Ch: 7 Physical and Cognitive Development in early childhood

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Most U.S. children average ___ hours of sleep by age 5.
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11
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Sleep disturbances
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tend to run in families and may be tied to separation anxiety.
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Enuresis that persists beyond age __ to __ may be a sign of poor self concept.
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8 to 10
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By age 3, the brain is approximately ___% of adult weight.
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90%
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age 2 drawing is
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scribbles
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age 3 drawing is
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shapes
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age 4-5 drawing is
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pictorial
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A tendency toward obesity can be herditary, but main factors are
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environmental
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Factors in prevention of obesity
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1. evening meal as family 2. adequate sleep 3. < 2 hours of TV
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Effects of undernutrition can be lessened with improved diet, but also with
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interaction with parents
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_______ are the leading cause of death after infancy throughout adolescence and childhood.
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Accidents
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Most deaths from injuries among preschoolers occur in the home from
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fires, drowning in bathtubs, suffocation, poisoning, and falls.
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In 2007, ____% of all homeless people were families with children.
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23%
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Preoperational stage (Jean Piaget)
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age 2-7, characterized by expansion in symbolic thought
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Advances in symbolic thought are accompanied by a growing understanding of
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causality, identities, categorization, and number.
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symbolic function
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the ability to use symbols for maps, photos, verbal communication (at least age 3)
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rudimentary concept of number at age
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4 1/2 months
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Bye age ___, children from middle-income families have markedly better number skills than low SES children, and their advantage continues.
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4 years
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centration
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tendency to focus on one aspect of a situation and neglect others
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decenter
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ability to think about several aspects of a situation at one time
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conservation
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the fact that two things that are equal remain so if their appearance is altered, as long as nothing is added or taken away.
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Irreversibility
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failure to understand that an operation or action can go in two or
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Between ages __ and __, children come to understand the thinking that goes on inside the mind.
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3 and 5
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At age __ children consistently pass false belief tasks.
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4 years
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At age __, children realize that two people who see or hear the same thing may interpret it differently.
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6 years
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At about age __ and ___, children distinguish between real and imagined events.
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18 months and 3 years
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____ and ____ contribute to an understanding of thoughts and emotions.
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Social competence and language developement.
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Encoding
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putting information in a folder to be filed in memory and attaching a label so it will be easier to find later
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Storage
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putting the folder away in the filing cabinet
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Sensory memory
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temporary holding tank for incoming sensory information
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The growth of working memory permits the development of ______________.
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executive function
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Working memory is controlled by the amount of _______ paid to it.
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attention; if attention wanders, the material is lost
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Recognition
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ability to identify something encountered before
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Recall
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ability to reproduce knowledge from memory.
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Generic memory
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begins at age 2 and produces a script or general outline of a familiar, repeated event, such as having lunch at Grandma’s.
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Episodic memory
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awareness of having experienced a particular event at a specific time and place. They are temporary unless they occur multiple times, and then they are moved to generic memory.
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Factors in child memory retention
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1. Uniqueness of event 2. Active participation 3. self-awareness 4. the way adults talk with a child about a memory
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A parent with a _________ style have children that recall richer memories.
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high elaborative style
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Stanford-Binet Intelligence Scales
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is for ages 2+ and measures fluid reasoning, knowledge, visual-spatial processing, and working memory.
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Wechsler Preschool and Primary Scale of Intelligence (WPPSI-III)
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separate levels for 2 1/2 to 4 and 4 to 7 verbal and non-verbal processing, receptive versus expressive vocabulary, and processing speed.
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IQ is not a measure of fixed inborn intelligence, but rather
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a measure of how well a child can do tasks at a certain time in comparison with other children of the same age.
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Twin and adoption studies suggest that _____ rather than ____ have the strongest influence in early childhood, and this influence diminishes by adolescence.
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family life rather than genetics
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The correlation between SES and ___ is well-documented.
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IQ
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Dynamic zone of proximal development (ZPD) tests, according to Vygotskyan theory, provide
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better measure of intellectual potential (rather than what they already know).
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By age 3 the average child uses ____ words.
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900-1,000
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At age 6, a child knows about ____ words.
