Chapter 1 – Microbiology Flashcard

question
viruses
answer
noncellular, parasitic, protein-coated genetic elements that are dependent on their infected host.
question
biotechnology
answer
the process by which humans use the metabolism of living things to arrive at a desited product (bread, beer)
question
epidemiology
answer
the of how diseases spread
question
bacteria
answer
first living inhabitants of the earth
question
bacteria
answer
______ were responsible for changin the earth's atmosphere from one with O2 to one with O2
question
decomposition
answer
the breakdown of dead matter and wastes into simple compounds that can be directed back into the natural cycles of living things
question
CO2, nitrous oxide, methane
answer
three greenhouse gases that are produced by microbes
question
50
answer
___% of all organisms exist below the earth's crust
question
recombainant DNA technology
answer
______ makes it possible to transfer genetic material from one organism to another and to deliberately alter DNA
question
bacteria and fungi
answer
____ and _____ were some of the first organisms to be genetically engineered
question
bioremediation
answer
the introduction of microbes into the environment to restore stability or to clean up toxic pollutants
question
prokaryotic - eukaryotic
answer
_______ cells are 10x smaller than ______ cells
question
organelles
answer
small, double-membrane bound structures in the eukaryotic cell that perform a specific function
question
inclusion bodies
answer
prokaryotes do not have a nucleus; however, they do have _____ _____
question
inclusion bodies
answer
protein-lined compartments that can contain air or storage polymers or house selected pathways
question
prokaryotes - eukaryotes
answer
all _____ are microorganisms, but only some _____ are microorganisms
question
viruses
answer
small particles that exist at the level of complexity somewhere between large molecules and cells
question
viruses
answer
_____ are composed of small amount of hereditary material (RNA OR DNA not both) wrapped in a protein covering that is sometimes enveloped by a protein-containing lipid membrane
question
virion or virus particle
answer
outside of a host, a virus is called a ____
question
parasitic
answer
many microbiologists consider viruses to be ______ particles
question
Robert Hooke
answer
first person to use a microscope
- viewed cork and plants
question
Antonie van Leeuwenhoek
answer
person who made the first single lens microscope
question
Antonie van Leeuwenhoek
answer
first person to report seeing living cells under a microscope
question
Antonie van Leeuwenhoek
answer
the father of bacteriology and protozoology
question
deductive approach
answer
a scientist constructs a hypothesis, tests its validity by outlining particular events that are predicted in the hypothesis and experiments to test the events
question
theory
answer
if a hypothesis is supported by a growing body of data and survives rigorous scrutiny, it becomes a _____
question
theory
answer
a collection of statements, propositions, or concepts that explains or accounts for a natural event
question
law or principle
answer
after the evidence of the accuracy and predictability of a theory becomes so compelling, it becomes a ___ or ____
question
John Tyndall
answer
_______ provided the initial evidence tht some of the microbes in dust and air have very high heat resistance and that vigourous treatment is required to kill them
question
Ferdinand Cohn
answer
_____ discovered heat-resistant endospores and clarified the reason that heat would sometimes fail to completely eliminate all microorganisms
question
Tyndall and Cohn
answer
the discoveries of these two men led to the modern sense of the word sterile
question
Robert Koch
answer
_____ was the first to clearly link a microscopic organism with a certain disease
question
Dr. Oliver Wendell Holmes
answer
_____ observed that mothers who gave birth at home experienced fewer infections than those that delivered in hospitals
question
Dr. Ignaz Semmelweis
answer
_______ showed that women became infected in the maternity ward after examination from physicians coming from the autopsy room
question
Joseph Lister
answer
_____ was the first to introduce the aseptic technique to reduce microbes in the medical setting
question
phenol
answer
Listers asepsis consisted of disinfecting the air and hands with _____ prior to surgery
question
Pasteur
answer
_____ completed some of the first studies showing that human diseases could arise from infection
question
germ theory of disease
answer
Pasteurs studies that showed that human disease could arise from infection evolved into the _____
question
Koch's postulates
answer
a series of proofs that verified the germ theory and could establish whether an organism was pathogenic and what disease it caused
question
Robert Koch
answer
____ determined that microbes needed to be seperated from each other and grown in order to study them
question
