Chap 2 Hist 17A

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Astrolabes and quadrants were used to
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determine latitude.
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Which of the following journeys of exploration confirmed Martin Waldseemüller’s speculation about the geography of the New World?
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Ferdinand Magellan’s voyage, which discovered how much ocean lay between the New World and Asia
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What was the result of Juan Ponce de León’s return voyage to Florida in 1521?
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He was killed by the Calusa Indians.
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Which Spanish monarch became the Holy Roman Emperor in 1519?
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King Charles I
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Why did fifteenth-century monarchs such as Queen Isabella sponsor journeys of exploration?
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The monarchs hoped to enlarge their realms and enrich their dynasties.
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How did the Tainos, who resided on the island Columbus named San Salvador, differ from the Europeans who encountered them in 1492?
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The Tainos went without clothing and worshipped spirits who lived in natural objects.
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Who was the Mexican emperor taken hostage by Cortés and his forces in 1519?
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Montezuma
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How did Charles V respond to Martin Luther’s criticisms of the Catholic Church?
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As Holy Roman Emperor, he pledged to defend Catholic orthodoxy against Protestants.
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What was a long-term consequence of the bubonic plague (the Black Death) that ravaged Europe in the mid-fourteenth century?
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Increased opportunities for economic and social advancement
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Who did King Henry VII of England commission to discover a “Northwest Passage”?
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John Cabot
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What factor made the Indian population of New Spain particularly vulnerable to measles, smallpox, and respiratory illnesses?
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Lack of previous exposure to these diseases
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Most sixteenth-century Spaniards regarded the existence of New Spain with
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pride.
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The Portuguese determined that the most profitable way to use Africa was to
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establish coastal trading posts.
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Why were Columbus and his men disappointed by San Salvador?
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They didn’t find any riches.
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In the 1520s, how did the Spanish concept of war differ from the Mexican concept of war?
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The Mexica sought surrender, while the Spanish sought total victory.
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By the late sixteenth century, European nations realized that colonization had given Spain
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power and prestige.
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What was the significance of the sugar plantations established by the Portuguese on the Cape Verde Islands in the 1460s?
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They began an association between enslaved Africans and plantation labor that would become central to the New World.
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Why did the pope support Spain’s 1493 claim to the new lands Columbus had discovered in the West?
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The pope was a Spaniard and wanted to award the lands to his own country.
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By what percentage had the Indian population of New Spain been reduced by 1570?
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90 percent
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How did the acquisition of wealth from New Spain affect the economy of Charles V’s and Philip II’s Spain?
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Wealth from New Spain was not nearly enough to finance their military ambitions.
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What made some African kingdoms receptive to relationships with the Portuguese?
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Portuguese mariners brought desirable goods, including iron goods and weapons, to Africa.
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After Magellan’s voyage to circumnavigate the globe, most Europeans who crossed the Atlantic
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were headed for the New World.
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Why did Hernán Cortés initially lead an expedition into Mexico in 1519?
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He hoped to discover and exploit a fabulously wealthy kingdom he had heard about.
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What prevented France and England from colonizing the New World in the sixteenth century?
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Their absorption in domestic and diplomatic issues in Europe
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What was the first permanent European settlement in the present-day United States?
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St. Augustine
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From the twelfth century through the fifteenth century, Mediterranean trade was dominated by cities in which area?
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Italy
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What development motivated western exploration during the fifteenth century?
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The Black Death
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What was the impact of Catholic missionaries’ work among the Indians in New Spain?
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Missionaries baptized thousands of Indians who then continued to worship their own gods.
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Why did Cortés and his men take Montezuma hostage and hold him under house arrest after they reached Tenochtitlán in 1519?
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The Spaniards hoped to make him a political puppet through whom they could rule the empire.
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What were the ramifications of Columbus’s first journey?
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It appeared to make Spain a challenger to Portugal in the race for a sea route to Asia.
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What was the goal of Columbus and other ambitious explorers?
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Becoming part of the aristocracy
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What motivated Portuguese explorers’ initial search for a sea route to Asia in the 1480s?
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Their desire to bypass Mediterranean merchants
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Before he conquered the Mexica in 1519, Hernán Cortés occupied himself as
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an obscure Spanish soldier.
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What was the outcome of Spain’s rivalry with Portugal over new lands claimed through sea exploration?
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The Portuguese and Spanish monarchs negotiated a treaty that divided newly explored land between them.
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The largest treasure produced by Spanish conquests in the New World came from
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Peru
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Which European import was the decisive factor in the decimation of the New World’s native populations after 1492?
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Microorganisms
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Who was an important advocate of Portuguese expansion from 1415 to 1460?
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Prince Henry the Navigator
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What was a long-term consequence of the catastrophic bubonic plague in Europe?
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The plague stimulated exploration for new marketplaces.
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How did King Charles I (later Holy Roman Emperor Charles V) and his successors use the wealth of New Spain?
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To consolidate the largest empire in Europe
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Martin Luther and the Catholic Church disagreed on
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how salvation could be gained.
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What was the result of Charles V’s and Philip II’s extensive warfare?
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The majority of Spaniards became impoverished.
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Exploration and territorial expansion became popular with Europeans in the fifteenth century because
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monarchs hoped to enlarge their power.
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Which technological advance aided European explorers by 1400?
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The compass
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Christopher Columbus, like most educated Europeans, believed that
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the earth was spherical and could therefore be circumnavigated.
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How did Ferdinand and Isabella react to Columbus’s first voyage?
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They believed Spain could challenge Portuguese dominance of the seas.
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In the early 1500s, Martin Waldseemüller was among the very first to understand that
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there was a continent that existed separate from Europe and Asia.
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Which factor helped the Spaniards conquer the Mexicans in the sixteenth century?
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A smallpox epidemic ravaged the Mexicans.
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How did Spain benefit from settling Florida in the mid-sixteenth century?
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The settlement protected Spanish ships from pirates.
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Which European power dominated the New World during the 1500s?
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Spain, because it had the most colonial possessions

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