Ch 5 – Process Focus

what is a process
a sequence of activities that is intended to achieve some result
Why is it managing processes important for managing quality
Because most quality problems are associated with processes
Be able to give examples of business processes using examples from the notes
-strategic planning
-product development
-Production (order entry, supply chain, manufacturing, shipment, payment)
4 “components” of a process

internal requirements (following the law/compliance with standards

external requirements (come from the customer)


Be familiar with activities and practices used for process management
Focused practices for quality management
-ID vital work processes
-determine key work process requirements
-design and innovate work processes to meet requirements
-seek ways to prevent defects, service errors, and rework
-minimize costs from inspections, tests, and process or performance audits
-implement work processes to reduce variability and improve products and services
-incorporate process management practices in the supply chain
Process Management involves 2 things:
1) planning and administering the activities to achieve a high level of performance in (key business processes)

2) identifying opportunities for improving quality and operational performance, and ultimately customer satisfaction

balancing process management??
AT&T Process management principles
Slide: Process Management Activities


What are the basic criteria to assess whether a process can be managed?

Why are these criteria necessary?

-the process is REPEATABLE and MEASURABLE

-meeting these 2 conditions ensures that sufficient data can be collected to reveal useful info for evaluation and control

What is the difference btw value creation and support processes?
-Value creation processes are those most important towards “running the business”
Include Design processes (develop functional product specs) and Production/delivery processes (create or deliver products)

-Support Processes: those most important towards an org’s value creation processes, employees, and daily operations. *THEY PROVIDE THE INFRASTRUCTURE.*

Projects as value-creation processes

examples include: satellite fabrication

Be able to construct different types of process maps
How is process mgmt applied in health care?
Examples of processes:
admission/registration of patients; clinical lab and radiology services; provision of healthcare; discharging patients/case management
Flowchart symbols: Oval
Process start and finish points
Flowchart symbols: Rectangle
individual step or activity
Flowchart symbols: Parallelogram
input or output (software)
Flowchart symbols: Diamond
decision point
Flowchart symbols: Circle with an A
Link to another point with same letter or number
What is the goal of process design?
To develop an efficient procedure to satisfy both internal and external customer requirements
*Slide: The origins were developed in the 1920s — SUPPLEMENTAL MATERIAL = POSSIBLE QUIZ/EXAM QUESTIONS*
What are the (6) steps in designing a process for quality (be familiar with these)
1) Identify the *product or service*
2) Identify the *customer*
3) Identify the *supplier*
4) Identify the *process*
5) *Mistake-proof* the process
6) *Develop measurements and controls, and improvement goals*
What is the main difference btw mfg processes and service processes?
the customer know the requirements for a mfg process prior to delivery, but *does not know the requirements for a service process until after they have a point of reference*
Some value creation processes are service oriented
(know this slide?)
What are the 3 key service dimensions? — is it 5????? (clarify this with prof)
1) Reliability
2) Assurance
3) Tangibles
4) Empathy
5) Responsiveness
What factors should you consider when designing a service process?
1) Degree of *customization*
2) Degree of *labor intensity*
3) Degree of *customer contact and interaction*

-process design will depends on these 3 dimensions
(and look at the examples – slides 46 and 47)

Service process designers must concentrate on:
-*doing things right the first time*
-minimizing process complexities (SIMPLIFYING the process)
-making process immune to inadvertent human errors (esp during customer interactions)
How do you create quality standards (metrics) for service processes

-give some examples

-You replace dimensions and tolerances (applicable for mfg) with quality standards

-customer service: 90% of calls answered within 30 seconds
-airline: 90% of passengers checked in withing 3 minutes of arrival
-10 minutes baggage claim time btw 1st and last customer

difference btw metrics & goals
metrics = what are you measuring?

goal = what is the target?