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2,600
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By high school, a teen may know up to
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80,000 words.
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fast mapping
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process by which a child absorbs the meaning of a new word after hearing it once or twice in conversation.
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pragmatics
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the practical knowledge of how to use language to communicate.
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Vygotsky saw private speech as
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a special form of communication: communication with the self and not egocentric.
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About __% of preschool children show speech and language delays.
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5 to 8%
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Factors in speech delays are
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head and facial abnormalities premature birth family history SES factors and other dev delays problem with fast mapping
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Emergent literacy
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1. oral language skills 2. specific phonological skills (linking letters with sounds)
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Exposure to __ during the first few years of life may be associated with poorer cognitive development.
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TV
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The Montessori method is based on
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the belief that children’s natural intelligence involves rational, spiritual, and empirical aspects. Children learn independently at their own pace. There are multiage classrooms and self-chosen tasks.
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The Reggio Emilia approach
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encourages nonviolent dialogues, developing problem solving skills, and promoting close relationships with teachers and classmates. Learning is purposeful but less defined.
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Compensatory preschool programs are designed to
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aid children who would otherwise enter school poorly prepared to learn.
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The best known compensatory school is
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Project Head Start, a federally funded program launched in 1965.
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Goals of compensatory schools like Head Start are:
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to enhance cognitive skills, improve physical health, and to foster self-confidence and social skills.
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Programs that offer a mix of ____ and ____ showed better results than those that concentrated on just one.
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Head Start School and family services
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The process by which nerve cells are covered and insulated with a layer of fat cells which increases the speed at which information moves through the nervous system is called _______.
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myelination
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What is Piaget’s second stage, lasting from approximately ages 2 – 7 during which children represent the world through words, images, drawing and symbolic thought, reasoning emerges and egocentrisim is present.
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preoperational stage
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Approach that emphasizes the social contexts of learning and that knowledge is mutually built and constructed.
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social constructivist approach
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Awareness of one’s own mental processes and the mental processes of others.
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theory of mind
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Education that involves the whole child by considering both the child’s physical, cognitive and social development and the child’s needs, interests, and learning styles.
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child-centered kindergarten
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Piaget’s “second substage of preoperational thought, in which children begin to use primitive reasoning and want to know the answers to all sorts of questions.
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intuitive thought substage
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Educational philosophy in which children are given considerable freedom and spontaneity in choosing activities and are allowed to move from one activity to another as they desire .
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Montessori approach
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Government-funded program designed to provide children from low-income families the opportunity to acquire the skills and experiences important for school success.
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Project Head Start
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Education that focuses on the typical developmental patterns of children and the uniqueness of each child.
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developmentally appropriate practice
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Piaget’s first substage of preoperational thought, in which the child gains the ability to mentally represent and object that is not present.
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symbolic function stage
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Vygotsky’s term for tasks too difficult for children to master alone but that can be mastered with assistance.
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zone of proximal development
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Piaget’s second stage during which children begin to represent the world with words, images, and drawings and symbolic thought goes beyond simple connections of sensory information and physical action.
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preoperational stage
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What are the two most important contributors to height differences? a. nutrition and hormonal status b. ethnic origin and heredity c. hormonal status and heredity d. nutrition and ethnic origin
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d. nutrition and ethnic origin
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Myelination improves the efficiency of the central nervous system in the same way that _____ a. talking to an infant speeds the baby’s ability to produce a first word b. reducing the distance between two children playing catch reduces the time it takes for a baseball to travel from one child to the other c. the ingestion of certain chemicals (for example, steroids) can improve overall muscle development d. the insulation around an electrical extension cord improves its efficiency
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d. the insulation around an electrical extension cord improves its efficiency
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Research using brain scans has found that between ages 3 and 15 years, _____ a. the overall size of the brain shows dramatic growth b there are dramatic changes in local patterns within the brain c. the overall size of the brain decreases d. many diseases that are manifested later in life can be seen early on
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b there are dramatic changes in local patterns within the brain
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The most rapid growth in the brain for children between ages 3 and 6 years takes place in the _______. a. frontal lobe areas b. temporal lobe areas c. parietal lobes . d. occipital lobe
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a. frontal lobe areas
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An example of fine motor skills is _______ a. bouncing a ball b. walking a straight line c. sorting blocks d. writing your name
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d. writing your name
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Which of the following statements about children and being overweight is FALSE? a.The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention has an obesity category for children and adolescents. b. Young Latino children are twice as likely to be overweight as African-American and non-Latino White young children. c. The United States has the second highest rate of childhood obesity compared to 34 other countries. d. Type II diabetes has been seen in 5-year-olds in the U.S.
