Chapter 10 Questions Answers

question

The characteristic of possessing the most positive personality characteristics of males and females regardless of actual sex is called: a. gender identity disorder. b. transgender. c. androgyny. d. transsexual gender.
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Androgyny
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Prejudice that is more socially acceptable but still leads to unequal treatment of men and women is: a. benevolent sexism. b. androgyny. c. gender stereotyping. d. sexism
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Benevolent Sexism
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The psychological aspects of being masculine or feminine are known as: a. androgen. b. gender. c. sex characteristics. d. intersex.
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Gender
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Research has shown that cultures that are more ______ and have high standards of living are more nontraditional in gender role expectations, while cultures that are more ______ and have less wealth are more traditional in gender role expectations. a. collectivistic; individualistic b. atheist; religious c. religious; atheist d. individualistic; collectivistic
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Individualistic; collectivistic
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An individual’s sense of being male or female is called: a. gender role. b. gender. c. gender identity. d. gender typing.
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Gender identity
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Studies have shown that infant girls exposed to _______ hormones before birth were found to behave as “tomboys,” displaying more masculine characteristics. a. winkte b. estrogen c. androgen d. transsexual
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Androgen
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The process of acquiring gender-role characteristics is called: a. gender identity. b. gender typing. c. gender role acquisition. d. gender transfiguration.
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Gender Typing
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The _______ theory attributes gender-role development to learning behavior through observation and imitation of models. a. social learning b. benevolent sexism c. gender schema d. gender stereotype
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Social Learning
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The ______ theory proposes that gender identity is acquired as a child develops a mental pattern for being male or female and then organizes observed and learned behavior around that mental pattern. a. gender schema b. gender stereotype c. social learning d. benevolent sexism
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Gender Schema
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_______ is the culture’s expectations for either masculine or feminine behavior, including actions, attitudes, and personality traits associated with being male or female in that culture. a. Gender identity b. Gender role c. Gender typing d. Gender
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Gender Role
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The term _____ refers to people whose sense of gender identity does not always match their external appearance or their sex chromosomes. a. hermaphroditism b. androgyny c. transgendered d. transsexual
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Transgendered
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Which of the following is an example of male secondary sex characteristics? a. the penis b. the prostate gland c. the scrotum d. a deeper voice
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Deeper Voice
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_______ are sexual organs present at birth and are directly involved in human reproduction. a. Gonads b. Androgen c. Secondary sex characteristics d. Primary sex characteristics
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Primary Sex Characteristics
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Which of the following is an example of female primary sex characteristics? a. menstrual cycle b. testes c. ovaries d. mammary glands become capable of producing milk
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Ovaries
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________ are sexual organs and traits that develop at puberty and are indirectly involved in human reproduction. a. Secondary sex characteristics b. Primary sex characteristics c. Gonads d. Androgen
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Secondary Sex Characteristics
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The ______ are organs present in an embryo that are undifferentiated—not yet male or female. a. testes b. gonads c. ovaries d. prostates
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Gonads
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A person who is either male or female and is attracted to both sexes is called: a. transsexual. b. bisexual. c. homosexual. d. heterosexual.
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Bisexual
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Alfred Kinsey is most known for: a. the report he published concerning human sexual behavior and the different ways in which people engage in the sex act. b. the study he published on the physiological aspects of sexual intercourse. c. the study he published on transsexual gender identity. d. the shocking results he reported from a survey concerning sexism.
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The report he published concerning human sexual behavior and the different ways in which people engage in the sex act
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A person’s sexual attraction and affection for members of either the opposite or the same sex is called: a. sexism. b. sexual identity. c. sexual preference. d. sexual orientation.
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Sexual Orientation
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Masters and Johnson are known for research concerning: a. alternative human sexual behavior. b. the physical responses that occur during sexual activity. c. the psychology involved in acquiring gender roles and identity. d. the psychological responses that occur during sexual activity.
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The physical responses that occur during sexual activity
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A sexual condition in which the person either prefers to, or must, achieve sexual arousal and fulfillment through sexual behavior that is unusual or not socially acceptable is called: a. an organic sexual dysfunction. b. a paraphilia. c. sexual arousal disorder. d. a psychogenic disorder.
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Paraphilia
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________ are types of sexual problems caused by physical sources or disorders. a. Socially unacceptable behaviors b. Transgender disorders c. Organic dysfunctions d. Paraphilias
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Organic dysfunctions
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The most common sexually transmitted infection is: a. syphilis. b. HIV. c. AIDS. d. chlamydia.
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Chlamydia
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One of the earliest studies of the impact of biological factors on sexual orientation found that if the mother experienced severe stress during the second trimester: a. the chance of a female child becoming homosexual is significantly higher. b. the chance of a male child becoming homosexual is significantly higher. c. the chance of a male child becoming heterosexual is significantly higher. d. the chance of either a male or female child becoming homosexual is significantly lower.
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The chance of a male child becoming homosexual is significantly higher
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Organic factors, psychological factors, and sociocultural factors can all be causes of: a. sexually transmitted infection. b. sexual orientation. c. sexual identity disorder. d. sexual dysfunction.
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Sexual Dysfunction
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According to the Janus report, the most common barriers to sexual activity in adults aged 57 to 85 were: a. health problems or lack of a partner. b. depression and side effects from medication. c. old age and depression. d. lack of desire and old age.
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Health problems or lack of a partner
question

