Chap 2 Hist 17A – Flashcards

question
Astrolabes and quadrants were used to
answer
determine latitude.
question
Which of the following journeys of exploration confirmed Martin Waldseemüller's speculation about the geography of the New World?
answer
Ferdinand Magellan's voyage, which discovered how much ocean lay between the New World and Asia
question
What was the result of Juan Ponce de León's return voyage to Florida in 1521?
answer
He was killed by the Calusa Indians.
question
Which Spanish monarch became the Holy Roman Emperor in 1519?
answer
King Charles I
question
Why did fifteenth-century monarchs such as Queen Isabella sponsor journeys of exploration?
answer
The monarchs hoped to enlarge their realms and enrich their dynasties.
question
How did the Tainos, who resided on the island Columbus named San Salvador, differ from the Europeans who encountered them in 1492?
answer
The Tainos went without clothing and worshipped spirits who lived in natural objects.
question
Who was the Mexican emperor taken hostage by Cortés and his forces in 1519?
answer
Montezuma
question
How did Charles V respond to Martin Luther's criticisms of the Catholic Church?
answer
As Holy Roman Emperor, he pledged to defend Catholic orthodoxy against Protestants.
question
What was a long-term consequence of the bubonic plague (the Black Death) that ravaged Europe in the mid-fourteenth century?
answer
Increased opportunities for economic and social advancement
question
Who did King Henry VII of England commission to discover a "Northwest Passage"?
answer
John Cabot
question
What factor made the Indian population of New Spain particularly vulnerable to measles, smallpox, and respiratory illnesses?
answer
Lack of previous exposure to these diseases
question
Most sixteenth-century Spaniards regarded the existence of New Spain with
answer
pride.
question
The Portuguese determined that the most profitable way to use Africa was to
answer
establish coastal trading posts.
question
Why were Columbus and his men disappointed by San Salvador?
answer
They didn't find any riches.
question
In the 1520s, how did the Spanish concept of war differ from the Mexican concept of war?
answer
The Mexica sought surrender, while the Spanish sought total victory.
question
By the late sixteenth century, European nations realized that colonization had given Spain
answer
power and prestige.
question
What was the significance of the sugar plantations established by the Portuguese on the Cape Verde Islands in the 1460s?
answer
They began an association between enslaved Africans and plantation labor that would become central to the New World.
question
Why did the pope support Spain's 1493 claim to the new lands Columbus had discovered in the West?
answer
The pope was a Spaniard and wanted to award the lands to his own country.
question
By what percentage had the Indian population of New Spain been reduced by 1570?
answer
90 percent
question
How did the acquisition of wealth from New Spain affect the economy of Charles V's and Philip II's Spain?
answer
Wealth from New Spain was not nearly enough to finance their military ambitions.
question
What made some African kingdoms receptive to relationships with the Portuguese?
answer
Portuguese mariners brought desirable goods, including iron goods and weapons, to Africa.
question
After Magellan's voyage to circumnavigate the globe, most Europeans who crossed the Atlantic
answer
were headed for the New World.
question
Why did Hernán Cortés initially lead an expedition into Mexico in 1519?
answer
He hoped to discover and exploit a fabulously wealthy kingdom he had heard about.
question
What prevented France and England from colonizing the New World in the sixteenth century?
answer
Their absorption in domestic and diplomatic issues in Europe
question
What was the first permanent European settlement in the present-day United States?
answer
St. Augustine
question
From the twelfth century through the fifteenth century, Mediterranean trade was dominated by cities in which area?
answer
Italy
question
What development motivated western exploration during the fifteenth century?
answer
The Black Death
question
What was the impact of Catholic missionaries' work among the Indians in New Spain?
answer
Missionaries baptized thousands of Indians who then continued to worship their own gods.
question
Why did Cortés and his men take Montezuma hostage and hold him under house arrest after they reached Tenochtitlán in 1519?
answer
The Spaniards hoped to make him a political puppet through whom they could rule the empire.
question
What were the ramifications of Columbus's first journey?
answer
It appeared to make Spain a challenger to Portugal in the race for a sea route to Asia.
question
What was the goal of Columbus and other ambitious explorers?
answer
Becoming part of the aristocracy
question
What motivated Portuguese explorers' initial search for a sea route to Asia in the 1480s?