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a.The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention has an obesity category for children and adolescents.
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If your child is overweight, what can you do to help him the most? a. Give him snacks only when he has been good. b. Put him on a low-carbohydrate diet. c. Encourage him to have daily physical activity. d. Punish him when you find him eating snacks.
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c. Encourage him to have daily physical activity.
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Children in preschools get about: a. 200% of the physical activity recommended for their age. b. 100% of the physical activity recommended for their age. c. 50% of the physical activity recommended for their age. d. 10% of the physical activity recommended for their age.
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c. 50% of the physical activity recommended for their age.
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Iron deficiency anemia results from failure to eat adequate amounts of: a. dark green vegetables b. quality grain products c. quality meats d. Both a and c.
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d. Both a and c.
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The leading cause of death in young children in the U.S. is: a. cancer b. falls c. cardiovascular disease d. motor vehicle accidents
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d. motor vehicle accidents
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Which of the following statements regarding HIV-AIDS is TRUE? a. The knowledge that there are ways to avoid AIDS does not vary based on education level. b. In the last decade, the rate of children dying of HIV-AIDS has dropped. c. Deaths in young children due to HIV-AIDS especially occur in countries with high rates of poverty and low levels of education. d. All of the above are true.
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c. Deaths in young children due to HIV-AIDS especially occur in countries with high rates of poverty and low levels of education.
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A young child who gains the ability to mentally represent an object that is not currently present is in the: a. symbolic function substage b. intuitive thought substage c. tertiary circular reactions substage d. preoperational substage
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a. symbolic function substage (2-4 yrs old) *includes animism & egocentrism
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Three-year-old Henry tripped on an uneven sidewalk and ran crying to his mother, saying, “The sidewalk made me fall on purpose!” Henry is demonstrating _____ a. animism b. egocentrism c. centration d. conservation
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a. animism *animism – the belief that inanimate objects have life-like qualities and are capable of action (2-4 yrs old)
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When her father asked Kim how she concluded that two apples and two apples make five apples, she believed her answer was correct and confidently replied, “I know it because I know it!” Kim is in which substage of development? a. primary circular reactions b. tertiary circular reactions c. symbolic function d. intuitive thought
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d. intuitive thought
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A child’s lack of ability to conserve is often the result of ____ a. egocentrism b. centration c. concentration d. animism
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b. centration *centration is common in 2-7 yrs old, failing the conservation-of-liquid task is a sign that children are at the pre-operational stage
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centration
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focusing attention on one characteristic to the exclusion of all others the tendency to focus on one salient aspect of a situation and neglect other, possibly relevant aspects. limitation of pre-operational thought
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Professor Rosen showed 4-year-old Clarence two balls of clay that were the same size. As he watched, she rolled one of the balls into a snake shape, neither adding nor taking away any clay. When asked if both the ball and the “snake” had the same amount of clay, Clarence responded that the snake had more. This demonstrates Clarence’s _____ a. imagination b. inability to reverse actions mentally c. shape preferences d. mature conservation abilities
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b. inability to reverse actions mentally *due to centration occurred in pre-operational stage between 2-7 yrs old
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According to Gelman’s research, children fail conservation tasks because they _____ a. cannot think about more than one aspect of a task b. fail to attend to important features of the tasks c. cannot mentally reverse the sequence of actions in the tasks d. do not understand why researchers are testing them
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b. fail to attend to important features of the tasks
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Piaget’s 4 cognitive stages
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sensorimotor pre-operational concrete operational formal operational
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Lev Vygotsky argued that some tasks are too difficult for children to handle alone but can be done with the help of someone more skilled. Such tasks ____ a. fall into the zone of proximal development b. are difficult because they are not salient to the child c. are best taught by having the child work with classmates who are also having difficulty d. will be frustrating for the child and should be left to a time when the child can more easily accomplish them
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a. fall into the Zone of Proximal Development (ZPD)
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How does a good teacher incorporate Lev Vygotsky’s Zone of Proximal Development into classroom setting?
