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psych- social psychology

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social psychology
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scientific study of how we think about, influence, and relate to one another
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attribution theory
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the theory that we explain someone’s behavior by crediting either the situation or the person’s disposition
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fundamental attribution error
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the tendency for observers, when analyzing another’s behavior, to underestimate the impact of the situation and to overestimate the impact of personal disposition
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attitudes
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feelings, often influenced by our beliefs, that predispose our reactions to objects, people, and events
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central route persuasion
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attitude change path in which interested people focus on the arguments and respond with favorable thoughts
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peripheral route persuasion
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attitude change path in which people are influenced by incidental cues, such as speaker’s attractiveness
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foot-in-the-door phenomenon
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the tendency for people who have first agreed to a small request to comply later with a larger request.
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cognitive dissonance theory
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the theory that we act to reduce the discomfort (dissonance) we feel when two of our thoughts (cognitions) are inconsistent; for example, when our awareness of our attitudes and of our actions clash, we can reduce the resulting dissonance by changing our attitudes
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conformity
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adjusting one’s behavior or thinking to coincide with a group standard
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normative social influence
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influence resulting from a person’s desire to gain approval or avoid disapproval
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informational social influence
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influence resulting from one’s willingness to accept others’ opinions about reality
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social facilitation
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stronger responses on simple or well-learned tasks in the presence of others
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social loafing
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the tendency for people in a group to exert less effort when pooling their efforts toward attaining a common goal than when individually accountable
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deindividuation
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the loss of self-awareness and self-restraint occurring in group situations that foster arousal and anonymity
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group polarization
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the enhancement of a group’s prevailing inclinations through discussion within a group
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culture
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the behaviors, ideas, attitudes, values, and traditions shared by a group of people and transmitted from one generation to the next
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groupthink
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the mode of thinking that occurs when the desire for harmony in a decision-making group overrides a realistic appraisal of alternatives
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norms
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rules for accepted and expected behavior
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personal space
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the portable buffer zone we like to maintain around our bodies
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prejudice
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an unjustifiable (and usually negative) attitude to a group and its members; generally involves stereotyped beliefs, negative feelings, and a predisposition to a discriminatory action
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stereotype
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a generalized (sometimes accurate but often overgeneralized) belief about a group of people
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discrimination
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unjustifiable negative behavior (ACTION) toward a group and its members
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ingroup
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“us” — people with whom we share a common identity
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outgroup
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“them” — those perceived as different or apart from our ingroup
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ingroup bias
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the tendency to favor our our group
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scapegoat theory
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the theory that prejudice offers an outlet for anger by providing someone to blame
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other-race effect
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the tendency to recall faces of one’s own race more accurately than faces of other races; also called the cross-race effect and the own-race bias
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just-world phenomenon
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the tendency for people to believe the world is just and that people therefore get what they deserve and deserve what they get
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agression
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any physical or verbal behavior intended to hurt or destroy
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frustration-aggression principle
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the principle that frustration–the blocking of an attempt to achieve some goal–creates anger, which can generate aggression
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passionate love
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an aroused state of intense positive absorption in another, usually present at the beginning of a love relationship
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compassionate love
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a deep, affectionate attachment
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equity
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Both partners receive in proportion to what they give. When equity exists—when both partners freely give and receive
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self-disclosure
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revealing intimate aspects of oneself to others
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altruism
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unselfish regard for the welfare of others
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bystander effect
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any particular bystander was less likely to give aid with other bystanders present
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social exchange theory
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the theory that our social behavior is an exchange process, the aim of which is to maximize benefits and minimize costs
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reciprocity norm
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an expectation that people will help, not hurt, those who have helped them
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social-responsibility norm
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an expectation that people will help those dependent upon them
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mirror-image perceptions
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As we see “them”—as untrustworthy and evil intentioned—so “they” see us. Each demonizes the other.
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conflict
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a perceived incompatibility of actions, goals, or ideas
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social trap
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a situation in which the conflicting parties, by each rationally pursuing their self-interest, become caught in mutually destructive behavior
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mirror-image perception
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mutual views often held by conflicting people, as when each side sees itself as ethical and peaceful the views the other side as evil and aggressive
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self-fulfilling prophecy
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a belief that leads to its own fulfillment
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superordinate goals
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shared goals that override differences among people and require their cooperation
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GRIT
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Graduated and Reciprocated Initiatives in Tension-Reduction–a strategy designed to decrease international tensions
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social context
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The combination of (a) people, (b) the activities and interactions among people, (c) the setting in which the behavior occurs, and (d) the expectations and social norms governing behavior in that setting.
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situationism
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The view that environmental conditions influence people’s behavior as much or more than their personal disposition does
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social role
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One of several socially defined patterns of behavior that are expected of a person in a given setting or group
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social norms
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A group’s expectations regarding what is appropriate and acceptable for its members’ attitudes and behaviors
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Asch effect
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A form of conformity in which a group majority influences individual judgments
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Reward Theory of Attraction
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A social-learning view that says we like best those who give us maximum rewards at minimum cost
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Principle of proximity
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The notion that people at work will make more friends among those who are nearby-with whom they have the most contact
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similarity principle
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The notion that people are attracted to those who are most similar to themselves
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match hypothesis
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The prediction that most people will find friends and mates that are perceived to be of about the same level of attractiveness
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expetancy-value theory
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A theory that people decide whether to pursue a relationship by weighing the potential value of the relationship against their expectation of success in establishing the relationship
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cognitive dissonance
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A highly motivating state in which people have conflicting cognitions, especially when their voluntary actions conflict with their attitudes
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self-serving bias
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An attributional pattern in which one takes credit for success but denies responsibility for failure. Contrast with the Fundamental Attribution Error
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scapegoating
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Blaming an innocent person or a group for one’s own troubles
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cohesiveness
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solidarity, loyalty, and a sense of group membership
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mutual interdependence
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A shared sense that individuals or groups need each other in order to achieve common goals
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Solomon Asch
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studied the concept of conformity; people are more likely to conform in groups
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Robert Cialdini
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came up with the foot-in-the-door theory
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John Darley and Bibb Latané
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came up with bystander effect; We will help only if the situation enables us first to notice the incident, then to interpret it as an emergency, and finally to assume responsibility for helping
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Leon Festinger
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came up with the cognitive dissonance theory; (the theory that we act to reduce the discomfort we feel when two of our thoughts are inconsistent)
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Irving Janis
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came up with the theory of groupthink (way of thinking that occurs when the desire for harmony in a decision-making group overrides a realistic appraisal of alternatives)
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Stanley Milgram
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student of asch; studied how people comply to social pressures (the teacher and the student with the shocks, how far will the “teacher” go?)
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Muzafer Sherif
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he wanted to see if enemies could override their differences so he took 20 boys and made two groups; created athletic competitions to make the boys hate each other; however, within a few days, he made the boys friends again by creating an imaginary third group for the boys to defeat together