ch. 29 WHAP

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stability and optimism
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the mid 1920s in western europe could best be described as a period of
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1917
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when did the communist revolution in russia take place
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boomed throughout much of the 1920s
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the u.s economy
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the worst inflationary pressures were resolved, though at the cost of wiping out the value of savings for many propertied groups; industrial production boomed; mass consumption standards based on ready availability of new products rose
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what is true concerning the economy of europe during the roaring 20s
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the revolutionary leadership institutionalized the regime by creating a one party system under PRI
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what is true concerning the state of mexican political organization after the revolution
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conservative peasants backed by the church who fought to stop the slide toward secularism
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who were the cristeros
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the mexican muralist movement featuring works of diego rivera and jose clemente orozco
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what was included in the policy of indigensim that was incorporated into many of the post-revolutionary reforms in mexico
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limited foreign ownership of key resources; land reform; guaranteed rights for workers
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what reforms were included int eh revolutionary constitution of 1917 mexico
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ejidos
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the communal holdings created as part of the program of land reform following the mexican revolution were called
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francisco madero
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what politician first challenged the mexican government in 1910
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1910
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the mexican revolution began in
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st. petersburg
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in what city did the russian revolution of 1917 begin
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alexander kerensky
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who was the leader of the russian government after the march revolution
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lenin’s bolsheviks
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what group succeeded the initial revolutionary government of russia
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he negotiated a peace treaty with the germans and surrendered huge amounts of land on russia’s western border
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what was lenin’s solution to russian participants in ww1
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comintern
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the international effort established to encourage communist parties in the west was called
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warlords or military commanders
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the best positioned contenders for power in the aftermath of the abdication of the qing were the
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the creation of a liberal democracy along western lines
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the initial goal of the may fourth movement was
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chiang kai-shek
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who emerged as the head of the nationalist party and de facto ruler of china by the late 1920’s
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the nationalist slaughter of their former allies in shanghai
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open warfare began between the communists and nationalist party following
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it propelled mao to leadership
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what impact did the nationalist smashing of the workers’ movement have on the development of the communist party in china
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the march of 90,000 communists from hunan to shaanxi province
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the long march refers to
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japanese invasion of the chinese mainland
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what interrupted chiang kai-shek’s destruction of the chinese communist party in the late 1930s
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chronic overproduction of food and resulting low prices
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what best summarizes cause for the great depression
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united states, october 1929, collapse of the new york stock market
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the formal advent of the great depression occurred in
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one-third
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in the west up to _______ of all blue collar workers lost their jobs for prolonged periods during the depression
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the popular front, a combination of socialist and communist political parties
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in france, the government’s sluggish reaction to the depression resulted in the creation of
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the new deal policies- offering direct aid, increased unemployment benefits and the creation of social security
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franklin d. roosevelt responded to the depression in america through
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a totalitarian state
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in germany, the rise of adolf hitler resulted in the construction of
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socialist realism
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the attempts from within the USSR to relate formal culture to the masses in order to avoid the adoption of western european cultural forms was known as
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kellogg-briand pact of 1928
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treaty written by american and french leaders that renounced war
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cubist movement
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20th century art style; best represented by picasso
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british commonwealth of nations
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a free association of members as british representatives in the dominions
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benito mussolini
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italian fascist leader after ww1; created first fascist government based on aggressive foreign policy and new nationalist glories
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fascism
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became prominent in italy and germany during 1920’s and 30s; attacked weakness of democracy, corruption of capitalism; promised vigorous foreign and military programs; state control of economy
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syndicalism
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economic and political system based on the organization of labor; imported in latin america from european political movements
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mexican revolution of 1910-1920
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resulted in oust of diaz from power; opposition forces led by pancho villa and emiliano zapata
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porfirio diaz
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one of juarez’s generals; elected president of mexico in 1876; dominated mexican politics for 35 years; imposed strong central government
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francisco madero
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moderate democratic reformer of mexico; proposed reforms in 1910; arrested by diaz; initiated revolution against diaz when released; temporarily gained power; removed and assassinated in 1913
