Chapter 1 Psych Terms

Psychology
the scientific study of behavior and mental processes

behavior
includes all of our outword or overt actions and reactions
example: talking, facial expressions, movement

mental processes
all internal, covert (hidden) activity of our minds
example: thinking, feeling, remembering

description
observing a behavior and noting everything about it
WHAT IS HAPPENING? WHERE IT HAPPENS? WHOM IT HAPPENS? UNDER WHAT CIRCUMSTANCES IT SEEMS TO HAPPEN.

theory
general explanation of a set of observations or facts.

control
change a behavior from an undesirable one to a desirable one.

prediction
determining what will in the future.

explanation
finding an explanation from data.

Wilhelm Wundt
person who applied scientific principles to the study of the human mind.
CONSCIOUSNESS, THE STATE OF BEING AWARE OF EXTERNAL EVENTS, COULD BE BROKEN DOWN INTO THOUGHTS, EXPERIENCES, EMOTIONS, AND OTHER BASIC ELEMENT.

objective introspection
the process of objectively examining and measuring ones own thoughts and mental activities.

William Wundt
“father of psychology”

Structuralism
focus of study was the structure of the mind.

EDWARD TITCHENER idea because of using thoughts and PHYSICAL SENSATIONS.

Edward Titchener
Person who believed that every experience could be broken down into its individual emotions and sensations.

Margaret F. Washburn
Titchener’s first woman grad student who wrote : “the animal mind”

Harvard University
First class in America to offer classes in psych in 1870’s

Functionalism
How the mind allows people to function in the real world- how people work, play, and adapt to their surroundings
-William James
– FOUND IN organizational psychology, organizational psychology

natural selection
physical traits that help an animal adapt to its environment and survive are passed on to its offspring, becoming part of the animal’s trait.

Mary Whiton Calkins
denied a degree from Harvard because she was a girl

Francis Cecil Sumner
first African American to earn Ph.D in Psych

Jorge Sanchez
Hispanic; conducted research in the area of intelligence testing, focusing on the cultural biases in such tests.

educational psychology
studying the application of psychological concepts to education.

organizational psychology
studying the application of psychological concepts to businesses, organizations, and industry.

Max Werteimer
person who felt that psychological events such as perceiving and sensing could not be broken down into any smaller elements and still be properly understood.

“Naturally seek out patterns (“wholes”) in the sensory information available to them.
“GESTALT”

Gestalt Psychology
the focus on studying whole patterns rather than small pieces of them.

mental processes and learning

cognitive psychology
a field focusing not only on perception but also on learning, memory, thought processes, and problem solving;
the basic GESTALT principles of perception are still taught within this newer field.
GESTALT THERAPY

Sigmund Frued
He was a neurologist who studies disorders of the nervous system.

STUDIED THE UNCONSCIOUS MIND into WHICH WE PUSH, OR REPRESS, ALL OF OUR THREATENING URGES AND DESIRES.

phobias – unconscious problems that build up.

personality
Sigmund Frued believe _______ was developed in the first 6 years of life.

psychoanalysis
theory and therapy based on Freud’s ideas, has been the basis of much modern psychotherapy

psychotherapy
a process in which a trained psychological professional helps a person gain insights into and change his or her behavior.

Ivan Pavlov
a person who works with dogs; salvation.

conditioning
a learned reflexive response.

word that has to do with Ivan Pavlov dog salvation.

John B. Watson
person with his own “science of behavior.” – behavioralism; observable behavior.

behavior is learned

phobia- learned through the processes of conditioning and set out to prove it.

observable behavior
something that could be directly seen and measured.

John B. Watson
Little Albert (and causing a rat/fuzzy animal phobia.) has to do with what psychologist?

Mary Jones
Little Peter (white rabbits phobia) has to do with what psychologist?
-counterconditioning- evening things out; One thing good/with one thing bad.

psychodynamic perspective
focus on the unconscious mind and its influence over conscious behavior and on early childhood experiences, there is less emphasis on sex and sexual motivations and more emphasis on the development of a self of social and interpersonal relationships, and motivations behind a persons behaviors.

operant conditioning
behavioral response is reinforced with a pleasurable behavior.

