Chapter 1 Learn Smart

Name the general process of eliminating metabolic waste products from the body:
Excretion

The term that indicates a single complete individual is:
Organism

Physiology of the nervous system
neurophysiology

Physiology of hormones
endocrinology

Mechanisms of disease
pathophysiology

Physiology of other animals
Comparative physiology

Benefits of a large sample size
it controls for chance event, it enables us to place greater confidence in the outcome, it controls for individual variation

list the levels of structural hierarchy in the body from least to most complex
atom, cell, tissue, organ, organ system, organism

The ability of nerve and muscle cells to produce changes in membrane voltage is known as
excitability

The _____ theory states that all living organisms are composed of cells
cell

These criteria make for a good hypothesis
it is consistent with what is already known and testable/falsifiable

The inductive method allows one to make conclusions based on
observation

The suffix _____ means “the study of”.
ology

A molecule, cell or organ that carries out a response to a stimulus is an
effector

An aggregation of cells and extracellular materials, which perform a discrete function, is known as a
tissue

The study of body structures is called
anatomy

The structure that encloses a cell and controls the traffic of molecules in and out of the cell is the
cell/plasma membrane

di-
two

epi-
above

endo-
within, inside

hypo-
below

A change in the relative frequencies of alleles in a population over a period of time is called
evolution

A group of organs working together for a coordinated function is an
organ system

Most medical terms are derived from what languages
Latin and Greek

The process of carefully separating tissues to reveal anatomical relationships
dissection

An educated guess that is capable of being tested and potentially falsified by experimentation or data collection is known as
hypothesis

Structure made by joining two or more different atoms
molecule

The study of the “function” of a biological organism
physiology

(T/F) The scientific method is an informed conjecture that is capable of being tested and potentially proved false by experimentation or data collection
False

Study of bodily structures that can be observed without magnification
gross anatomy

A difference in chemical concentration, electrical charge, physical pressure, temperature, or other variable between one point and another is a
gradient

Purged eponyms from terminology and included only Latin terms. Devised in the late 1800s.
Nomina Anatomica

Included Latin and commonly used English terms. Devised in 1998.
Terminologica Anatomica

A _____ is any anatomical structure that is composed of at least two different tissue types, has recognizable structural boundaries, and has a discrete function different from the structures around it.
organ

The smallest unit of an organism that can carry out all the functions of life
cell

Name the benefits of a large sample size
It controls for individual variation, controls for chance events, enables us to place greater confidence in the outcome

A microscopic structure in a cell that carries out individual function
organelle

A relatively stable internal environment in spite of greater changes in the external environment is known as
homeostasis

A verbal or mathematical description of a predictable natural phenomenon or of the relationship between variables is called
law of nature

The smallest particle of matter with unique chemical properties
atom

An explanatory statement, or set of statements, that concisely summarize the state of knowledge of a phenomenon and provides direction for further study
Theory

Information that can be independently verified by any trained person is a
fact

When bodily changes are detected, responses are activated that reverse the change, restoring stability and preserving normal body functions. This occurs during
negative feedback

This provides a statement of probability that the experimental outcome was due to random variation.
statistical test

These are examples of what:
-contractions during childbirth
-formation of a blood clot
positive feedback

The name for a cell or organ that is specialized to detect a stimulus, such as a taste cell or a rod or cone of the eye is a
receptor

T test and chi square analysis are examples of what
statistical test

A self-amplyfing cycle in which a physiological change leads to an even greater change in the same direction is known as
positive feedback

This is a dead human body that is used for dissection
cadaver

Differences in sex, age, weight, diet, degree of physical activity, environment, among other things are important ______ variations
physiological

Features that have evolved in response to environmental pressures and enable the organism to cope with challenges posed by its environment are called
adaptations

The ability of nerve and muscle cells to produce changes in membrane voltage is known as
excitability

Name the person who is known for his theory of natural selection
Charles Darwin

Name the method of reasoning that begins with a hypothesis or question and then tries to answer that question
Hypothetico-deductive method

What comes next: Macromolecules, _____, cells, tissues, organs, organ systems, organism
organelles

