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Ch1: History of Microbiology

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Biogenesis
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the production of living organisms from other living organisms
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Francesco Redi
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set up an experiment to disprove spontaneous generation of maggots.
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Lazzaro Spallanzani
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he showed that broth that was heated after being put into a sealed flask did not develop microbial growth.
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Louis Pasteur
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1)Microorganisms can be present in nonliving matter (even in air). 2)Spontaneous generation disproved. 3)Heat can destroy microbes
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Joseph Lister (1860s)
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1. Used a disinfectant (phenol) to clean wounds, surgical dressings and instruments 2. Large decrease in wound infections 3. Concept of Asepsis (lack of germs) finally accepted
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The cell theory states that ________ are made up of cells. A. archaea B. all living things C. plants D. protozoa E. animals
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all living things
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In Pasteur’s swan-neck flask experiment, the importance of the S-shaped curves in the flasks was twofold. The curves allowed entry of air, and yet excluded ________. A. heat B. airborne bacteria C. nutrients D. broth E. oxygen
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airborne bacteria
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Pasteurization was first developed to kill ________ in wine. A. all bacteria B. disease-causing bacteria C. antibiotic-producing bacteria D. endospore-producing bacteria E. spoilage bacteria
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spoilage bacteria
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Robert Koch’s studies on Bacillus anthracis established a sequence of experimental steps to prove that microbes ________. A. degrade toxic wastes B. can be altered to produce products such as human insulin C. control insect pests D. cause disease E. recycle elements such as nitrogen
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cause disease
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An exposure to ________ protects against infection with smallpox. A. normal microbiota B. antibody C. chemotherapy D. penicillin E. cowpox
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cowpox
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Ehrlich searched for a/an ________. This is a chemical that would hunt down and destroy a pathogen without harming the infected host. A. vital force B. magic bullet C. animalcule D. pathogen E. vaccine
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magic bullet
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The usefulness of antibiotics is hampered by ________. A. difficulties encountered in mass production B. the limited types of antibiotic available C. an antibiotic’s lack of specificity for bacterial versus animal cells D. their inability to kill specific bacteria E. the emergence of antibiotic-resistant bacteria
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the emergence of antibiotic-resistant bacteria
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All life can be classified into three domains ________. A. Carnivores, Herbivores, Omnivores B. Bacteria, Fungi, Protozoa C. Eukaryotes, Prokaryotes, Viruses D. Animalae, Plantae, Microbes E. Bacteria, Archaea, Eukarya
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Bacteria, Archaea, Eukarya
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Which of the following is characteristic of bacteria? A. Bacteria live in extreme environments, including pH, temperature, and pressure extremes. B. Bacteria reproduce by a cell division process known as mitosis. C. Bacteria lack a membrane-bound nucleus. D. Bacteria have DNA or RNA, but not both. E. Bacteria have cellulose or chitin in their cell walls.
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Bacteria lack a membrane-bound nucleus
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All of the following are eukaryotes except ________. A. helminths B. bacteria C. algae D. fungi E. protozoa
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bacteria
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A new microorganism has been isolated from hot springs in Yellowstone National Park. It consists of single cells, which appear to lack a nucleus. Chemical analysis shows the presence of both DNA and RNA in the cytoplasm and pseudomurein in the cell wall. In which of the following groups will this organism be classified? A. Archaea B. Fungi C. Bacteria D. Protists E. Plants
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Archaea
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Placing the DNA from an animal cell into the genome of a bacterium will allow the bacterium to produce an animal product. This new piece of DNA is referred to as ________. A. the hereditary material B. an enzyme C. conjugation product D. the genetic code E. recombinant DNA
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recombinant DNA
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Which of the following properties are true of both bacteria and viruses? A. Both are surrounded by a protein coat. B. Both use a molecule of nucleic acid to determine heredity. C. Both have cell walls composed of peptidoglycan. D. Both contain DNA and RNA. E. Both can replicate independently
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Both use a molecule of nucleic acid to determine heredity.