In 1954, what did William Masters secure in order for his controversial study to be successful that would today be nearly impossible in this media-driven world? a. He created an advisory board that included the police commissioner and several religious leaders. b. He convinced the press to keep completely quiet about the research for the next 12 years. c. He made sure that none of his volunteers were prostitutes. d. He received the permission of his department chair.
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He convinced the press to keep completely quiet about the research for the next 12 years
question

Masters and Johnson are known for research concerning: a. the physical responses that occur during sexual activity. b. alternative human sexual behavior. c. the psychology involved in acquiring gender roles and identity. d. the psychological responses that occur during sexual activity.
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The physical responses that occur during sexual activity
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Which of the following is evidence that sexual orientation is influenced by genetics? a. A study found that women who experienced severe stress during the second trimester of pregnancy had a significantly higher chance that the pregnancy would result in a male child becoming homosexual. b. A study of twins found that 52 percent of the identical twin siblings were both homosexual, and that only 22 percent of fraternal twins and 11 percent of adopted brothers and sisters were homosexual. c. A recent study using neuroimaging techniques found that heterosexual men and homosexual women were neurologically similar when compared to homosexual men and heterosexual women, who were also neurologically similar. d. Homosexuals are consistently feminine as children.
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A study of twins found that 52 percent of the identical twin siblings were both homosexual, and that only 22 percent of fraternal twins and 11 percent of adopted brothers and sisters were homosexual.
question

What physical responses would a male experience during the plateau phase of the sexual-response cycle? a. Muscle contractions trigger the release of semen. b. The testes hang lower in the scrotum. c. Blood in the genitals recedes and the man will be unable to achieve an erection again for anywhere from a few minutes to a few hours. d. The penis becomes more erect and may release a few drops of fluid.
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The penis becomes more erect and may release a few drops of fluid
question

Research has shown that cultures that are more ______ and have high standards of living are more nontraditional in gender role expectations, while cultures that are more ______ and have less wealth are more traditional in gender role expectations. a. individualistic; collectivistic b. atheist; religious c. religious; atheist d. collectivistic; individualistic
answer