These are examples of what:
relatively less competition, rich supply of leaves and fruit, relative safety from predators
arboreal habitat

The type of receptor located in the heart, aortic arch, and carotid sinus that trigger autonomic reflexes in response to fluctuations in blood pressure are known as
baroreceptors

These forces may serve as what:
predators
disease
climate
selective “pressures”

The study of tissues, or groups of cells and their surrounding extracellular materials, is called
histology

The term “PET” scan, which refers to a positron emission tomography scan, is an example of anatomical terminology that is describes as
acronym

In an experiment, the control group is unaltered, while the ______ group contains the variable being tested
experimental

This is a molecule, cell, or organ that directly carries out a response to a stimulus
effector

A surgeon learning a procedure before practicing on humans or medical trials using animal research are examples of
comparative physiology

Any molecule of large size and high molecular weight, such as protein, nucleic acid, or polysaccharide is described as a
macromolecule

Without the expenditure of energy, matter in a physiological gradient will always flow from a region of _____ concentration to a region of _____ concentration
higher; lower

Blood pressure is controlled by a _____ mechanism
negative feedback

A _____ review is the method of evaluatoin of results by other experts in that field
peer

Name the smallest particle of matter with unique chemical properties
atom

The term for the conscious or subconscious influence an experimenter may have on the interpretation of their data is
experimenter bias

_____ equilibrium occurs when there is a set average point and conditions fluctuate around that point
dynamic

(T/F) As much as 30% of the human population can have variations in their anatomy
true

This is the process of transforming a cell with no specialized function into a cell with a specialized function
differentiation

Name the process by which evolution works, that states that some individuals have hereditary advantage over their competitors
natural selection

A _____ is the name of a substance with no significant effect on a subject’s physiology bit is given to a control group that thinks they are being given the treatment
placebo

Organisms respond to _____ or changes in their environment
stimuli

(T/F) The study of ultrastructure focuses on examining indiviual cells, but not thier internal components
False

The _____ method, as prescribed by Bacon, is a process of making numerous observations until one feels confident in drawing generalizations and predictions from them.
inductive

The integrating center of a feedback mechanism
processes information, relates it to other information, and makes a decision of action

The fact that some people lack certain organs is an example of
anatomical variation

Greek physician who established a code of ethics and urged physicians to seek natural causes for disease
hippocrates

Identify the philosopher who believed that, not only could disease have supernatural causes, but natural causes as well, and argued that complex structures are built from a smaller variety of simple components
Aristotle

Name the Jewish physician who wrote 10 medical books and numerous books on disease
Maimonides

Descartes and _____ revolutionized the philosophy of science, arguing for a more systematic enterprise aimed at new discoveries.
Bacon

Name the physician to the Roman gladiators who wrote on the anatomy of humans, based on his dissections of pigs, monkeys, and other animals.
Claudius Galen

Give the name for the adaptation of primates that allows for depth perception
stereoscopic vision

Name the Englishman from the 1500s who is known for his study of physiology (especially of the heart)
William Harvey

______ surgery is the practice of diagnosing illness by opening the body
exploratory

The Englishman who invented the modern compound microscope in the 1600s and observed plant cells was ____
Robert Hooke

Effects of a subject’s state of mind on their physiology are known as _____ efect
psychosomatic

A physician who is listening to your body is utilizing the diagnostic procedure known as
auscultation

The study of how different species have solved physiological problems of life is known as _____ physiology
comparative

According to the section of chapter one that covers analyzing terms, the “duct of Santorini” is an example of a
sponym

The anatomist who was the first to publish an atlas of anatomy was
Versalius

This is a branch of medicine that utilizes medical imaging technologies to explore the interior of the body
radiology

Name the “Galen of Islam” who’s influential textbook was the leading authority in European medical schools for 500 years
Avicenna

Identify the method used to control experimental bias where neither the subject nor the person giving treatment and recording data know which subjects are receiving the treatment and which are receiving the placebo.
Double-blind method

Leeuwenhoek was the first to observe ___
Microorganisms

Identify 2 people who suggested that all organims were composed of cells
Schleiden and Schwann

During a physical examination, percussion is often used. Percussion is
tapping on a body surface then listening to the echo to diagnose health