Chapter 1 – Anatomy & Physiology

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Anatomy
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-The scientific discipline that investigates the STRUCTURE of the body. -Defined as the dissection of the body to study the structure, position, and interrelation of its various parts. -Includes: structure, organization, development, and function of body parts.
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Systemic Anatomy
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the study of the body by systems
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Regional Anatomy
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the study of the organization of the body by areas whereby all systems are studied simultaneously
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Gross Anatomy
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the study of structures that can be examined without the aid of a microscope (microscopic)
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Microscopic Anatomy
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the study of structures that must be examined with the aid of a microscope
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Developmental Anatomy
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studies the structural changes that occur between conception and adulthood
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Embryology
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studies changes from conception to the end of the 8th week of development
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Surface Anatomy
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the study of external form of the body and its relation to deeper structures
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Anatomical Anatomy
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the use of technologies such as x-ray, ultrasound, and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) to create images of internal anatomical structures.
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Cytology
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uses a microscope to examine the structural features of cells
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Histology
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uses a microscope to examine the structural features of tissues (composed of cells and surrounding materials)
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Physiology
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-the scientific discipline that investigates the processes or functions of living organisms -aims to understand and predict the body’s response to stimuli and to understand how the body maintains its conditions within a narrow range of values in the face of a continually changing external environment (homeostasis)
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Cell Physiology
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examines the processes occurring in cells
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Pathology
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Medical science that examines all aspects of disease including the cause and development of the condition as well as the structural and functional changes that result
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Systemic Physiology
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examines the functions of the organ systems
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Exercise Physiology
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examines the changes in structure and function that occur during exercise and as a result of exercise
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Six structural levels of organization
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chemical cell tissue organ organ system organism
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Chemical Level
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atoms (building blocks of matter) combine to form molecules, such as water, sugar, fats, proteins, and DNA
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Cellular Level
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molecules combine to form organelles (ex. nucleus, mitochondria, etc.)
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Cells
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basic structural and functional units of all organisms, cells are the smallest structural unit of an organism that are capable of independent functioning
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Tissue Level
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similar to cells and surrounding materials determine the function of the tissue
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Tissue
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a cluster of cells within an organism that possess similar structure and function TYPES: epithelial, connective, muscle, and nervous
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Organ Level
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different tissues combine to form organs (ex. urinary bladder, heart, kidney)
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Organ
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a differentiated structure composed of different tissues that perform one or more common functions
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Organ System Level
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different organs make up a specific organ system (ex. the urinary bladder and kidneys make up the urinary system)
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Organ System
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-a group of organs classified as a UNIT due to a common function or set of functions -there are 11 different organ systems
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Organism Level
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organ systems make up an organism (ex. the human organism is a complex of organs that are mutually dependent on one another)
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Organism
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a self sustaining individual living system whether composed of one cell (bacterium) or trillions of cells (human)

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