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Chapter 11 Nutrition

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In what chief capacity does vitamin K function?
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Blood Clotting
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Which of the following is a feature of vitamin K?
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Bacteria in the intestines synthesize bioavailable vitamin K
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Why does vitamin A status depend on the person’s protein status?
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Transport of the vitamin within the body requires sufficient protein to synthesize retinol-binding protein
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Which of the following conditions is known to lead to formation of mineral deposits in the blood vessels and kidney?
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Excessive intake of vitamin D
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Which of the following are major sources of vitamin E in the diet?
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Vegetable oils
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Which of the following is the most reliable source of vitamin D in the diet?
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Fortified milk
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What population group has the highest risk for vitamin K deficiency?
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Newborns
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How is vitamin E thought to play a role in reducing the risk of heart disease?
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It slows oxidation of low-density lipoproteins
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Which of the following conditions or diseases are known to be caused by a deficiency of the same nutrient?
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Osteomalacia and rickets
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What are the known effects of raising animals on diets containing retinoic acid as the only source of vitamin A?
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Blindness develops
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ich of the following food substances can be converted to vitamin A in the body?
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Beta-carotene
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Which of the following is known to require vitamin K for its synthesis?
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Prothrombin
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As far as is known, vitamin A does not play an important role in which of the following processes?
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Blood clotting
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What is the major carrier of the fat-soluble vitamins from the intestinal epithelial cell to the circulation?
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Chylomicrons
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Which of the following is a feature of vitamin K?
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It participates in synthesis of bone proteins
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What is the name of the vitamin D-deficiency disease in adults?
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Osteomalacia
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Which of the following is associated with the condition known as xerosis?
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Deficiency of vitamin A
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Which of the following describes an event in the visual response process?
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?
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The major form of vitamin K in foods is known as
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phylloquinone.
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Increasing the amount of polyunsaturated fats in the diet increases the need for vitamin
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E
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The first detectable sign of vitamin A deficiency is usually
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night blindness.
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Which of the following is a naturally occurring food source of vitamin D?
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Egg yolks
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What population group is at highest risk for osteomalacia?
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Adult women
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Which of the following is a property of the fat-soluble vitamins?
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Deficiency symptoms may take years to develop on a poor diet
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Which of the following compounds serves as the major precursor for the body’s synthesis of vitamin D?
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Cholesterol
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Which of the following is a feature of vitamin K?
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Bacteria in the intestines synthesize bioavailable vitamin K
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Which of the following disorders may result from vitamin E deficiency in people?
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Erythrocyte hemolysis
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Which of the following is responsible for transporting vitamin A from the liver to other tissues?
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Retinol-binding protein
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Increasing the amount of polyunsaturated fats in the diet increases the need for vitamin
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E
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Which of the following is the name of the vitamin A compound that is active in the visual response?
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Retinal
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Keratinization is the result of
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deficiency of vitamin A.
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What part of the body is affected most by keratomalacia?
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Cornea
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Which of the following is a feature of vitamin E?
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Deficiencies occur from inability to absorb dietary lipids
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Knowing the role of vitamin K in the body, in what organ would you expect to find it in large quantities?
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Liver
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A person seeking good sources of vitamin A would select all of the following except
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bananas
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Which of the following is a feature of Accutane?
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It is known to cause birth defects when used by pregnant women
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What is/are the main function(s) of vitamin D?
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Promotes calcium and phosphorus absorption and promotes calcium mobilization from bone
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Which of the following describes an event in the visual response process?
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Light energy strikes the retina and excites pigments to release retinal
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The main function of vitamin E in the body is to act as a(n)
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antioxidant.
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Which of the following is the most likely side effect for a person who regularly consumes large quantities of carrots or carrot juice?
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Skin yellowing
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The plant version of vitamin D is known as
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ergocalciferol.
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What is prothrombin?