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A good teacher should understand every child has different Zone of of Proximal Development. In order to avoid boredom and frustration in the classroom, a good teacher should design an educational scaffolding strategy that incorporates Lev Vygotsky’s ZPD concept. With the the educator and more capable peers in a social enviroment, children learn and advance.
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Lev Vygotsky vs Piaget
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Piaget Children are only able to perform in a certain cognitive stage. Children CANNOT learn until their pre-operational stages are developed, they are ready to learn. Development leads learning Lev Vygotsky Children CAN learn through knowledge by a teacher scaffolding a lesson and engaging students in group discussion. It’s not about being ready. It’s about providing proper scaffolding support for them to learn Learning leads devemplent
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When children’s unsystematic, disorganized, spontaneous thoughts meet with a skilled helper’s more systematic, logical, rational thoughts, this is called: a. conservation b. a dialogue c. inner speech d. centration
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b. a dialogue
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Lev Vygotsky’s beliefs about language and thought can be summed up by which one of the following statements? a. Children who engage in high levels of private speech are usually socially competent. b. Children use internal speech earlier than they use external speech. c. Private speech is egocentric and reflects immaturity. d. Language and thought initially develop together and then become independent.
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a. Children who engage in high levels of private speech are usually socially competent. *Lev Vygotsky is a social constructivist
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Recent research on private speech has found all of the following statements to be true except a. Children use private speech more when tasks are difficult. b. Children use private speech more following errors. c. Children use private speech more when they are not sure how to proceed on a task. d. Children use private speech more when they are egocentric and doing immature tasks.
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d. Children use private speech more when they are egocentric and doing immature tasks.
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Vygotsky believed that a child’s cognitive development while in the classroom was influenced by ________. a. a child’s interactions with a teacher and more skilled classmates b. watching educational programs on television c. the traditions of a child’s ethnic group d. the use of computers to teach math concepts
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a. a child’s interactions with a teacher and more skilled classmates
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An early childhood curriculum that is grounded in Vygotsky’s theory is called: a. Scaffolding University b. ZPD for Me c. Tools of the Mind d. Speak and Think
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c. Tools of the Mind *Created by Elena Bodrova & Deborah (2008) * Use of zone of proximal development, scaffolding, private speech, and shared activity
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Autistic children have difficulty developing _______
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theory of mind
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Which of the following is NOT a common criticism of Vygotsky’s theory? a. He overemphasized the role of language in thinking. b. His emphasis on collaboration might have pitfalls. c. His emphasis on guidance might have pitfalls. d. He under-emphasized the social contexts of learning.
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d. He under-emphasized the social contexts of learning.
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In a class with a mixed age-group of toddlers and preschoolers, one must remember that a toddler typically does not have the ability to _____ a. use language to communicate b. habituate to repeated stimulation c. concentrate on an activity for long periods of time d. have peer relationships
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c. concentrate on an activity for long periods of time
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Jamal is 5 years old. His mother has noticed that his attention capabilities have really changed in the past year or so. She has probably seen all of these changes in his attentional abilities EXCEPT: a. the ability to control attention and pay attention to TV for longer periods b. the ability to attend to relevant instead of salient aspects of a task c. the ability to systematically attend to details of pictures d. the ability to direct attention to what the teacher is saying for the entire school day
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d. the ability to direct attention to what the teacher is saying for the entire school day
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All of the following factors have been found to account for differences in memory performance between younger and older children EXCEPT which one? a. use of rehearsal b. speed and efficiency of processing c. increased intelligence d. all of these are factors accounting for differences in memory performance
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c. increased intelligence
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Which of the following pieces of information about children’s long-term memories is TRUE? a. Suggestibility to suggestion increases with age. b. The tone of voice of an interviewer does not seem to affect the accuracy of the child’s report. c. Children who have low self-concept are more likely to be suggestible. d. Children who have high support from parents are more likely to be suggestible.