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Overuse and misuse of antibiotics has ________. A. selected for antibiotic-resistant strains of bacteria and increased their frequency in both the hospital environment and the community B. directly caused mutations in bacteria that enable them to destroy the antibiotic C. caused bacteria to become resistant to household disinfectants such as chlorine bleach D. caused bacteria to acquire virulence factors and become more deadly E. caused viruses to become resistant to a variety of antibiotics
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selected for antibiotic-resistant strains of bacteria and increased their frequency in both the hospital environment and the community
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Only a small percentage of microbes __________. A. maintain balance between chemicals in the environment B. are pests that cause devastating crop diseases C. produce important products for living organisms, such as oxygen and vitamins D. cause disease
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cause disease
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Which of the following are true of scientific names assigned to living organisms? A. The scientific name is always underlined or italicized. B. The scientific name often includes the common name, such as human for our own species. C. The scientific name is made up of a single kingdom name. D. The entire scientific name is always capitalized.
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The scientific name is always underlined or italicized.
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An organism is found in a deep-sea vent where the temperature is very high and the mineral content very unusual. The organism is unicellular, has no apparent nucleus, and has a cell wall but no peptidoglycan. This organism would be classified as which of the following types of organisms? A. archaea B. bacteria C. algae D. virus
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archaea
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All of the following describe a major feature used to classify organisms into to three domains (Bacteria, Archaea and Eukarya) EXCEPT __________. A. presence or absence of peptidoglycan B. presence or absence of a nucleus C. presence or absence of DNA D. nutritional and metabolic factors
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presence or absence of DNA
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Hooke and van Leeuwenhoek helped to create the basis of the cell theory by __________. A. observing and documenting cells using microscopes to visualize the invisible structure of living things B. proving that living organisms originate spontaneously from nonliving materials C. developing industrial products using microorganisms D. clarifying the connection between disease and microorganisms
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observing and documenting cells using microscopes to visualize the invisible structure of living things
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Which of the following were instrumental in DISPROVING spontaneous generation? A. Pasteur’s experiments using a specialized swan-necked flask that prevented microbes from entering flasks open to the air B. Needham’s experiments showing that even boiled vials of meat broth, when covered, became cloudy, teeming with microorganisms after a few days C. Aristotle’s observation that some living things just appeared, such as maggots on rotting meat D. Spallanzani’s experiment in which flasks of meat broth were boiled and then melted shut, preventing the passage of air altogether.
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Pasteur’s experiments using a specialized swan-necked flask that prevented microbes from entering flasks open to the air
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Aseptic technique is a standard lab practice that includes all of the following EXCEPT __________. A. using careful methods to sterilize equipment used to transfer and isolate colonies B. preventing contamination of unwanted microbes present on solids, in liquids, and in the air C. elimination of all oxygen during any processes to prevent contamination D. preventing airborne contaminants from accessing nutrient-rich environments in cultures
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elimination of all oxygen during any processes to prevent contamination
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Koch’s postulates are the essential foundation for which of the following? A. the steps that relate a specific microbe to a specific disease (etiology) B. the experiments leading to the development of the scientific method C. the process used to develop pasteurization D. the experiments leading to the germ theory of disease
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the steps that relate a specific microbe to a specific disease (etiology)
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For which of the following can Koch’s postulates be used to identify the etiologic agent as the cause of the disease? A. Streptococcus pyogenes, the organism that causes strep throat, which can be cultured on blood agar B. allergies C. HIV (human immunodeficiency virus), the agent causing AIDS D. Treponema pallidum, the causative agent of syphilis, which cannot be grown in the laboratory
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Streptococcus pyogenes, the organism that causes strep throat, which can be cultured on blood agar
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Jenner’s work with vaccinations depended on which of the following? A. selecting a microbe that could easily evade the immune system B. trusting that the body produced invisible agents that effectively overcame an invisible microbe C. exposing patients to the exact pathogen he was trying to protect them from D. selecting a pathogen that was a bacterium
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trusting that the body produced invisible agents that effectively overcame an invisible microbe
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Which of the following is true about antibiotics? A. Previously treatable microbes have become resistant to some antibiotics. B. Antibiotics kill pathogenic microbes and never affect human cells. C. Antibiotics are strong chemicals that resist microbial enzymes, retaining antimicrobial activity at all times. D. Antibiotics kill a wide range of organisms, including viruses.
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Previously treatable microbes have become resistant to some antibiotics.