Individualistic; collectivitic
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Research has shown that when men communicate, they tend to talk about current events and sports, switch topics frequently, and attempt to dominate the conversation. This is a _____ communication style. a. socially learned b. report c. relate d. masculine
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Report
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The Lakota word ______ is used in many Native American cultures for a man who also embodies the soul of a woman. a. spermarche b. couvade c. winkte d. we-wa
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Winkte
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What type of culture typically has more traditional ideas about gender roles and behavior? a. individualistic b. collectivistic c. Western d. industrialized
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Collectivistic
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The psychological aspects of being masculine or feminine are known as: a. sex characteristics. b. androgen. c. intersex. d. gender.
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Gender
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Studies have shown that infant girls exposed to _______ hormones before birth were found to behave as “tomboys,” displaying more masculine characteristics. a. estrogen b. transsexual c. winkte d. androgen
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Androgen
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According to your authors, which of the following is the best way to promote more women entering the STEM (science, technology, engineering, and mathematics) fields? a. Encourage girls to engage in play activities that have traditionally been considered “for the boys.” b. Take away “girly” toys when they are children so that they won’t develop a “female mindset.” c. Expose them to women who have been involved in the STEM field in the past. d. Ensure that they take STEM classes during both high school and their first year of college.
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Encourage girls to engage in pay activities that have traditionally been considered “for the boys”
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Which of the following is NOT true of the resolution phase? a. Women become unable to maintain sexual arousal. b. The refractory period lasts longer for men as age increases. c. In women, the clitoris retracts. d. Men experience a refractory period.
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Women become unable to maintain sexual arousal
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Organic factors, psychological factors, and sociocultural factors can all be causes of: a. sexually transmitted infection. b. sexual dysfunction. c. sexual identity disorder. d. sexual orientation.
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Sexual Dysfunction
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All of the following are ways to transmit the HIV virus EXCEPT: a. through oral sex. b. giving birth to a baby while infected. c. breast-feeding a baby while infected. d. through saliva.
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Through saliva
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A little boy protected his sister from a strange dog when they were out for a walk. The parents praised him profusely for his bravery and his “manly” behavior. This is an example of the ______ of gender identity. a. gender schema theory b. social learning theory c. gender bias theory d. schema learning theory
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Social learning theory
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A little girl observes that all of her teachers are women. Therefore, when she plays, she pretends to be a teacher, and she decides that when she grows up she wants to be a teacher. This is an example of: a. gender stereotyping. b. social learning theory. c. gender schema theory. d. benevolent sexism.
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Gender Schema Theory
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Elizabeth is told by her mother that her interest in sex is evil. Elizabeth can no longer feel pleasure when she has sex. This sexual dysfunction is attributed to: a. paraphilia. b. sociocultural factors. c. organic factors. d. psychological factors.
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Sociocultural Factors
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_______ are sexual organs present at birth and are directly involved in human reproduction. a. Androgen b. Secondary sex characteristics c. Primary sex characteristics d. Gonads
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Primary Sex Characterisitics
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________ are sexual organs and traits that develop at puberty and are indirectly involved in human reproduction. a. Gonads b. Primary sex characteristics c. Androgen d. Secondary sex characteristics
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Secondary Sex Characteristics
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The ______ are organs present in an embryo that are undifferentiated—not yet male or female. a. gonads b. testes c. prostates d. ovaries
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Gonads
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Which of the following is an example of male secondary sex characteristics? a. a deeper voice b. the prostate gland c. the penis d. the scrotum
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Deeper voice
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The region that has been most heavily hit by AIDS according to current numbers is: a. Central Asia b. sub-Saharan Africa c. Eastern Europe d. Russia.
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Sub-Saharan Afrcia
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Ten percent of women in the United States will develop ______ during their childbearing years. a. pelvic inflammatory disorder b. syphilis c. HPV d. gonorrhea
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Pelvic Inflammatory Disorder
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What happens to make an embryo develop female sex organs? a. The Y chromosome causes the gonads to release androgen, causing the Wolffian ducts to develop and the Müllerian ducts to deteriorate. b. The Y chromosome causes the gonads to release estrogen, which causes the Müllerian ducts to develop and the Wolffian ducts to deteriorate. c. The absence of the Y chromosome causes the gonads to release androgen, causing the Müllerian ducts to develop and the Wolffian ducts to deteriorate. d. The absence of the Y chromosome causes the gonads to develop estrogen-secreting ovaries, allowing the Müllerian ducts to develop and the Wolffian ducts to deteriorate.
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The absence of the Y chromosome causes the gonads to develop estrogen-secreting ovaries, allowing the Müllerian ducts to develop and the Wolffian ducts to deteriorate
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In more developed countries such as the United States, menarche begins at an average age of ______. a. 13 b. 10 c. 11 d. 12
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12
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The onset of production of sperm in a male is called: a. couvade. b. androgen. c. menarche. d. spermarche.
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Spermarche
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Whenever Ali invites his male friends over to his “man cave,” they all sit around and talk about sports, cars, and politics, with Ali and one or two others frequently interrupting and attempting to dominate the conversation. This style of communication is referred to as _______ talk. a. aggressive b. report c. relate d. rapport
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Report
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Several days after having sexual intercourse, Gabrielle noticed sores on her vagina in addition to itching, throbbing, and burning sensations in the vaginal area. If she decides to go for a checkup with her doctor, Gabrielle will most likely be told that she has contracted _______. a. genital herpes b. gonorrhea c. genital warts d. chlamydia
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Genital Herpes
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Freud believed that children learned their gender identities: a. through gender schema. b. by resolving the sexual conflicts of early childhood. c. through social learning. d. through classical conditioning.
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By resolving the sexual conflicts of early childhood
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The expectations of one’s culture, the development of one’s personality, and one’s sense of identity are all affected by: a. gender. b. sexual orientation. c. secondary sex characteristics. d. primary sex characteristics.
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Gender
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Which of the following is an example of benevolent sexism? a. A woman is upset about an event at work. She comes home crying, and when her husband asks her what is wrong, she says, “I can’t talk to you. You’re a man and you wouldn’t understand!” b. A boy and a girl are dating. The girl asks if she can drive the boy’s car. The boy says, “No way. Women are terrible drivers. Why doesn’t my little bunny go sit on the passenger side like a good girl?” The girl promptly dumps him. c. Upon having their first child, a married couple decides that the woman, who is very dedicated to her career, will continue to work, and the man, who doesn’t really like his job, will stay home with the children. d. A principal at an early childhood school is interviewing two candidates, one male and one female. Since they are both equally qualified for the job and interview well, he can’t decide whom he wants to hire. He eventually decides to hire the female because women are more nurturing and better with younger children.
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A principal at an early childhood school is interviewing two candidates, one male and one female. Since they are both equally qualified for the job and interview well, he can’t decide whom he wants to hire. He eventually decides to hire the female because women are more nurturing and better with younger children.
question