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c. Children who have low self-concept are more likely to be suggestible.
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______ consist(s) of deliberate mental activities to improve the processing of information. a. Centration b. Scaffolding c. Suggestibility d. Strategies
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d. Strategies
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All of the following are developmental steps in children’s thoughts about the human mind EXCEPT which one? a. realizing that the mind exists b. realizing that the mind cannot actively construct knowledge c. realizing that there are mental states d. understanding that the mind can represent objects and events accurately or inaccurately
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b. realizing that the mind cannot actively construct knowledge
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A box labeled “crayons” is actually filled with cotton. When 3-year-old Ashley is shown the inside of the box and is then asked what her friend will think is inside the box, what is she likely to say? a. crayons b. cotton c. band-aids d. she will likely give no response because her verbal skills will be too poor
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b. cotton
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Which of the following statements about individual differences in theory of mind is FALSE? a. Children who talk with their parents about feelings frequently at 2 years of age do better on theory of mind tasks. b. Children who frequently engage in pretend play do better on theory of mind tasks. c. Children with more siblings perform better on theory of mind tasks. d. Children who are deaf but have hearing parents do better at theory of mind tasks than do deaf children raised by deaf parents.
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d. Children who are deaf but have hearing parents do better at theory of mind tasks than do deaf children raised by deaf parents.
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The relationship between autism and theory of mind can best be described by which of the following? a. All children with autism have deficits in theory of mind. b. All children with autism have a strong understanding of theory of mind. c. The more high-functioning the child with autism is, typically the better they understand theory of mind. d. The fact that children with autism have difficulty understanding others’ beliefs and emotions is solely due to theory of mind deficits.
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c. The more high-functioning the child with autism is, typically the better they understand theory of mind.
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Overgeneralization of language rules indicates _____ a. failure to apply morphological rules b. children’s guesses about morphological rules c. the use of morphological rules d. all of the above
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c. the use of morphological rules
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Evidence that children understand the rules of their language includes all of the following abilities EXCEPT which one? a. observations of overgeneralizations b. application of rules to nonsense words c. correct word order placement d. ability to talk about things that are not here and not now
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b. application of rules to nonsense words
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Longitudinal research indicates that which of the following is linked to later reading success? a. Phonological awareness b. Theory of mind c. Understanding of pragmatics d. All of the above
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a. Phonological awareness
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Joseph is attending a child-centered kindergarten, so we would expect to see all of these characteristics EXCEPT which one? a. instruction organized around Joseph’s needs, interests, and learning style b. an emphasis on the process of what Joseph is learning c. an emphasis on what Joseph learns d. play as an important aspect of Joseph’s development
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c. an emphasis on what Joseph learns
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Flavia attends a Reggio Emilia-type preschool program (discussed in the chapter’s opening story). We would expect Flavia to experience all of these elements EXCEPT which one? a. little focus on social development and imaginative play b. more focus on topics explored in groups to facilitate a sense of community c. projects that are considered adventures d. parent involvement in activities
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a. little focus on social development and imaginative play
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A criticism of the Montessori approach is: a. It does not foster independence. b. It does not foster the development of cognitive skills. c. It deemphasizes verbal interaction between the teacher and child. d. It deemphasizes freedom in choosing activities.
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c. It deemphasizes verbal interaction between the teacher and child.
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An instructor who uses developmentally appropriate methods for teaching the alphabet might engage in all of the following activities EXCEPT which one? a. have the children recite the alphabet three times a day every day b. use music to teach the alphabet c. use animal names and shapes to teach the alphabet d. use the sandbox to let children draw the letters of the alphabet
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a. have the children recite the alphabet three times a day every day
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Recent research examining the effects of developmentally appropriate curricula on children’s outcomes has found all of these statements to be true EXCEPT: a. Children in developmentally appropriate programs had better math application skills. b. Children in developmentally appropriate programs had better vocabulary skills. c. Children in developmentally appropriate programs had better peer relationships and social skills. d. Children in developmentally appropriate programs had better math computation skills.
