Chapter 1: Invention of Writing – Flashcards

question
Petroglyph*
answer
Carved or scratched signs or simple figures on rock
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Pictograph*
answer
Elementary pictures or sketches that represent the things depicted
question
Ideograph*
answer
Symbols to represent ideas or concepts
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2 natural by-products of the rise of the village culture in ancient Mesopotamia
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1. The ownership of property 2. Specialization of trades or crafts
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Cuneiform*
answer
Early wedge-shaped writing in Mesopotamia
question
Purpose of Mesopotamian Cylinder Seals
answer
Provided a forgery-proof method for sealing documents & proving their authenticity
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Impact of the discovery of the Rosetta Stone*
answer
Allowed for the translation of hieroglyphs & to further unlock the mysteries of Egyptian history and culture
question
3 contributions of Egyptian culture to graphic communications? What did these inventions trigger in the western world? *
answer
1. Hieroglyphics 2. Papyri 3. Illustrated manuscripts Triggered development of alphabet & graphic communications in Phoenicia and the Greco-Roman world
question
Some of the earliest examples of visual communications known are the Paleolithic cave drawings found in
answer
The Lascaux caves in France
question
Paleolithic cave drawings were probably created for three of the reasons
answer
1. Survival 2. Ritual 3. Utility
question
Petroglyphs
answer
Carved or scratched signs or simple figures on rocks
question
Writing may have evolved in Sumeria because ancient temple chiefs needed
answer
to keep records systematically
question
The Stele of Hammurabi (1792-1750 BC) is an artifact of Babylonian culture written in cuneiform. The text contains
answer
A code of Laws and Consequences
question
Each script below is found in the Rosetta Stone
answer
a. Greek b. hieroglyphic c. demotic
question
In the hieroglyphic writing system, a cartouche encloses glyphs of
answer
important names
question
A Book of the Dead is a narrative of
answer
the passage of the deceased into the afterlife
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Three of the following are characteristic of ancient Egyptian illustrated manuscripts
answer
a. Important persons shown larger than other persons b. Figures shown simultaneously frontally and in profile c. Men shown with dark skin and women with light skin
question
The ancient Egyptians inherited the use of _________ from the Sumerians
answer
identification
question
The development of writing and visible language had its earliest origins in
answer
simple pictures
question
In Mesopotamia, the ownership of property and the specialization of trades and crafts made visual identification necessary. Images on ______________ became trademarks for the owner
answer
cylinder seals
question
Like the Sumerians, who used mud to create clay tablets, the Egyptians made good use of their natural resources. They created a paper like substrate for manuscripts out of *
answer
papyrus
question
In the hieroglyphic writing system, words that were difficult to express in visual form were written using _______ in which words and syllables are represented by pictures of objects and by symbols whose names are similar to the word or syllable to be communicated
answer
rebus
question
The development of writing had its earliest origins in simple pictures, for a close connection exists between the drawing of pictures and the markings of writing
answer
T
question
Writing in ancient Sumeria took on magical and ceremonial qualities; the general public regarded scribes with awe because of their mysterious knowledge
answer
T
question
In the hieroglyphic system, directionality was not standardized. The reader began from the direction in which living animals were facing, but sometimes the direction in the text changed
answer
T
question
The demotic writing script, used for secular legal and commercial writing, developed around 400 A.D.
