Ch. 7 & 8

question

Which sociologist coined the term, \”iron law of oligarchy?’
answer

Robert Michels
question

Samantha works in a place that is hierarchical in nature, has written rules, and has written communications and records. Based on these characteristics, what can we conclude about Samantha’s workplace?
answer

Samantha works in a bureaucracy
question

What is the \”rationalization of society?\”
answer

the process of bureaucracies dominating social life
question

what does the Mc Donaldization of society referred to?
answer

The predictability and standardization of every day life
question

becky has placed pictures of her two children the family dog and her summer vacation on the walls of a cubicle by doing so what is Becky most likely trying to accomplish
answer

she’s taking steps to resist alienation
question

One would most likely find bureaucratic alienation to be an issue in which of the following communities?
answer

The Chrysler Corporation
question

The iron law oligarchy often takes hold in voluntary organizations because most of their members are passed true or false?
answer

True
question

although efficient be bureaucracies can also be cold and impersonal true or false?
answer

True
question

once the bureaucracy meets its intended goals it usually breaks up true or false?
answer

false
question

in a bureaucracy promoting people to their level of incompetence is called Parkinson’s law true or false?
answer

false
question

List five differences identified by William Ouchi between US and Japanese corporations:
answer

-hiring, promoting teams – lifetime security – almost total involvement – broad training – decisions made by consensus
question

Group is made up of volunteers who organize on the basis of some mutual interests are called:
answer

voluntary associations
question

The groups in number one are:
answer

can be all the above (local, national, temporary, permanent)
question

which of the following are not a function of all voluntary associations:
answer

they lead the way to social change
question

people who actually promote the group and stand firmly behind its goals are called:
answer

inner circle
question

which of the following best describes the iron lot of oligarchy?
answer

The domination organizations by small self perpetuating elite
question

True or false: the US political parties have fallen prey to the iron law of oligarchy
answer

True
question

according to Rosebeth Moss Kanter what is an aspect of hidden corporate culture?
answer

self-fulfilling stereotypes lead managers to promote workers who are more like themselves
question

_____ is the term Robert Merton used to describe an originally false assertion that became true simply because it was predicted
answer

self-fulfilling prophecy
question

most major companies sponsor diverse city training lectures and workshops for their employees. What is the main reason corporations undertake these efforts?
answer

they increased company profits
question

humanized work settings:
answer

all these characteristics are true (offer more equal access to opportunities, distribute power equally, are more open to decision-making, have flexible rules)
question

True or false: people work more effectively in small groups then and centralize common structure.
answer

True
question

True or false: when employees own all or most of the company stock it aluminates problems between workers and management.
answer

false
question

our current society maybe transforming into a____society.
answer

Biotech
question

The idea that you fission C and practical results should dominate human affairs is called
answer

rationality
question

until recently people have had the____view of life.
answer

traditional
question

according to Carl Marx the change to____affected the way people thought about life
answer

capitalism
question

according to Max Weber it was____that changed the way people viewed the future
answer

religion
question

secondary groups designed to achieve explicit objectives are called:
answer

formal organizations
question

of the following characteristics which of the following least applies to bureaucracies?
answer

personal attention and individualism
question

Meredith works in a corporation where her supervisors ignore her, and her suggestions on how to improve the department in which she works are rejected it without comment. Meredith has begun to feel more like an object rather than a person in the organization. What is the dysfunction of a bureaucracy that Meredith is experiencing?
answer

bureaucratic alienation
question

The March of Dimes was originally formed to cure polio. When the polio vaccine was discovered, the March of Dimes changed its goals to prevent birth defects. Now it’s simply promotes healthier babies as its goals. What is such a change in an organization’s mission called?
answer

goal displacement
question

what term describes the tendency of a bureaucracy to promote its employees to their level of incompetence?
answer

The Peter principle
question

True or false: as a result of their fission C bureaucracies have had few if any flaws
answer

false
question

which sociological concepts is best illustrated by Napoleon Chagnon’s experience with the Yanomamo in the rain forest of Brazil?
answer

The relativity of deviance
question

Who was the sociologist who described the deviants this way: \”it is not the act itself but the reaction to the act, that make something deviant? \”
answer

Howard Becker
question

for deviant act to be classified as a crime, what quality must pertain to it?
answer

it must be a rule written in law
question

Who was the sociologist that use the term stigma to referred to characteristics that discredit people from full social acceptance?
answer