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Pasteur discovered that microbes can cause food spoilage. His solution to protect wine from spoiling was a process called pasteurization, which is based on what principle? A. the destruction of all microbes in the wine B. addition of specific disinfectants and food preservatives that prevent the spoilage C. heating beer and wine just enough to kill those organisms causing the spoilage D. filtration of the wine to remove all microbes
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heating beer and wine just enough to kill those organisms causing the spoilage
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All of the following factors contribute to the threat of emerging infectious diseases (EIDs) EXCEPT __________. A. evolutionary changes to existing organisms through genetic changes B. Increased human exposure to new, unusual infectious agents in areas that are undergoing ecological changes, such as deforestation and construction. C. vaccinations against various types of childhood diseases D. spread of known diseases to new geographic regions or populations by modern transportation
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vaccinations against various types of childhood diseases
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Which of the following processes are beneficial activities of microorganisms? A. recycling elements in the environment B. decomposing sewage C. producing foods and chemicals D. all of these
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all of these
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Which of the following best describes gene therapy? A. use of microbes to recycle nitrogen from the air into the soil B. use of microbes to control pests C. use of microbes for bioremediation D. use of a harmless virus to insert a gene in a host cell
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use of a harmless virus to insert a gene in a host cell
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Which of the following is correctly matched? A. Fleming and antimicrobials B. Erhlich and vaccinations C. Pasteur and antisepsis D. Koch and microscopy
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Fleming and antimicrobials
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How was Pasteur’s experiment able, once and for all, to disprove the theory of spontaneous generation? A. Pasteur brought the broth in his experiment to a boil; other experimenters only heated the broth. B. Previous experimenters used a different broth than Pasteur did. C. Previous experimenters excluded air from the sterile broth. Pasteur’s approach excluded particles in the air from reaching the broth, but still allowed air to reach the broth. D. All of the above reasons contributed to Pasteur’s disproving the theory of spontaneous generation.
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Previous experimenters excluded air from the sterile broth. Pasteur’s approach excluded particles in the air from reaching the broth, but still allowed air to reach the broth.
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Robert Hooke’s observation of the individual units in thin layers of cork tissue led to the development of _______ theory.
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cell
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Pasteur, Bassi, and Lister made discoveries showing the relationship between microbes and diseases. These discoveries led to the ______.
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germ theory of disease
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Lister knew that carbolic acid (phenol) kills bacteria. He used it as the first _____
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disinfectant
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The protection from disease provided by vaccination is called _______.
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immunity
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The theory of spontaneous generation has been disproven and replaced with the concept that living cells arise only from preexisting cells. This is the concept of ________
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biogenesis
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The _________ are unicellular, eukaryotic microbes that move by pseudopods, flagella, or cilia.
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protozoa
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Methods that prevent contamination of materials by unwanted microbes are called ______ techniques.
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aseptic
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_______ involves the ability afforded by genetic engineering to insert a missing gene or replace a defective gene in a human cell.
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Gene therapy
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________ disease is one in which pathogens invade a susceptible host.
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Infectious
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True/False Antoni van Leeuwenhoek was the first to observe microbes.
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True
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True/False The theory of biogenesis is the same as the theory of spontaneous generation
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False
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True/False The Golden Age of microbiology began with the work of Louis Pasteur and closed with the discovery of HIV.
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False
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True/False In a nomenclature system designed by Carolus Linnaeus, each living organism is assigned two names.
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True
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True/False Examples of fungi include the yeasts, molds, and mushrooms.
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True
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True/False Flagella are appendages that allow locomotion in bacteria.
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True
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True/False Mucous membranes provide a barrier to infectious disease.
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True
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True/False E. coli O157:H7 is part of the normal microbiota in the human large intestine.
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False
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True/False The vast majority of microbes are harmful to humans or plants.
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False
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True/False In a nomenclature system designed by Carolus Linnaeus, each living organism is assigned two names.
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True
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Ehrlich
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developed arsenic compound to combat syphilis
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Fannie Hesse
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suggested agar be used in media
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Fleming
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Discovered penicillin
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Gram
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developed a method of staining bacteria to distinguish them
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Ivanowski
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first to discover viruses
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Jenner
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Developed vaccine against smallpox
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Koch
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Developed pure culture technique and streak plate Discovered microbe that causes anthrax Discovered microbe that causes tuberculosis
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Muller
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Classification of microbes
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Neisse
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Discovered microbe that causes gonorrhea
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Semmelweiss
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developed hand washing technique to prevent spread of infection in hospitals
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van Leeuwenhoek
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First study of bacteria and use of a microscope
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Koch Postulates
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1) Pathogen must be present in all disease cases 2) Isolate pathogen, cultivate in pure culture 3) Inoculate into susceptible animal, initiate disease symptoms 4) Re-isolate pathogen, confirm it’s the same pathogen
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Spontaneous Generation
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the mistaken idea that living things arise from nonliving sources
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Viruses 1. Pathogenic? 2. Large/small? 3. What is the core made of?