Louis Pasteur
answer
the theory of spontaneous generation of living organisms from "vital forces" in the air was disproved by ______
question
nomenclature
answer
naming microbes
question
taxonomy
answer
the science of classifying living beings
question
Carl Von Linne
answer
______ laid down the basic rules for classification and established taxonomic categories (taxa)
question
nomenclature
answer
the assignment of scientific names to various taxonomic categories and individual organisms
question
classification
answer
the orderly arrangement into a heirarchy of taxa
question
identification
answer
the process of discovering and recording the traits or organisms so that they may be recognized or named and placed in a taxanomic scheme
question
Domain
Kingdom
Phylum
Class
Order
Family
Genus
Species
answer
taxanomic categories in order
question
binomial system of nomenclature
answer
the method of assigning scientific or specific names
question
genus - species
answer
the scientific name is always a combination of the ____ name followed by the _____ name
question
phylogeny
answer
the scheme that represtents the natural relatedness between groups of living beings
question
evolution
answer
states that the hereditary information in living beings changes gradually through time
question
morphology
answer
the study of the structure of organisms
question
Charles Darwin - Ernst Haeckel
answer
two people that created the first trees of life (the plant and animal kingdoms)
question
Ernst Haeckel
answer
person who created the 3rd and 4th kingdoms of Protista and Monera
question
Robert Whittaker
answer
person who created the 5th kingdom of Fungi
question
Robert Whittaker
answer
this person's five kingdom system became standard and is still used today
question
Carl Woese and George Fox
answer
two people that led to the creation of Archea based on differences in rRNA
question
Archea
answer
_____ are characterized by their ability to live in extreme environments
question
prokaryotic - eukaryotic
answer
Archea's structure closely resembles the ______ cell but its biology shows that it is actually closer to a _______ cell
question
domains (Archea, Bacteria, Eukaryia)
answer
Carl Woese and George Fox proposed the creation of ______
question
prokaryotic
answer
Archea and bacteria are two domains to classify ______ cells
question
naming
classifying
identifying
answer
three primary functions of the toxonomic system
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question
viruses
answer
noncellular, parasitic, protein-coated genetic elements that are dependent on their infected host.
question
biotechnology
answer
the process by which humans use the metabolism of living things to arrive at a desited product (bread, beer)
question
epidemiology
answer
the of how diseases spread
question
bacteria
answer
first living inhabitants of the earth
question
bacteria
answer
______ were responsible for changin the earth's atmosphere from one with O2 to one with O2
question
decomposition
answer
the breakdown of dead matter and wastes into simple compounds that can be directed back into the natural cycles of living things
question
CO2, nitrous oxide, methane
answer
three greenhouse gases that are produced by microbes
question
50
answer
___% of all organisms exist below the earth's crust
question
recombainant DNA technology
answer
______ makes it possible to transfer genetic material from one organism to another and to deliberately alter DNA
question
bacteria and fungi
answer
____ and _____ were some of the first organisms to be genetically engineered
question
bioremediation
answer
the introduction of microbes into the environment to restore stability or to clean up toxic pollutants
question
prokaryotic - eukaryotic
answer
_______ cells are 10x smaller than ______ cells
question
organelles
answer
small, double-membrane bound structures in the eukaryotic cell that perform a specific function
question
inclusion bodies
answer
prokaryotes do not have a nucleus; however, they do have _____ _____
question
inclusion bodies
answer
protein-lined compartments that can contain air or storage polymers or house selected pathways
question
prokaryotes - eukaryotes
answer
all _____ are microorganisms, but only some _____ are microorganisms
question
viruses
answer
small particles that exist at the level of complexity somewhere between large molecules and cells
question
viruses
answer
_____ are composed of small amount of hereditary material (RNA OR DNA not both) wrapped in a protein covering that is sometimes enveloped by a protein-containing lipid membrane
question
virion or virus particle
answer
outside of a host, a virus is called a ____
question
parasitic
answer
many microbiologists consider viruses to be ______ particles
question
Robert Hooke
answer
first person to use a microscope
- viewed cork and plants
question
Antonie van Leeuwenhoek
answer
person who made the first single lens microscope