answer
F
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The scarab beetle in ancient Egyptian society was associated with the sun god Khepri and the idea of resurrection. The scarab seal came to be used as a means of marking ownership and as a magical charm
answer
T
question
The Egyptians were the first people to produce illustrated manuscripts in which words and pictures combined to communicate information
answer
T
question
A more abstract form of hieroglyphics, called hieratic script, was developed first by early lawmakers to allow more room for extensive laws
answer
F, hieratic script was more abstract, but it was created for religious writings
question
Finished papyrus sheets had an upper surface of horizontal fibers called the recto, and a bottom surface of vertical fibers called the verso
answer
T
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question
Petroglyph*
answer
Carved or scratched signs or simple figures on rock
question
Pictograph*
answer
Elementary pictures or sketches that represent the things depicted
question
Ideograph*
answer
Symbols to represent ideas or concepts
question
2 natural by-products of the rise of the village culture in ancient Mesopotamia
answer
1. The ownership of property 2. Specialization of trades or crafts
question
Cuneiform*
answer
Early wedge-shaped writing in Mesopotamia
question
Purpose of Mesopotamian Cylinder Seals
answer
Provided a forgery-proof method for sealing documents & proving their authenticity
question
Impact of the discovery of the Rosetta Stone*
answer
Allowed for the translation of hieroglyphs & to further unlock the mysteries of Egyptian history and culture
question
3 contributions of Egyptian culture to graphic communications? What did these inventions trigger in the western world? *
answer
1. Hieroglyphics 2. Papyri 3. Illustrated manuscripts Triggered development of alphabet & graphic communications in Phoenicia and the Greco-Roman world
question
Some of the earliest examples of visual communications known are the Paleolithic cave drawings found in
answer
The Lascaux caves in France
question
Paleolithic cave drawings were probably created for three of the reasons
answer
1. Survival 2. Ritual 3. Utility
question
Petroglyphs
answer
Carved or scratched signs or simple figures on rocks
question
Writing may have evolved in Sumeria because ancient temple chiefs needed
answer
to keep records systematically
question
The Stele of Hammurabi (1792-1750 BC) is an artifact of Babylonian culture written in cuneiform. The text contains
answer
A code of Laws and Consequences
question
Each script below is found in the Rosetta Stone
answer
a. Greek b. hieroglyphic c. demotic
question
In the hieroglyphic writing system, a cartouche encloses glyphs of
answer
important names
question
A Book of the Dead is a narrative of
answer
the passage of the deceased into the afterlife
question
Three of the following are characteristic of ancient Egyptian illustrated manuscripts
answer
a. Important persons shown larger than other persons b. Figures shown simultaneously frontally and in profile c. Men shown with dark skin and women with light skin
question
The ancient Egyptians inherited the use of _________ from the Sumerians
answer
identification
question
The development of writing and visible language had its earliest origins in
answer
simple pictures
question
In Mesopotamia, the ownership of property and the specialization of trades and crafts made visual identification necessary. Images on ______________ became trademarks for the owner
answer
cylinder seals
question
Like the Sumerians, who used mud to create clay tablets, the Egyptians made good use of their natural resources. They created a paper like substrate for manuscripts out of *
answer
papyrus
question
In the hieroglyphic writing system, words that were difficult to express in visual form were written using _______ in which words and syllables are represented by pictures of objects and by symbols whose names are similar to the word or syllable to be communicated
answer
rebus
question
The development of writing had its earliest origins in simple pictures, for a close connection exists between the drawing of pictures and the markings of writing
answer
T
question
Writing in ancient Sumeria took on magical and ceremonial qualities; the general public regarded scribes with awe because of their mysterious knowledge
answer
T
question
In the hieroglyphic system, directionality was not standardized. The reader began from the direction in which living animals were facing, but sometimes the direction in the text changed
answer
T
question
The demotic writing script, used for secular legal and commercial writing, developed around 400 A.D.
answer
F
question
The scarab beetle in ancient Egyptian society was associated with the sun god Khepri and the idea of resurrection. The scarab seal came to be used as a means of marking ownership and as a magical charm
answer
T
question
The Egyptians were the first people to produce illustrated manuscripts in which words and pictures combined to communicate information
answer
T
question
A more abstract form of hieroglyphics, called hieratic script, was developed first by early lawmakers to allow more room for extensive laws
answer
F, hieratic script was more abstract, but it was created for religious writings
question
Finished papyrus sheets had an upper surface of horizontal fibers called the recto, and a bottom surface of vertical fibers called the verso
answer
T