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1. Yes 2. Small 3. The core is made of nucleic acid
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When are viruses considered alive?
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Viruses are considered liveing OLNY when they multiply in the host cell they infect.
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Bacillus
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rod shaped bacteria
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coccus
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any spherical or nearly spherical bacteria
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spiral
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twisted curved or corkscrew
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Binary fission
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a form of asexual reproduction in which one cell divides to form two identical cells
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Scientific Nomenclature
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take the Genus then species, capitalize the genus only, and italicize both
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strains
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group of cells which come from the same cells. Pure culture
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Name taxons in order
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1. Domain 2. Kingdom 3. Phylum 4. Class 5. Order 6. Genus 7. Species
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Microbiology
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the study of organisms too small to be seen with the eye alone
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Taxonomy
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the science of describing, naming and classifying organisms
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Five Kingdoms
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monera, protista, fungi, plantae, and animalia
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Three Domains
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Bacteria, Archaea, Eukarya
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fermentation
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the breakdown of carbohydrates by enzymes, bacteria, yeasts, or mold in the absence of oxygen
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pasteurization
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a process of heating food to a temperature that is high enough to kill most harmful bacteria without changing the taste of the food
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antibiotic
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compound that blocks the growth and reproduction of bacteria
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mycology
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The study of fungi
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parasitology
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the study of parasites
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genomics
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study of whole genomes, including genes and their functions
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virology
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study of viruses
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biofilm
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A surface-coating colony of one or more species of prokaryotes that engage in metabolic cooperation.
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gene therapy
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a technique that places a gene into a cell to correct a hereditary disease or to improve the genome
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Which of the following is not a characteristic of bacteria? A. are prokaryotic B. have peptidoglycan cell walls C. have the same shape D. Grow by binary fission E. have the ability to move
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have the same shape
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Which of the following is the most important elemtent of Koch’s germ theory of disease? The animal shows disease symptoms when A. the animal has been in contact with a sick animal B. the animal has a lowered resistance C. a microorganism is observed in the animal D. a microorganism is inoculated into the animal E. Microorganism can be cultured from the animal
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a microorganism is inoculated into the animal
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Recombinant DNA is A. DNA in bacteria B. the study of how genes work C. the DNA resulting when genes of two different organisms are mixed D. the use of bacteria in the production of foods E. the production of proteins by genes
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the DNA resulting when genes of two different organisms are mixed
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Which of the following statements is the best definition of biogenesis? A. Nonliving matter gives rise to living organisms B. Living cells can only arise from preexisting cells C. A vital force is necessary for life D. Air is necesary for living organisms E. Microorganisms can be generated from nonliving matter
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Living cells can only arise from preexisting cells
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Which of the following is a beneficial activity of microorganisms? A. Some microorganisms are used as food for humans B. Some microorganisms use carbon dioxide C. Some microorganisms provide nitrogen for plant growth D. Some microorganisms are used in sewage treatment processes E. All of the above
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All of the above
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It has been said that bacteria are essential for the existence of life on earth. Which of the following is the essential function performed by bacteria? A. control insect population B. Directly provide food for humans C. decompose organic material and recycle elements D. cause disease E. produce human hormones such as insulin
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decompose organic material and recycle elements
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Spallanzani’s conclusion about spontaneous generation was challenged because Lavoisier had just shown that oxygen was the vital component of air. Which of the following statements is true? A. All life requires air B. Only disease-causing organisms require air C. Some microbes do not require air D. Pasteur kept air out of his biogenesis experiments E. Lavoisier was mistaken
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Some microbes do not require air
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Which of the following statements about E. coli is false? A. E. coli was the first disease-causing bacterium identified by Koch B. E. coli is part of the normal microbiota of humans C. E. coli is beneficial in human intestines D. A disease-causing strain of E. coli causes bloody diarrhea E. none of the above
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E. coli was the first disease-causing bacterium identified by Koch
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Bacteria
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are procaryotic cells with peptidoglycan in their cell walls – have formylmethionine as the first amino acid in each protein in DNA – most exhibit antibiotic sensitivity
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Archaea
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procaryotic cells with NO peptidoglycan in cell walls – have methionine as 1st amino acid in each protein in DNA – not usually sensitive to antibiotics – “extremists”
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Eucarya
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eucaryotic cells with a cell wall present (composition varies) – will have methionine in each protien in DNA – NOT sensitive to anitbiotics