Anna’s mother takes her to get a pedicure for her birthday, telling her, “a lady always has pretty feet.” This is an example of: a. gender roles. b. gender typing. c. gender identity. d. primary sex characteristics.
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Gender Typing
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Gender identity is affected by all of the following EXCEPT the influences of: a. biology. b. culture. c. the environment. d. medication.
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Medication
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Jenna’s mother speaks in a soft, gentle voice and her father speaks very loudly. Jenna notices that many of her female teachers speak in a softer voice as well. Jenna therefore believes that all females speak in soft voices and does so for the rest of her life. She is now teaching her daughter to do the same. This is an example of: a. gender schema theory. b. benevolent sexism. c. social learning theory. d. sexual stereotyping.
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Gender Schema Theory
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Sarah has always felt that she is a man trapped in a woman’s body. She decides to have surgery to become the man she’s always believed herself to be, and she receives hormone injections to change her physical attributes. Sarah would be a(n) _______ individual. a. transsexual b. hermaphrodite c. androgynous d. intersexual
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Transsexual
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Masters and Johnson recommend a technique called ____ to treat premature ejaculation. a. meditation focus b. arousal focus c. orgasm focus d. sensate focus
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Sensate Focus
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Which of the following is an example of a situation in which a psychological factor may lead to sexual dysfunction? a. Jennie was molested as a child and suffers from low self-esteem. b. Tom’s religious beliefs do not permit sex before marriage. c. Joe’s chronic illness makes it difficult for him to get and maintain an erection. d. Tammy’s sexual organs did not develop properly in the womb.
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Jennie was molested as a child and suffers from low self-esteem
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The Janus report surveyed people ranging in age from: a. 20 to 80. b. 18 to 65. c. 5 to 55. d. 15 to 75.
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18 to 65
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According to Kinsey’s study, about _______ percent of males were homosexual. a. 5 b. 15 c. 12 d. 10
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10
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In what year was the Janus report published? a. 1983 b. 1954 c. 1976 d. 1993
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1993
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Which of the following is NOT true of the resolution phase? a. In women, the clitoris retracts. b. Women become unable to maintain sexual arousal. c. The refractory period lasts longer for men as age increases. d. Men experience a refractory period.
answer

Women become unable to maintain sexual arousal
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According to the Kinsey study, _____ percent of males had bisexual experiences. a. well over 50 b. nearly 50 c. right around 32 d. almost 20
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Nearly 50
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Sexually transmitted infections that are caused by _____ are more difficult to treat than those caused by ______, and are often incurable. a. viruses; bacteria b. oral sex; anal sex c. anal sex; oral sex d. bacteria; viruses
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Viruses; bacteria
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All of the following are ways to transmit the HIV virus EXCEPT: a. breast-feeding a baby while infected. b. giving birth to a baby while infected. c. through saliva. d. through oral sex.
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Through saliva
question

Over the past year, Jay has gained several inches in height, experienced a deepening in his voice, developed courser skin, and noticed hair growth on his face, chest, and pubic area. These particular physical changes in Jay’s development are all examples of ______ sex characteristics. a. genetic b. primary c. evolutionary d. secondary
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Secondary
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Though raised as a female by her parents, Jasmine has a rare condition in which she has both ovary and testicle material in her body. Jasmine is referred to as being _______. a. transsexual b. intersexual c. bisexual d. homosexual
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Intersexual
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Immediately after he was born, Daniel’s parents painted his room blue, bought him trucks and trains, and started dressing him in blue jeans and khaki pants with high top tennis shoes for infants. Daniel’s parents appear to be engaging in the process of _______. a. gender typing b. gender shaping c. gender identification d. gender-role behavior
answer

Gender Typing
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Kareem has always been told that as a man, he will be expected to “wear the pants in the house” by making all of the decisions for his family and providing for everyone financially, physically, and educationally. The expectations by which Kareem has been told to live are called _______. a. gender roles b. gender identities c. gender types d. gender personalities
answer