-kid cries —-> mom pays attention to them (gives attention)

BEHAVIORAL PERSPECTIVE

humanistic perspective
The perspective that is also know as the “third force” in psychology.
– free will
-self actualization

free will
the freedom to choose their own destiny

self actualization
achievement of ones full potential

Humanism
Carl Rogers and Abraham Maslow focused on what type of psychology?

cognitive perspective
focus on memory, intelligence, perception, thought processes, problem solving, language, and learning has become a major force in psychology.
-studying the brain

cognitive neuroscience
study of the physical workings of the brain and nervous system when engaged in memory, thinking, and other cognitive processes.

use: MRI’s, fMRI’s, and PETs

Sociocultural perspective
a perspective that include social psychology and cultural psychology.
-Lev Vygostsky’s (children cognitive development.)
-effect people have on each other (indiv. or in a group.)
and how they behave due to what they have been exposed to.

cross-cultural research
contrast and comparisons of a behavior or issue are studied in at least two or more cultures.

diffusion of responsibilty
the tendency to feel that someone else is responsible for taking action when others are present.

Biopsychology.
the study of the biological bases of behavior and mental processes.

also known as physiological psychology, biological psychology, psychobiology, behavioral neuroscience, biopsycholgy.

biopsychological perspective
human and animal behavior is seen as a direct result of events in the body.
Effectors/causes of behavior and mental events : hormones, heredity, bain chemicals, tumors and diseases

biopsychologists
The topics sleep, emotion, aggression, sexual behavior, and learning and memory + disorders are studied by what professionals?

evolutionary perspective
focuses on the biological bases for universal mental characteristics that all humans share.
-why we lie, etc.
-research in men + woman

psychologist
no medical training but a doctorates degree.

psychiatrist
medical degree and is a physician who specializes in the diagnosis and treatment of psychological disorders.

psychiatric social worker
trained in the same area of social work and usually possesses a master’s degree in that discipline.

Basic research
research for the sake of gaining scientific knowledge

applied research
research aimed at answering real-world practical problems.
-can take it from basic research

d
Which of the following perspectives focuses on the biological bases of universal mental characteristics?
A) humanistic
B) behavioral
C) psychodynamic
D) Evolutionary

c
Which perspective offered the best explanation for schizophrenia?
A) psychodynamic
B) behavioral
C) biopsychological
D) humanistic

a
Which perspective would a researcher be taking if she were studying a clients early childhood experiences and his resulting development of self?

Empirical questions
questions that can be tested through direct observation to experience.

Naturalistic observation
observation that a researcher blends in and people don’t know that they are there so they don’t act differently.

observers effect
animals or people who know they are being watched will not behave normally anyway.

participant observation
to participate in your own research questions to blend in.

observers bias
when the person doing the observing has a particular opinion about what he or she is going to see or expects to see.

blind observer
people who do not know what the research question is and have no preconceived notions about what they “should” see.

laboratory observation
observation done in a laboratory.
DISADVANTAGE: artificial behavior and situation.

descriptive
Naturalistic, laboratory, case studies, and surveys are what kind of research methods?

Case Study
which one individual is studied in great detail.
-Sigmund Freud
– takes a long time
-vulnerable to bias

courtesy bias
people deliberately give what they think is the most socially correct answer rather than their true opinion in order not to offend anyone.

correlations
is a measure of the relationship between two or more variables.

variable
anything that can change or vary

correlation coefficient
represents the direction of the relationship and its strength.

positive correlation coefficient
if one goes up the other goes up.
if one goes down the other goes down.

negative correlation coefficient
if one goes up then the other goes down.

causation
Correlation does not cause _______________

operational definition
it specifically names the operations that the experimenter must use to control or measure the variables in the experiment.

independent variable
variable that is manipulated in any experiment

dependent variable
the response of the participants that is measured to see how the independent variable effected it.

confounding variables
variables that interfere with each other and their possible effects on some other variable of interest.

experimental group
group that is exposed to the independent variable (changing variable)

control group
group that is exposed to the dependent variable (not changing variable)

experimenter effects
effecting the experiment due to the experimenter giving clues on how to answer the prompt.

body language, tone, eye contact etc.

– the behavior of the experimenter cause the participant to change his/her response pattern.

single-blind study
participants are blind to the treatment they receive.

PLACEBO

double-blind study
neither the participants nor the person or persons measuring the dependent variable know who got what.

insitutional review boards
groups of psychologist or other professionals who look over each proposed research study and judge it according to its safety and consideration for the participants in the study.

7
animals are used in ____% of psychological studies.

C
What is the first guideline fro doing human research?
A) participants have to give informed consent.
B) Deception cannot be used in any studies with human beings.
C) the rights and well-being of the participants must come first.
D) data must remain confidential.

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