotypical expectations for him/her as a member of a group
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Companionate love
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occus when there is strong affection and deeply involved
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Low levels of Conscientiousness and Agreeableness
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Aggression
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Soloman Asch
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experiment of Conformity
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Risky shift
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group decisions are riskier than the ones made by an individual
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Social Loafing
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Several students assigned a group presentation, only three of the four do the requires work.
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Increasing the amount of interaction..
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decreases negative stereotyping
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Stable cause
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making reasonable judgement on a person based on a situation
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Romantic love
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strong components of sexuality and infatuation
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Controllable cause
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Shelby’s says she made a delicious cake because she followed the recipe’s steps.
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Egoism
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giving to another person and expecting reciprocity.
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We _____ the positive aspects of our in group, and at the same time ____ out groups.
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inflate, devalue
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What type of experiment do social psychologist use?
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Experimental methods
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Social Theory
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how we define ourselves in terms of our group membership is a crucial part of social image and a valuable source of positive feelings about oneself.
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Self perception
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the connection between attitudes and behaviors and suggests that people make inferences by perceiving their own behavior.
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Elaboration likelihood theory
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identifies two ways by which a message can be persuasive
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Observational learning approach
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aggression emphasizes social and environmental conditions can teach individuals to be aggressive.
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Cindy aces a serve, Miriam concludes that she served well so she is a talented player. Miriam is using a ______ cause.
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Internal
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Self serving bias
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the tendency to take credit for one’s own successes and to deny responsibility for ones own failures.
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Asch’s research study, participants agreed with people making an incorrect choice in a line length judgment task. This is
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Conformity
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Neuroransmitters that are associated with Prosocial behavior
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Serotonin, Dopamine, Oxytocin
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Conformity
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a change in behavior brought by following the standards of others
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Social Facilitation
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when an individual’s performance improves in the presence of others.
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Heuristics are cognitive shortcuts that enable us to make __________ rapidly.
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decisions
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Determinants of Aggression
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Observing others engaging in aggression. Presence of a weapon
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According to observational learning theory, if consequences are _______ the behavior is likely to be imitated when observers find themselves in similar situation.
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Positive
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Self-fulfilling prophecy
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If people think that members of a specific group lack ambition, they may treat them in a way that actually brings about lack of ambition.
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Cognitive dissonance
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conflict that occurs when a person holds two contradictory attitudes or thoughts.
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Social comparison
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when people compary themselves to others.
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Overt aggression
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Hitting, punching, and kicking
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Individualistic cultures
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value uniqueness, lower levels of conformity
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Deindivduation
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being part of a group reduces personal identity and erodes a sense of personal responsibility.
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Cross-cultural differences in cultural traditions and conformity
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Differing terrain and weather
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Zimbardo
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when authoritative figure removes personal responsibility, true EVIL emerges. Concluded that situational factors and social roles powerfully affect behavior
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Relational aggression
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gossiping, spreading rumors
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Groupthink
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when a group overestimates their power and morality.
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Social psychology is similar to another social science ____________. However, social psychology emphasizes how individuals influence groups and how groups influence individuals.
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Sociology
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Validity
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refers to the extent that a test measures what it is intended to measure.
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spatial
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the ability to think three dimensional.
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Foot in the door technique
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considered a successful persuasion technique according to social psychologists.
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In so called cultures of Honor
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a mans reputation is thought to be an essential aspect of his economic survival. Such culures may foster aggressive behavior.
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Festinger’s social comparison theory
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proposed that when individuals lack an objective way to evaluate their opinions and abilities, hey compare themselves with others
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Increase aggressive behavior
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positive reinforcement getting what one wants
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A key social emotion in altruism is ________, a person’s feeling of oneness with the emotional state of anther.
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Empathy
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Strongly associated with Pro-social behavior
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Agreeableness
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Implicit racism
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refers to prejudicial attitudes that exist on a deeper (inside, implicit) , unconscious level
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Confederate
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purposely places in a study by the experimenter in order to manipulate the situation the participants must engage in.
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Evolutionary psychologists focus on gender differences in the accounting of attraction. The goal is for both sexes to _______
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Procreate
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Collectivisitic cultures
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value the group, greater levels of Conformity
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Social comparison
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getting a B on a test and comparing it a friend
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Door-in-the face
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maknig a big pitch at the beginning of a sale
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Resisting persuasion can be done by ________ people with weak version of a persuasive message
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inoculating
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In group decision making, people who hold a minority opinion can change group opinion via _____ social influence.
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Informational
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Westerners make…judgement Collectivist cultures make…judgement
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internal external
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does NOT contradict evolutionary psychology
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studies that illustrates roles of gender
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Elaboration likelihood model refers
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communication that can take two routes: the peripheral route or the central route
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Testosterone
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male hormone related to aggression.
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Self fulfilling prophecy
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teachers expectations were reflected on the students performance
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One theory of Aggression
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Frustration produces anger, leading to a readiness to display aggression.
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Posterior cingulate cortex
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Positively associated with agreeableness
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Least likely to express aggression
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Samantha had to sit in an air conditioned waiting room for 20 minutes
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Positive illusions
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view of oneself that are not deeply rooted in reality
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Genetic basis for aggression
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states that genes are important in understanding the biological basis of aggression
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There is a _____ between playing violent video games and aggression.
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Correlational
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NOT a contributing factor of Prejudice
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Meaningful contact with diverse individuals.
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Social Contagion
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imitate behavior involving the spread of behaviors, emotions, and ideas. This can also be found in copying behaviors among adolescents like drinking and smoking.
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Limbic system and frontal lobes involve
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aggeression
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How does the brain respond if we make a different judgment from a group?
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Takes it as a mistake
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Effort justification
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reduce dissonance by rationalizing the amount of effort we put into something
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Milligrams Obedience study
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raised serious ethical concerns
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Reciprocity
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key concept of Altruistic behavior
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Investment model
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emphasizes the ways commitment, investment, and the availability of attractive alternative partners predict satisfaction and stability in relationships.
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Ethnocentrism
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favoring one;s own ethnic group instead of others. Taking pride in one’s ethnic group
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False concensus effect
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Overestimation of the degree to which everyone else thinks or acts the way we do.
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Social exchange theory
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minimize costs and maximize benefits
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Compassion
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areas in the midbrains that have to do with the perception of PAIN are activated
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Altruism occurs…..
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among family members, so helping a relative also means promoting the survival of the family’s genes.
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Key role emotion in Altruism
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EMPATHY
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Ethnocentrism
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Person favors their own ethnic group over other, group superiority over other groups.
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People are more likely to perceive variety and differences in members of ________ whereas they are more likely to view members of an _______.
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Ingroup, outgroup
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Implicit racism
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Prejudicial attitudes that exist on a deeper, unconscious level
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Effort justification
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Reduce dissonance by rationalizing the amount of effort we put into something.
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Social contagion
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Imitating behavior involving spread of behaviors, emotions, ideas
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Nativist approaches vs infant development
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They assume infants are born with more knowledge than Piaget gave credit for
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Behavior genetics
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Study of the inherited underpinnings of characteristics

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