Gender Roles
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Max believes that all girls are weak and can never be as strong as boys. The belief that Max maintains about girls is called a _______. a. double standard b. gender stereotype c. cultural rule d. social norm
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Gender Stereotype
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Which of the following statements best demonstrates benevolent sexism? a. All men cheat. b. All elderly women are bad drivers. c. All women are good with children. d. All men are aggressive.
answer

All women are good with children
question

Keisha cooks, cleans, cares for the kids, mows the lawn, fixes broken appliances, and changes the oil in all of the family cars. Keisha is a good example of a person who is ______. a. bisexual b. androgynous c. metrosexual d. transgendered
answer

Androgynous
question

Whenever Ali invites his male friends over to his “man cave,” they all sit around and talk about sports, cars, and politics, with Ali and one or two others frequently interrupting and attempting to dominate the conversation. This style of communication is referred to as _______ talk. a. relate b. report c. aggressive d. rapport
answer

Report
question

Michael and Janice start to feel different as they continue to kiss and caress each other. Their breathing quickens, their pulse rates increase, their nipples harden, and their genitals begin to swell. Michael and Janice are in the _____ stage of Masters and Johnson’s sexual-response cycle. a. plateau b. excitement c. resolution d. orgasm
answer

Excitement
question

Rashid has just had an orgasm. However, his partner is still excited and wants Rashid to continue his sexual activity. Unfortunately, Rashid has lost his erection. Rashid is probably now in the ________. a. plateau stage b. orgasm stage c. refractory period d. male menopause period
answer

Refractory Period
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Marty is a college student who enjoys being sexually active with both men and women. Marty’s sexual orientation is most likely _______. a. heterosexual b. bisexual c. homosexual d. metrosexual
answer

Bisexual
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Bella is sexually attracted to females, but has only dated men to whom she has never been sexually attracted. Bella could be considered ______. a. heterosexual b. bisexual c. homosexual d. metrosexual
answer

Homosexual
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Malcolm enjoys sexual activity with his partner. Sometimes, however, Malcolm cannot reach an orgasm during sexual intercourse even though fully aroused. Malcolm appears to be suffering from a sexual dysfunction related to a lack of ________. a. interest b. arousal c. response d. attraction
answer

Response
question

Marty has low self-esteem, anxiety over sexual performance, self-consciousness about his body image, and depression. Marty is suffering from several examples of _______ that can lead to sexual dysfunctions. a. social influences b. cultural influences c. psychological stressors d. organic factors
answer

Psychological Stressors
question

Several days after having sexual intercourse, Gabrielle noticed sores on her vagina in addition to itching, throbbing, and burning sensations in the vaginal area. If she decides to go for a checkup with her doctor, Gabrielle will most likely be told that she has contracted _______. a. chlamydia b. genital warts c. genital herpes d. gonorrhea
answer

Genital Herpes
question

Jose has HIV. Through which of the following ways is Jose LEAST likely to have contracted the disease? a. having unprotected intercourse b. sharing contaminated needles c. kissing d. having unprotected oral sex
answer

Kissing
question

Which of the following is true about the resolution phase of the sexual-response cycle? a. Women, as well as men, experience a refractory period. b. Men can still experience an orgasm during this phase. c. Women can still experience an orgasm during this phase. d. Blood pressure and heart rate increase during this time.
answer

Women can still experience an orgasm during this phase
question

Which of the following is an example of androgyny? a. A newlywed couple agrees that the man will do all the yard work and the woman will do all the house cleaning. b. When her sink starts leaking, rather than try to fix the problem herself, a woman calls her husband and demands that he come home from work immediately to fix the sink. c. A mother gets a call from school saying that her son got into a fight with another student. She tells her husband, “You deal with it. I can’t understand all this male aggressive behavior.” d. A father does all the clothes shopping for his baby girl because he prides himself on his ability to put together beautiful outfits, and he also enjoys working on his car.
answer

A father does all the clothes shopping for his baby girl because he prides himself on his ability to put together beautiful outfits, and he also enjoys working on his car.
question

Gender identity is affected by all of the following EXCEPT the influences of: a. the environment. b. medication. c. biology. d. culture.
answer

Medication
question

Sarah has always felt that she is a man trapped in a woman’s body. She decides to have surgery to become the man she’s always believed herself to be, and she receives hormone injections to change her physical attributes. Sarah would be a(n) _______ individual. a. hermaphrodite b. intersexual c. androgynous d. transsexual
answer

Transsexual

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