Erving Goffman
question

which concept of culture is credited with making social life possible and behavior predictable?
answer

norms
question

what is the term for all of the groups customary social arrangements that provide predictability in life and which depend on the enforcement of norms?
answer

social order
question

what concept refers to the formal and informal means of enforcing norms?
answer

social control
question

what are the unwritten, taken-for-granted \”rules\” that underlie our every day lives, such as not yelling \”fire\” in crowded classrooms or movie theaters?
answer

background assumptions
question

Who was the sociologist who developed the theory of differential association?
answer

Edwin Sutherland
question

what is the major difference between sociological and psychological theories used to explain deviance?
answer

sociological explanations focus on factors outside the individual, while psychological explanations look for answers within the individual
question

based on his theory about how we learn to either conform or deviate, what would Edwin Sutherland consider as the underlying cause of deviance?
answer

Group association
question

Who was the first sociologist to address the control theory based on Internet outer control’s?
answer

Walter reckless
question

based on the control theory, when are in a controls most effective?
answer

when we have strong attachments, commitments, and involvement with society
question

what four variables contribute to one’s bond with society?
answer

attachments, commitments, involvement, and beliefs
question

which theory of deviance places significance on names or reputations given to people when they engage in certain types of behavior?
answer

labeling theory
question

what variable did William Chambliss conclude was the deciding difference between the labels received by the Saints and the roughnecks?
answer

The difference in social class of the Saints compared to the roughnecks
question

Emile Durkheim’s stated several reasons why deviant was actually functional for society. Which of the following was not one of them?
answer

One deviant acts leads to another, which increases social solidarity.
question

Al Capone, \”lucky\” Luciano, John Gotti, and other heads of organized crime fall under which mode of adaption?
answer

innovator
question

based on Mertons strain theory, drug addicts, alcoholics, the homeless, and others who have rejected both the cultural goals and the institutional means of achieving them are engaged in which mode adaption?
answer

retreatism
question

what is the major difference between white-collar crimes and street crimes?
answer

white-collar crimes are not acts committed in the course of a legitimate occupation, street crimes are not
question

since Frank graduated from high school he has held only seasonal and part-time jobs. Because he has a few marketable skills he is the first to be laid off when he finds what may be a more permanent position. And you have this how would a conflict theorist categorize Frank?
answer

Frank is a member of the marginal working class
question

which sociological perspective is inclined to view the law as an instrument of repression and a tool designed to maintain the powerful in the privileged positions?
answer

conflict perspective
question

what is the defining quality of hate crimes?
answer

they are motivated by bias against someone’s ascribed status
question

based on figure 6.2, how much is enough? The explosion in the number of US prisoners, which of the following statements best summarizes the graph?
answer

The prison population has risen since 1970, experiencing rapid growth between 1980 and 2010
question

in the figure above, recidivism of US prisoners, it shows stealing cars is the crime with the highest rearrest rate. What are some reasons for this ranking?
answer

The punishment is not as severe as murder, this leaves the criminal open to the world with a criminal record and unemployment, criminal commits a crime again
question

based on Merton’s theory, what is the most common reaction to cultural goals and the institutionalized means to meet them?
answer

conformity
question

what are the two primary variables addressed in string theory, each of which contributes to determining an individual’s load of adaption?
answer

Cultural goals and institutionalized means
question

Who were the two sociologist most responsible for theory of illegitimate opportunity structures to explain deviant behavior?
answer

Richard Cloward and Lloyd Ohlin
question

what is the term refers to crimes committed by people of respectable and high social status
answer

white-collar crime
question

based on the number of violent crimes per capita, what is the most dangerous state in the United States?
answer

South Carolina
question

what is the approximate number of prisoners in jail inmates in the United States today?
answer

over 2 million
question

which two major tech Meeks does the text discuss as ways that society has for angry people to protect them from becoming prison inmates?
answer

marriage and education
question

The crime with the highest recidivism rate is____and the crime with the lowest recidivism rate is____.
answer

stealing cars; murder
question

what is the classification of homicide that involves the killing of several victims in three or more separate events?
answer

serial murder
question

Who are the two most likely victims of a hate crime based on religion and race?
answer

african-American and Jewish
question

Who is the psychiatric who denounce the medicalization of deviance and proclaimed mental illnesses are neither mental nor illness… They are problems behaviors?
answer

Thomas Szasz
question

Who was the European sociologist who pointed out that deviance was inevitable and that it would exist even in a group of Saints?
answer

Emile Durkheim

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