answer
Their desire to bypass Mediterranean merchants
question
Before he conquered the Mexica in 1519, Hernán Cortés occupied himself as
answer
an obscure Spanish soldier.
question
What was the outcome of Spain's rivalry with Portugal over new lands claimed through sea exploration?
answer
The Portuguese and Spanish monarchs negotiated a treaty that divided newly explored land between them.
question
The largest treasure produced by Spanish conquests in the New World came from
answer
Peru
question
Which European import was the decisive factor in the decimation of the New World's native populations after 1492?
answer
Microorganisms
question
Who was an important advocate of Portuguese expansion from 1415 to 1460?
answer
Prince Henry the Navigator
question
What was a long-term consequence of the catastrophic bubonic plague in Europe?
answer
The plague stimulated exploration for new marketplaces.
question
How did King Charles I (later Holy Roman Emperor Charles V) and his successors use the wealth of New Spain?
answer
To consolidate the largest empire in Europe
question
Martin Luther and the Catholic Church disagreed on
answer
how salvation could be gained.
question
What was the result of Charles V's and Philip II's extensive warfare?
answer
The majority of Spaniards became impoverished.
question
Exploration and territorial expansion became popular with Europeans in the fifteenth century because
answer
monarchs hoped to enlarge their power.
question
Which technological advance aided European explorers by 1400?
answer
The compass
question
Christopher Columbus, like most educated Europeans, believed that
answer
the earth was spherical and could therefore be circumnavigated.
question
How did Ferdinand and Isabella react to Columbus's first voyage?
answer
They believed Spain could challenge Portuguese dominance of the seas.
question
In the early 1500s, Martin Waldseemüller was among the very first to understand that
answer
there was a continent that existed separate from Europe and Asia.
question
Which factor helped the Spaniards conquer the Mexicans in the sixteenth century?
answer
A smallpox epidemic ravaged the Mexicans.
question
How did Spain benefit from settling Florida in the mid-sixteenth century?
answer
The settlement protected Spanish ships from pirates.
question
Which European power dominated the New World during the 1500s?
answer
Spain, because it had the most colonial possessions
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question
Astrolabes and quadrants were used to
answer
determine latitude.
question
Which of the following journeys of exploration confirmed Martin Waldseemüller's speculation about the geography of the New World?
answer
Ferdinand Magellan's voyage, which discovered how much ocean lay between the New World and Asia
question
What was the result of Juan Ponce de León's return voyage to Florida in 1521?
answer
He was killed by the Calusa Indians.
question
Which Spanish monarch became the Holy Roman Emperor in 1519?
answer
King Charles I
question
Why did fifteenth-century monarchs such as Queen Isabella sponsor journeys of exploration?
answer
The monarchs hoped to enlarge their realms and enrich their dynasties.
question
How did the Tainos, who resided on the island Columbus named San Salvador, differ from the Europeans who encountered them in 1492?
answer
The Tainos went without clothing and worshipped spirits who lived in natural objects.
question
Who was the Mexican emperor taken hostage by Cortés and his forces in 1519?
answer
Montezuma
question
How did Charles V respond to Martin Luther's criticisms of the Catholic Church?
answer
As Holy Roman Emperor, he pledged to defend Catholic orthodoxy against Protestants.
question
What was a long-term consequence of the bubonic plague (the Black Death) that ravaged Europe in the mid-fourteenth century?
answer
Increased opportunities for economic and social advancement
question
Who did King Henry VII of England commission to discover a "Northwest Passage"?
answer
John Cabot
question
What factor made the Indian population of New Spain particularly vulnerable to measles, smallpox, and respiratory illnesses?
answer
Lack of previous exposure to these diseases
question
Most sixteenth-century Spaniards regarded the existence of New Spain with
answer
pride.
question
The Portuguese determined that the most profitable way to use Africa was to
answer
establish coastal trading posts.
question
Why were Columbus and his men disappointed by San Salvador?
answer
They didn't find any riches.
question
In the 1520s, how did the Spanish concept of war differ from the Mexican concept of war?
answer
The Mexica sought surrender, while the Spanish sought total victory.
question
By the late sixteenth century, European nations realized that colonization had given Spain
answer
power and prestige.
