Ch. 8, 9: Photosynthesis and Cellular Respiration Study Guide

aerobic cellular respiration
The process that releases energy by breaking down glucose and other food molecules in the presence of oxygen

mitochondria
Organelle in which the main part of cellular respiration occurs

C6H12O6 + 6O2 = 6CO2 + 6H2O + energy
Reaction of cellular respiration

aerobic
Prescence of oxygen

anaerobic
Absence of oxygen

aerobic
The most efficient way of doing cellular respiration

anaerobic
The least efficient way of doing cellular respiration

glycolysis
The anaerobic breakdown of glucose to pyruvic acid, which makes a small amount of energy available to cells in the form of ATP

2
Net gain of glycolysis ATP production

pyruvate, ATP, NADH
Glycolysis products (2 molecules of each)

krebs cycle
Second stage of cellular respiration in which pyruvic acid is broken down into carbon dioxide in a series of energy-extracting reactions

FAD+, NAD+
2 carriers of hydrogen ions

FADH2
FAD carries H ions to form __________________

NADH
NAD carries H ions to form __________________

electron transport chain
Wwhen energized electrons and positive H ions are passed along a series of enzymes

oxygen
A waste gas produced by plants during photosynthesis which is used by all the plants and animals during cellular respiration; the final electron acceptor

H2O
Oxygen bonds with the H ions that have just transfered through the ATP synthase to form ______, a waste of cellular respiration

2
Glycolysis produces ____ ATPs.

32
Electron transport chain produces ____ ATPs.

2
Krebs cycle produces ____ ATPs.

36
Total amount of ATPs produced in cellular respiration; amount of ATPs produced from one molecule of glucose

ATP synthase
Hydrogen ions pass through this, spinning to power ADPs to ATPs

adenosine diphosphate
ADP stands for

adenosine triphosphate
ATP stands for

glucose, 2 ATPs, NAD
Input of glycolysis

2 pyruvate, 4 ATPs, NADH
Output of glycolysis

krebs cycle, mitochondria
If oxygen is present after glycolysis, then the ________ occurs in the _________

fermentation, cytoplasm
If no oxygen is present after glycolysis, then ________ occurs in the _________

cytoplasm
Glycolysis occurs in the _______________

2 pyruvate
Input for Krebs Cycle

hydrogen, high energy
FADH and NADH are used in the ETC to deliver ________ ions with __________ electrons.

lactic acid (fermentation)
Fermentation that occurs in animals; product builds up in muscles; produces 2 ATPs

alcohol fermentation
Fermentation that occurs in plants and yeast; product builds used to make beer; produces 2 ATPs and CO2

van helmont
Conducted an experiment to find out if plants grew by taking material out of the soil; concluded that most of the mass was gained from the water (partially correct)

(joseph) priestly
Scientist whose problem was what substances are produced by a plant as it grows; when he used a jar and candle the flame went out but when he added mint the candle remained lit. Concluded that something in air was necessary to keep a candle burning and plants produce that substance.

(jan) ingenhousz
Scientist who questioned: Can a plant produce oxygen any time of the day? He experimented to see if aquatic plants produced oxygen bubbles in the light but not in the dark. He concluded that light is necessary for a plant to produce oxygen

carbon dioxide
Along with water this is a reactant of photosynthesis

light energy
This is either absorbed by a pigment, reflected by a pigment, or transmitted through a pigment

pigments
Plants gather the sun’s energy with light-absorbing molecules called __________

chlorophyll
The main type of pigment in plants, is located in the chloroplasts

chlorophyll a and chlorophyll b
What are the two types of chlorophyll?

carotenoids
A class of mainly yellow, orange, or red fat-soluble pigments, including carotene, which give color to plant parts such as ripe tomatoes and autumn leaves

accessory (pigments)
This group of pigments allow plants to absorb other wavelengths of light which gives plant more energy; anything other than chlorophyll

light reactions
The first part of photosynthesis that absorbs energy from the sunlight and then transfers energy in the form of ATP and NADPH to the light-independent reactions

O2
A byproduct of the light reactions of photosynthesis

stroma
ATP and NADPH from Light reactions are sent to the ______ in the chloroplast to be used by the CALVIN cycle

thylakoid
A flattened membrane sac inside the chloroplast, used to convert light energy into chemical energy. Where the light dependent reactions occurs.

photosynthesis
What begins when sunlight is absorbed by chlorophyll, exciting the electrons

calvin cycle
The second of the two major reactions of photosynthesis; energy from ATP and NADPH is used to build high-energy compounds such as sugars

electron transport chain
ETC stands for

chloroplast
This organelle captures energy from sunlight and converts it to chemical energy

sun
Main source of energy for life on Earth

chemosynthesis
Process by which some organisms, such as certain bacteria, use chemical energy to produce carbohydrates

autotrophs
Organisms that obtain energy from light or inorganic compounds

heterotrophs
Organisms that must get energy from food instead of directly from sunlight or inorganic substances

adenosine triphosphate
what ATP stands for

calvin cycle
aka light independent reactions