Chapter 1: Introduction to Wellness, Fitness, and Lifestyle Management

The overall condition of body or mind and the presence or absence of illness or injury.
Optimal health and vitality, income passing all the dimensions of well – being.
Risk factor
A condition that increases one’s chances of disease or injury.
Infectious disease
A disease that can spread from one person to another; caused by microorganisms such as bacteria and viruses.
Chronic disease
A disease that develops and continues over a long period of time; usually caused by a variety of factors, including lifestyle factors.
Physical fitness
A set of physical attributes that allows the body to respond or adapt to the demands and stress of physical effort.
Physically inactive; literally, “sitting”.
Unintentional injury
An injury that occurs without harm being intended.
Behaviour change
A lifestyle management process that involves cultivating healthy behaviours and working to overcome unhealthy ones.
Target behavior
An isolated behaviour selected as the object of a behavior change program.
The belief in one’s ability to take action and perform a specific task.
Locus of control
The figurative “place” a person designates as the source of responsibility for the events in his or her life.
A person’s internal dialogue.
What are the seven dimensions of well-being?
Physical, Emotional, Intellectual, Interpersonal and Social, Spiritual, Environmental or Planetary, Occupational and Financial
Physical Wellness
Includes not just your body’s overall condition and the absence of disease but your fitness level and your ability to care for yourself.
Emotional Wellness
Reflects your ability to understand and deal with your feelings, it involves attending to your own thoughts and feelings, monitoring your reactions, and identifying obstacles to emotional stability. (Finding solutions to emotional problems.)
Intellectual (or Mental) Wellness
Constantly challenge their minds, they seek out and relish new experiences and challenges.
Interpersonal (or Social) Wellness
Your ability to develop and maintain satisfying and supportive relationships which are essential to physical and emotional health.
Spiritual Wellness
To possess a set of guiding beliefs, principles, or values that give meaning and purpose to your life, especially during difficult times. They focus on the positive aspects of life.
Environmental Wellness
The livability of your surroundings. Personal health depends on the health of the planet.
What does the S in”SMART” stand for?
Specific- stating your objectives in specific terms.
What does the M in “SMART” stand for?
Measurable- give your goal a number that can be measured in terms of time, distance or some other amount.
What does the A in “SMART” stand for?
Attainable- set goals that are within your physical limits.
What does the R in “SMART” stand for?
Realistic- manage your expectations when you set goals.
What does the T in “SMART” stand for?
Time frame-specific reasonable amount of time to reach the goal.
How does the World Health Organization define health?
“A state of complete physical, mental and social well-being, and not merely the absence of disease.”
In regards to health what are the factors beyond your control?
Your genes, age, and family history.
Wellness is largely determined by what?
The decisions you make about how you live.
Enhanced wellness involves making conscious decisions to control what?
Risk factors that contribute to disease or injury.
Can you control all risk factors?
No age and family history are not controllable.
Do the dimensions of wellness affect each other?
If you have a Low level of wellness how could you feel?
If you have a High level of wellness how could you feel?
Vital, meaningful life
What are some examples of the Physical Dimension of Wellness?
Eating well, exercising, avoiding harmful habits, practising safer sex, recognizing symptoms of disease, getting regular checkups, avoiding injuries, being active.
What are some examples of the Emotional Dimension of Wellness?
Optimism, trust, self-esteem, self-acceptance, self-confidence, ability to understand and accept one’s feelings, ability to share feelings with others.
What are some examples of the Intellectual Dimension of Wellness?
Openness to new ideas, capacity to question, ability to think critically, motivation to master new skills, sense of humour, creativity, curiosity, lifelong learning.
What are some examples of the Interpersonal Dimension of Wellness?
Communication skills, capacity for intimacy, ability to establish and maintain satisfying relationships. ability to cultivate support system of friends and family.
What are some examples of the Spiritual Dimension of Wellness?
Capacity for love, compassion, forgiveness, altruism, joy, fulfillment, caring for others, sense of meaning and purpose, sense of belonging to something greater than oneself.
What are some examples of the Environmental Dimension of Wellness?
Having abundant, clean natural resources, maintaining sustainable development, recycling whenever possible, reducing pollution and waste.
What are two other aspects of wellness?
Occupational Wellness and Financial Wellness
What is Occupational Wellness?
Refers to the level of happiness and fulfillment you gain through your work.
What is Financial Wellness?
Refers to your ability to live within your means and manage your money in a way that gives you peace of mind.
What are the three leading causes of death for North Americans today?
Heart disease, cancer and stroke.
What does the Canadian Government have a vital interest in?
The health of all Canadians.
The benefits of physical activity are?
Both physical and mental, immediate and long-term.
Physically active people are less likely to develop or die from?
heart disease, respiratory disease, high blood pressure, cancer, osteoporosis, and type 2 diabetes.
What is an external locus of control?
Those that believe that factors beyond their control (heredity, friends and family, the environment, fate, luck, or other outside forces) are more important in determining the events of their lives.
What is an internal locus of control?
People who believe they are in control of their own lives.
Wellness is:
-the ability to live life fully, with vitality and meaning.
-is dynamic and multidimensional; incorporates physical, emotional, intellectual, spiritual, interpersonal, social and environmental dimensions.
Behaviours that promote wellness include:
being physically active, choosing a healthy diet; maintaining a healthy body weight; managing stress effectively; avoiding use of tobacco and limiting alcohol use; and protecting oneself from disease and injury.
People today have greater _____ ____ and greater _______ for their health than ever before.
control over, responsibility
What are the stages of change?
Precontemplation, Contemplation, Preparation, Action, Maintenance, Termination. (P.C.P.A.M.T)
What are the three steps to follow when dealing with a relapse?
1. Forgive yourself
2. Give yourself credit for the progress you have already made
3. Move on
What are the five steps to creating a personalized plan?
1. Monitor your behaviour and gather data
2. Analyze the date and identify patterns
3. Be “SMART” about setting goals
4. Devise a plan of action
5. Make a personal contract
What are the steps involved in devise a plan of action?
1. Get what you need
2. Modify your environment
3. Control related habits
4. Reward yourself
5. Involve the people around you
6. Plan for challenges
To start and maintain a behaviour change program you need:
-a well developed and manageable plan
-social support
-strong stress management techniques
-monitor the progress of your program
-revise as necessary
To make lifestyle changes you need:
-information about yourself
-your health habits
-and resources available to help you change
You can increase your motivation for behaviour change by:
-examining the benefits and costs of change
-boosting self-effacy
-identifying and overcoming key barriers to change
Although heredity, environment, and health care all play roles in wellness and disease, ______ can mitigate their effects.
Occupational Wellness and Financial
Occupational wellness refers to the level of happiness and fulfillment you gain through your work. Financial wellness refers to your ability to live within your means and manage your money in a way that gives you peace of mind.
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