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c. Children in developmentally appropriate programs had better peer relationships and social skills.
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Project Head Start was designed to: a. provide low-income children a chance to acquire skills that would help them succeed at school b. assess .tile advantages and disadvantages of preschool educational programs c. give-children a head start on kindergarten work during preschool d. determine the feasibility of starting formal education at an earlier age
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a. provide low-income children a chance to acquire skills that would help them succeed at school
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Which of the following is NOT a current controversy related to early childhood education? a. Whether preschool should be universal in the U.S. b. Whether preschool should be child-centered and constructivist. c. Whether preschool should be academic and direct-instruction oriented. d. Whether preschool should be banned in the U.S.
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d. Whether preschool should be banned in the U.S.
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Schooling for young children in Japan can be described as: a. a program in which children learn skills like persistence, concentration and group cohesion. b. a program of concentrated academic instruction. c. the kind of program most Americans want. d. the typical American preschool.
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a. a program in which children learn skills like persistence, concentration and group cohesion.
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T/F: During the shift from toddler to preschooler, we see an increase in the growth of fatty tissue, which cushions the more active preschooler.
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False
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T/F: During the preschool period, the brain increases in size because of increases in the number and size of nerve endings within and between brain areas.
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True
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T/F: Some brain areas grow in size in early childhood, but other areas experience a dramatic loss of unused cells.
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True
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T/F: Children as young as 5 years of age are now at risk for obesity-related diseases such as diabetes.
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True
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T/F: Kimoni is experiencing iron deficiency anemia, which makes her chronically tired. Her mother takes her to the pediatrician, who is likely to recommend that Kimoni eat more dairy products and fruits.
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False
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The leading cause of death in young children in the United States is poisoning.
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False
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T/F: For such a wealthy and technologically advanced nation, it is surprising to see that the United States has relatively high infant mortality rates. This is believed to be caused by the high rate of infant deaths from HIV (human immunodeficiency virus)/AIDS (acquired immunodeficiency syndrome).
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False
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T/F: When children are in the preoperational period of Piaget’s theory, they cannot mentally think about things without acting them out.
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True
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T/F: On Piaget and Inhelder’s (1969) “three mountains” task, the reason that young children could not exhibit perspective-taking was because of the common logical error of the preoperational period call animism.
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False
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T/F: A child is exhibiting centration when she reports that witches are real and are hiding in her closet.
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False
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T/F: Research has found that once a child can perform conservation of number, he can automatically transfer that skill and perform conservation of mass, volume, area, and so on.
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False
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T/F: In Vygotsky’s zone of proximal development, the lower level of the zone is where the child can solve problems independently.
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True
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T/F: Mrs. Vargas is scaffolding Hector’s learning of a brand new task. To scaffold correctly, she will first start with direct instruction. As Hector gets the hang of the task, she will slowly give less and less guidance.
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True
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T/F: For Vygotsky, private speech is immature and egocentric, but for Piaget, it serves as a valuable tool of thought.
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False
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T/F: Research supports Piaget’s ideas regarding self-talk, showing that Vygotsky’s ideas about private speech were incorrect.
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False
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T/F: In both Piaget’s and Vygotsky’s theories, teachers serve as facilitators and guides rather than as directors of the learning experience.
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True
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T/F: Young children can be led into reporting false events that never happened, even serious things such as inappropriate touching by adults.
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True
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T/F: In general, when trying to remember things young children tend to be fairly good at using strategies such as rehearsal and organization.
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False
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T/F: 5-year-olds tend to have difficulty reporting their own thoughts.
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True
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T/F: Children who do better at executive function tasks do worse at theory of mind tasks.
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False
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T/F: In Jean Berko’s (1958) “Wug” study, it was shown that young children accurately employed morphological rules to nonsense words such as “wug.”
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False
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T/F: When children exhibit displacement during language development, they displace the proper words and use incorrect words for objects.
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False
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T/F: Critics ofthe Montessori approach to early childhood education believe that there is too much focus on imaginative play and not enough emphasis on intellectual activities.
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False
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The majority of Japanese parents believe that the purpose of preschool is to give children experience being members of a group.
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False

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