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pancho villa
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mexican revolutionary and military commander in northern mexico; succeeded along with zapata in removing diaz; participated in campaigns removing madero and huerta
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emiliano zapata
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mexican revolutionary and commander of peasant guerilla movement after 1910 in morelos; succeeded with villa in removing diaz, madero and huerta
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vicoriano huerta
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attempted to reestablish centralized dictatorship in mexico following removal of madero in 1913; forced from power by 1914
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alvaro obregon
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emerged as leader of mexican government in 1915; elected president 1920
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party of the institutionalized revolution (PRI)
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one party system developed in 30s and 20s; incorporated labor, peasant, military and middle class sectors; controlled politics
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cristeros
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conservative movement in mexico during 20s; most active in central mexico; attempted to halt slide towards secularism; movement resulted in armed violence
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alexander kerensky
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liberal revolutionary leader during the early stages of the russian revolution of 1917; sought development of parliamentary rule, religious freedom
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red army
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military organization constructed under leadership of trotsky, bolshevik follower of lenin; made use of people of humble background
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stalin
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successor of lenin; nationalistic views of communism; anti-western strain of russian tradition; crushed opposition; established 5 year plans; led USSR through ww2 and cold war
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comintern
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international office of communism under USSR dominance; established to encourage formation of communist parties in europe and elsewhere
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yuan shikai
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warlord in northern china after fall of qing dynasty; hoped to seize imperial throne; president of china after 1912; resigned in face of japanese invasion
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may fourth movement
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resistance to japanese encroachments on china 1919; spawned movement of intellectuals aimed at transforming china into a liberal democracy; rejected confucianism
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li dazhao
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chinese intellectual who gave serious attempts to marxist philosophy; headed study circle at U of beijing; saw peasants as vanguard of revolutionary communism in nationalist china
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mao zedong
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communist leader; advocated rural reform and role of peasantry in revolution; initiated great leap forward in china in 1958
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diego rivera; jose clemente
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two mexican artists who recaptured the idea of indigenism through murals on public walls
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new economic policy
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lenin issued his ______ ___________ ________ in 1921 to help reduce the economic disarray in russia that was left by the bolshevik revolution
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collectivization
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stalin accelerated industrial development and attacked peasant land ownership with the concept of
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guomindang
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chinese nationalist party founded by sun yat sen in 1919; drew support from local warlords and chinese criminal underworld; forged alliance with communists in 1924; dominated by chiang kai shek after 1925
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whampoa military academy
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founded in 1924; military wing of guomindang; first head of the academy was chiang kai shek
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chian kai-shek
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military officer who succeeded sun yat sen as the leader of the guomindang or nationalist party in china; became most powerful leader in 30s, but nationalist forces were defeated and driven out
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great depression
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international economic crisis following ww1; began by collapse of american stock market in 1929; causes=collapse of agricultural prices, collapse of banking houses and massive unemployment
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popular front
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combination of socialist and communist political parties in france; won election in 1936; unable to take strong measures as social reform because of conservatives; fell from power in 1938
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new deal
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president FDR precurser of a welfare state; programs to combat depression enacted # of social insurance measures and used government spending to stimulate economy; increased power of state and state intervention in social and economy
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totalitarian state
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massive, direct control over virtually all of the activites of its subjects; germany, italy, USSR
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gestapo
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secret police in nazi germany, known for brutal tactics
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spanish civil war
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war pitting authoritarian and military leaders in spain against republicans and leftists between 1936 and 1939; germany and italy supported royalists; soviets supported republicans, victory of royalist party
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corporatism
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political ideology that emphasized the organic nature of society and made the state and mediator adjusting the interests of different social groups; appealed to conservative groups
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lazaro cardenas
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president of mexico from 1934 to 1940 responsible for redistribution of land, primarily to create ejidos, communal farms; also began program of primary and rural education
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getulio vargas
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elected president of brazil in 1929; launched centralized political program by imposing federal administrators over state governments
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juan peron
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military leader in argentina who became dominant political figure after military coup in 1943; used position as minister of labor to appeal to working groups and the poor; became president in 1946
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collectivization
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the creation of large state-run farms, rather than individual holdings
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socialist realism
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attempts within USSR to relate formal culture to the masses in order to avoid the adoption of western european cultural forms; began under stalin
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five year plans
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stalins plans to hasten industrialization of USSR; constructed massive factories in metallurgy, mining, and electric power; led to massive state planned industrialization at cost of availability of consumer goods
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politburo
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executive committee of soviet communist party; 20 members

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