Chapter 10.4: Evidence of Evolution

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Darwin found evidence supporting evolution from a wide range of sources. The most important and convincing support came from
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fossils, geography, embryology, and anatomy
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The fossil is a record of
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change in a species over time
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Geologist found that fossil organisms on the bottom, or older, layers were
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more primitive than those in the upper, or newer, layers–supporting Darwin’s concept of descent with modification
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Biogeography
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the study of the distribution of organisms around the world, reveals a pattern of evolution of organisms.
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Darwin’s observations on the Galapagos islands demonstrated biogeography how?
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species can adapt to different environments and evolve into separate populations or species over time.
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What is Embryology and what does it reveal?
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Embryology is the study of embryo development and it reveals that even organisms that are very different form each other in their adult forms can have similar traits of development.
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Two species that exhibit similar traits during development are
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likely to have a common ancestor
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What is Homologous structures?
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features that are similar in structure but appear in different organisms and have different functions
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What are Vestigial structures?
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remnants of organs or structures that had a function in an early ancestor.
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Paleontology
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the stdy of fossils or extinct organisms
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Why is the fossil record not complete?
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because most living things do not become fossils after they die
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Has any fossil evidence ever contradicted evolution?
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NO
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Comparative embryology studies
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those similarities between organisms
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The fore limbs of tetrapod vertebrates (human hand, bat wing and mole foot) are examples of what? Why?
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Examples of Homologous structures– the limbs look very similar even though they have different functions
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Bat wings and insect wings are examples of what? Why?
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Examples of Analagous structures because they are both used for flight, but are not similar in structure
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Both homologous structures and vestigial structures point to what?
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a shared ancestry among organisms that share them
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The tiny pelvic bones and hind limbs in many snakes are what?
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vestigial structures–show common ancestor with lizards and dogs–but parts no longer used.

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