question
What was the significance of the sugar plantations established by the Portuguese on the Cape Verde Islands in the 1460s?
answer
They began an association between enslaved Africans and plantation labor that would become central to the New World.
question
Why did the pope support Spain's 1493 claim to the new lands Columbus had discovered in the West?
answer
The pope was a Spaniard and wanted to award the lands to his own country.
question
By what percentage had the Indian population of New Spain been reduced by 1570?
answer
90 percent
question
How did the acquisition of wealth from New Spain affect the economy of Charles V's and Philip II's Spain?
answer
Wealth from New Spain was not nearly enough to finance their military ambitions.
question
What made some African kingdoms receptive to relationships with the Portuguese?
answer
Portuguese mariners brought desirable goods, including iron goods and weapons, to Africa.
question
After Magellan's voyage to circumnavigate the globe, most Europeans who crossed the Atlantic
answer
were headed for the New World.
question
Why did Hernán Cortés initially lead an expedition into Mexico in 1519?
answer
He hoped to discover and exploit a fabulously wealthy kingdom he had heard about.
question
What prevented France and England from colonizing the New World in the sixteenth century?
answer
Their absorption in domestic and diplomatic issues in Europe
question
What was the first permanent European settlement in the present-day United States?
answer
St. Augustine
question
From the twelfth century through the fifteenth century, Mediterranean trade was dominated by cities in which area?
answer
Italy
question
What development motivated western exploration during the fifteenth century?
answer
The Black Death
question
What was the impact of Catholic missionaries' work among the Indians in New Spain?
answer
Missionaries baptized thousands of Indians who then continued to worship their own gods.
question
Why did Cortés and his men take Montezuma hostage and hold him under house arrest after they reached Tenochtitlán in 1519?
answer
The Spaniards hoped to make him a political puppet through whom they could rule the empire.
question
What were the ramifications of Columbus's first journey?
answer
It appeared to make Spain a challenger to Portugal in the race for a sea route to Asia.
question
What was the goal of Columbus and other ambitious explorers?
answer
Becoming part of the aristocracy
question
What motivated Portuguese explorers' initial search for a sea route to Asia in the 1480s?
answer
Their desire to bypass Mediterranean merchants
question
Before he conquered the Mexica in 1519, Hernán Cortés occupied himself as
answer
an obscure Spanish soldier.
question
What was the outcome of Spain's rivalry with Portugal over new lands claimed through sea exploration?
answer
The Portuguese and Spanish monarchs negotiated a treaty that divided newly explored land between them.
question
The largest treasure produced by Spanish conquests in the New World came from
answer
Peru
question
Which European import was the decisive factor in the decimation of the New World's native populations after 1492?
answer
Microorganisms
question
Who was an important advocate of Portuguese expansion from 1415 to 1460?
answer
Prince Henry the Navigator
question
What was a long-term consequence of the catastrophic bubonic plague in Europe?
answer
The plague stimulated exploration for new marketplaces.
question
How did King Charles I (later Holy Roman Emperor Charles V) and his successors use the wealth of New Spain?
answer
To consolidate the largest empire in Europe
question
Martin Luther and the Catholic Church disagreed on
answer
how salvation could be gained.
question
What was the result of Charles V's and Philip II's extensive warfare?
answer
The majority of Spaniards became impoverished.
question
Exploration and territorial expansion became popular with Europeans in the fifteenth century because
answer
monarchs hoped to enlarge their power.
question
Which technological advance aided European explorers by 1400?
answer
The compass
question
Christopher Columbus, like most educated Europeans, believed that
answer
the earth was spherical and could therefore be circumnavigated.
question
How did Ferdinand and Isabella react to Columbus's first voyage?
answer
They believed Spain could challenge Portuguese dominance of the seas.
question
In the early 1500s, Martin Waldseemüller was among the very first to understand that
answer
there was a continent that existed separate from Europe and Asia.
question
Which factor helped the Spaniards conquer the Mexicans in the sixteenth century?
answer
A smallpox epidemic ravaged the Mexicans.
question
How did Spain benefit from settling Florida in the mid-sixteenth century?
answer
The settlement protected Spanish ships from pirates.
question
Which European power dominated the New World during the 1500s?
answer
Spain, because it had the most colonial possessions