Chapter 1 Psychology Midterm Study Guide

Psychology
The scientific study of human behavior and mental processes

Behavior
any action that people can observe or measure

Cognitive activities
mental processes; include dreams, perceptions, thoughts, and memories

Psychological constructs
used to talk about something we cannot see, touch, or measure directly

theory
a statement that attempts to explain why things are the way they are and why they happen the way they do

morality
the concept of right or good conduct

principle
a basic truth or law

psychiatrist
a medical doctor who specializes in the treatment of psychological problems and who can prescribe medication for clients

geriatrics
the branch of medicine that focuses on the diseases and problems of the elderly

basic research
research that has no immediate application and is done for its own sake

clinical psychology
largest group of psychologists- help people with psychological problems, such as anxiety or depression, or severe psychological disorders, such as schizophrenia

counseling psychology
these psychologists treat people who have adjustment problems rather than serious psychological disorders

school psychology
these psychologists identify and help students who have problems that interfere with learning

educational psychology
similar to school psychologists; focus on course planning and instructional methods for an entire school system rather than on designing a program of study for an individual student

developmental psychology
study the changes that occur throughout a person’s life span; these can be physical, emotional, cognitive, and social

personality psychology
identify human characteristics, or traits

social psychology
concerned with people’s behaviors in social situations

experimental psychology
conduct research into basic processes such as the functions of the nervous system, sensation and perception,learning and memory, and thinking and motivation (perform basic research)

industrial psychology
focus on people and work (closely related with organizational psychologists)

organizational psychology
study the behavior of people in organizations, such as business firms (closely related with industrial psychologists)

human factors psychology
find the best ways to design products for people to use

community psychology
study and help create social systems that promote and foster individual wellbeing

forensic psychology
work within the criminal justice system, may explain how certain kinds of psychological problems give rise to criminal behavior

healthy psychology
examine ways in which behavior and mental processes are related to physical health

Rehabilitation psychology
work with patients who are struggling with the effects of a disability- people with a condition that limits physical, sensory, cognitive, or emotional functioning

Cross- Cultural Psychology
study behavior and mental processes under different cultural conditions

Goals of Psychology
* Scientists seek to Observe, Describe, Explain, Predict, and Control (control- help people accomplish their own gold through their knowledge about motives behind human behaviors) the events they study (ODEPC)

Introspection
looking within- Plato came up with this

Associationism
Aristotle outlined these laws- experiences often remind us of similar experiences in the past, how the face of a loved one makes us feel secure, and how thought leads to ideas as we dream and as we daydream

Teachings of the middle ages
Greeks thought confusion and agitation were signs of demons

structuralism
concerned with discovering the basic elements of consciousness- broke down consciousness into objective sensations and subjective feelings

functionalism
concerned with how mental processes help organisms adapt to their environment

Stream of consciousness
Williams James claimed that experience is a continuous “stream of consciousness”- thought regarded as a flowing series of images and ideas running through the mind

Wilhelm Wundt
Founded structuralism

William James
Founded the school of functionalism

psychoanalysis
emphasizes the importance of unconscious motives and internal conflicts in determining and understanding human behavior

Sigmund Freud
studied psychoanalysis

psychodynamic thinking
Freud’s theory that summed most of what exists in an individual’s mind is unconscious and consists of conflicting impulses, urges, and wishes

behaviorism
Watson defined psychology as the scientific study of observable behavior- regardless of who we think we really are inside, we can be totally conditioned by external events

John Watson
founded behaviorism

B.F. Skinner
Added to the behaviorist tradition by introducing the concept of reinforcement- people learn the same way animals do through reinforcement

Gestalt psychology
our perceptions of objects are more than the sums of their parts- Max Wertheimer, Kurt Koffka, and Wolfgang Kohler

Biological perspective
Biological processes influence behavior and mental processes- influenced by associationism and neuroscience

Evolutionary perspective
Adaptive organisms survive and transmit their genes to future generations- influenced by Charles Darwin and evolution

Cognitive perspective
perceptions and thoughts influence behavior

Humanistic perspective
people make free and conscious choices based on their unique experiences

Psychoanalytic perspective
unconscious motives influence behavior

Learning perspective
personal experiences and reinforcement guide individual development

sociocultural
sociocultural, biological, and psychological facts create individual differences (more culture oriented)

biopsychosocial
mental processes are influences by the interaction of biological, psychological, and social factors