question
Antonie van Leeuwenhoek
answer
first person to report seeing living cells under a microscope
question
Antonie van Leeuwenhoek
answer
the father of bacteriology and protozoology
question
deductive approach
answer
a scientist constructs a hypothesis, tests its validity by outlining particular events that are predicted in the hypothesis and experiments to test the events
question
theory
answer
if a hypothesis is supported by a growing body of data and survives rigorous scrutiny, it becomes a _____
question
theory
answer
a collection of statements, propositions, or concepts that explains or accounts for a natural event
question
law or principle
answer
after the evidence of the accuracy and predictability of a theory becomes so compelling, it becomes a ___ or ____
question
John Tyndall
answer
_______ provided the initial evidence tht some of the microbes in dust and air have very high heat resistance and that vigourous treatment is required to kill them
question
Ferdinand Cohn
answer
_____ discovered heat-resistant endospores and clarified the reason that heat would sometimes fail to completely eliminate all microorganisms
question
Tyndall and Cohn
answer
the discoveries of these two men led to the modern sense of the word sterile
question
Robert Koch
answer
_____ was the first to clearly link a microscopic organism with a certain disease
question
Dr. Oliver Wendell Holmes
answer
_____ observed that mothers who gave birth at home experienced fewer infections than those that delivered in hospitals
question
Dr. Ignaz Semmelweis
answer
_______ showed that women became infected in the maternity ward after examination from physicians coming from the autopsy room
question
Joseph Lister
answer
_____ was the first to introduce the aseptic technique to reduce microbes in the medical setting
question
phenol
answer
Listers asepsis consisted of disinfecting the air and hands with _____ prior to surgery
question
Pasteur
answer
_____ completed some of the first studies showing that human diseases could arise from infection
question
germ theory of disease
answer
Pasteurs studies that showed that human disease could arise from infection evolved into the _____
question
Koch's postulates
answer
a series of proofs that verified the germ theory and could establish whether an organism was pathogenic and what disease it caused
question
Robert Koch
answer
____ determined that microbes needed to be seperated from each other and grown in order to study them
question
Louis Pasteur
answer
the theory of spontaneous generation of living organisms from "vital forces" in the air was disproved by ______
question
nomenclature
answer
naming microbes
question
taxonomy
answer
the science of classifying living beings
question
Carl Von Linne
answer
______ laid down the basic rules for classification and established taxonomic categories (taxa)
question
nomenclature
answer
the assignment of scientific names to various taxonomic categories and individual organisms
question
classification
answer
the orderly arrangement into a heirarchy of taxa
question
identification
answer
the process of discovering and recording the traits or organisms so that they may be recognized or named and placed in a taxanomic scheme
question
Domain
Kingdom
Phylum
Class
Order
Family
Genus
Species
answer
taxanomic categories in order
question
binomial system of nomenclature
answer
the method of assigning scientific or specific names
question
genus - species
answer
the scientific name is always a combination of the ____ name followed by the _____ name
question
phylogeny
answer
the scheme that represtents the natural relatedness between groups of living beings
question
evolution
answer
states that the hereditary information in living beings changes gradually through time
question
morphology
answer
the study of the structure of organisms
question
Charles Darwin - Ernst Haeckel
answer
two people that created the first trees of life (the plant and animal kingdoms)
question
Ernst Haeckel
answer
person who created the 3rd and 4th kingdoms of Protista and Monera
question
Robert Whittaker
answer
person who created the 5th kingdom of Fungi
question
Robert Whittaker
answer
this person's five kingdom system became standard and is still used today
question
Carl Woese and George Fox
answer
two people that led to the creation of Archea based on differences in rRNA
question
Archea
answer
_____ are characterized by their ability to live in extreme environments
question
prokaryotic - eukaryotic
answer
Archea's structure closely resembles the ______ cell but its biology shows that it is actually closer to a _______ cell
question
domains (Archea, Bacteria, Eukaryia)
answer
Carl Woese and George Fox proposed the creation of ______
question
prokaryotic
answer
Archea and bacteria are two domains to classify ______ cells
question
naming
classifying
identifying
answer
three primary functions of the toxonomic system