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A protein needed for blood clot formation
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In what tissue(s) must a molecule of vitamin D be chemically altered to yield a compound that is fully active?
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Liver and kidney
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What is the major carrier of the fat-soluble vitamins from the intestinal epithelial cell to the circulation?
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Chylomicrons
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Which of the following conditions or diseases are known to be caused by a deficiency of the same nutrient?
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Osteomalacia and rickets
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All of the following are forms of vitamin A except
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retinoquinone.
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Which of the following is not a fat-soluble vitamin?
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Cyanocobalamin
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Which of the following is characteristic of the tocopherols?
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They are usually found in foods high in polyunsaturated fats
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The major target organs for the action of activated vitamin D include all of the following except the
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liver.
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Which of the following symptoms would indicate a vitamin D deficiency?
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Bowed legs
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Which of the following is a feature of Accutane?
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It is known to cause birth defects when used by pregnant women
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Which of the following features are shared by Retin-A and Accutane?
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They have chemical structures similar to vitamin A
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Which of the following may result from excessive intakes of vitamin D by adults?
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Mineral deposits in soft tissues such as the kidney
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What is/are the main function(s) of vitamin D?
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Promotes calcium and phosphorus absorption and promotes calcium mobilization from bone
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What is the role of vitamin E in the metabolism of free radicals?
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Eliminator
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The major form of vitamin K in foods is known as
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phylloquinone.
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If the diet contains precursor vitamin A, which of the following tissues can use it to form vitamin A?
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Intestinal cells
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Which of the following is not among the features of the fat-soluble vitamins?
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transported permanently to the liver and adipose tissue
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Which of the following food substances can be converted to vitamin A in the body?
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Beta-carotene
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Which of the following describes the primary function of vitamin A in bone health?
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It assists enzymes that degrade certain regions of the bone thereby allowing remodeling to occur
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Vitamin A supplements are helpful in treating which of the following conditions?
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Night blindness
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The effects of vitamin A deficiency are most severe in what population group?
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newborns
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Why shouldn’t a 7-month pregnant woman be prescribed Accutane?
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It is a teratogen and can be harmful to the baby
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Which of the following is likely to induce vitamin A toxicity in adults?
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Consuming high-dose vitamin A supplements
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Which of the following foods is a very good source of vitamin A?
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Pumpkin pie
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Which of the following provides the least amount of precursor vitamin A?
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corn
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The animal version of vitamin D is known as
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cholecalciferol.
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Which of the following can the body use to synthesize vitamin D?
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Exposure to sunlight
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All of the following are other names for vitamin D except
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calcitonin
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Which of the following compounds is known to function as a hormone?
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Vitamin D
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A child with bowed legs is likely deficient in vitamin
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D
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In what system would the effects of a vitamin D deficiency be most readily observed?
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Skeletal
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Which of the following enables much of the world’s population to maintain adequate vitamin D status?
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Outdoor exposure of the skin to sunlight
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Which of the following features do vitamins C and E share?
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Both function as antioxidants
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The major function of vitamin E is to inhibit the destruction of
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polyunsaturated fatty acids
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What form of tocopherol shows vitamin E activity in the human body?
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Alpha
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Why are vitamin E deficiencies rarely observed in human beings?
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The vitamin is widespread in foods
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Which of the following conditions may improve with vitamin E therapy?
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Intermittent claudication
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Among the following, which contains the highest concentration of vitamin E?
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corn oil
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Which of the following properties do vitamins D and K share?
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Both are synthesized in the body
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Which of the following is a feature of vitamin K?
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It participates in synthesis of bone proteins
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Which of the following is a feature of osteocalcin?
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It requires vitamin K to bind to bone-forming minerals
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Of the following, which would most readily induce a vitamin K deficiency?
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Antibiotic therapy
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Which of the following vitamins is synthesized by intestinal bacteria?
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K
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What type of foods should be controlled in individuals taking anticoagulant medicines?
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Green leafy vegetables