Be familiar with service errors
(which slide is this??)
What is the difference btw flexibility and agility?
-Flexibility: the ability to adapt quickly and effectively to changing requirements

-Agility: refers to flexibility and short cycle times (aka how *quickly* you can adapt)
(ex: H&M is agile bc it can get into stores in 3 weeks)

How can you mistake-proof processes?
Where does Poka-Yoke fit in?
-*Design potential errors out* of the product or process
-*Identify potential defects and stopping a process* before defect is produced
-*Find defects* that enter or leave a process

A *Poka-Yoke* is an approach for mistake-proofing processes using automatic devices or methods to avoid simple human/machine error

*Poka-Yoke* is based on PREDICTION and DETECTION

What type of errors can Poka-Yoke prevent?
Forgetfulness, misunderstanding, lack of experience, absentmindedness, delays, or malfunctions
Examples of Poka-Yokes?
Floppy disk: the poka-yoke is the plastic tab on the back. If you break it off, you can’t record any more data. This prevents you from overwriting data on files

Fuel tank gas cap: poka-yoke is the string so you don’t forget it (if it was detached, there’s the risk of forgetting it)

Hole in the sink: to prevent overflow

Lawnmower: poka-yoke there is a clutch where you need to squeeze two handles together to engage the lawnmower. So if you pass out or something, the lawnmower won’t keep on going

Understand the concept of process control
Why is process control important?
1) process control methods are the basis for effective daily mgmt of processes

2) long-term improvements cannot be made to a process unless the process is first brought under control

What is control?
Control = the activity of:

-ensuring conformance to requirements
-and taking corrective action when necessary

Be familiar with developing process measures
Be familiar with the process improvement methodologies
Understand how to apply the Deming cycle to improving a process
Know the meaning of Kaizen
Kaizen = a Japanese word focusing on gradual and orderly continuous improvement

-the business focuses on small, gradual improvements over the long term with minimal financial investment. Also includes participation by everyone in the org

Kaizen Blitz
intense and rapid improvement process in which a team or a department throws all its resources into an improvement project over a short time period, as opposed to traditional kaizen applications, which are performed on a part-time basis
Be familiar with breakthrough improvement methodologies such as benchmarking and stretch goals
What is a breakthrough improvement?

What 3 methods facilitate breakthrough improvement

Discontinuous change resulting from innovative thinking

stretch goals, benchmarking, and re-engineering

How do Stretch Goals work?
they force an org to *think in a radically different way*

and *encourage major improvements* in addition to incremental ones

What is Benchmarking
“the search of industry best practices that lead to superior performances”

wiki definition: Benchmarking = comparing one’s business processes and performance metrics to industry bests and best practices from other companies

3 Types of benchmarking
Competitive: studying products/processes/business performances from competitors to compare quality, features, pricing, etc

Process: focusing on key work processes

Strategic: focus on how companies compete and strategies that lead to competitive advantage

What is re-engineering
the fundamental rethinking and radical redesign of business processes to achieve dramatic improvements in critical, contemporary measures of performance
Understand process management perspective differences btw Baldridge, ISO 9000 and Six Sigma
(study the slide)

-what is the focus?

Focus/Approach/Continuous Improvement


Baldridge = performance excellence

ISO 9000: planning and controlling the design and dev of products; managing the interfaces btw the different groups involved

Six Sigma: Understanding and improving processes on a project-by-project basis

How does Six Sigma differ from Baldridge and ISO 9000?
Baldridge and ISO 9000 have a direct focus on continuous improvement, but Six sigma focuses on it indirectly
Give an example of a business process in a manufacturing company
Product development; bill processing system
(TRUE/FALSE) In a fast food restaurant, cooking would be viewed as a support process
FALSE — it is a value creation process
Give an example of a process in a hospital
-Admission of patients
-clinical lab and radiology services
-provision of clinical care
-case management
Be able to recognize the different types of process maps
What are the 3 dimensions used to develop service processes

Which dimensions would be important to an architect?

-Degree of customization
-degree of labor intensity
-degree of customer contact and interaction

architect would be concerned with degree of customization (and I guess customer interact bc he needs to build a customized building for the client)

How do you develop a mistake-proof process for a Lego so that it has zero defects?
I would identify potential defects and stop the process before the defect is produced
(TRUE/FALSE) – The ability to do a rapid changeover from 1 product to another is an example of *agility*

(know definitions for flexbility and agility)

(TRUE/FALSE) – Benchmarking is synonymous with re-engineering
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