Ch 26, 27
Flashcard maker : Clarence Louder
A lO-year-old female develops pneumonia following a urinary tract infection. Physical exam reveals subcostal and intercostal retractions. She reports that breathing is difficult and she feels she cannot get enough air. This condition is referred to as:
A 50-year-old diabetic male did not take his medication and is now in metabolic acidosis. He is experiencing Kussmaul respirations that can be characterized by:
a slightly increased ventilatory rate, large tidal volumes, and no expiratory pause
A 30-year-old female received a severe head injury in a motor vehicle accident. She is now experiencing respiratory abnormalities characterized by alternating periods of deep and shallow breathing. This condition is referred to as:
Paroxysmal nocturnal dyspnea generally occurs with:
left ventricular failure
A 20-year-old male is in acute pain. An arterial blood gas reveals decreased carbon dioxide levels. Which of the following is the most likely cause?
A 65-year-old female with emphysema presents to the ER for difficulty breathing. Physical exam reveals bluish skin and mucous membranes. This condition is referred to as:
A 28-year-old male complains to his physician that he has had a cold for a week and is coughing up bloody secretions. This condition is referred to as:
Reduced oxygenation of arterial blood is called:
A low ventilation-perfusion ratio results in:
The condition in which a series of alveoli in the left lower lobe receive adequate ventilation but do not have adequate perfusion is called:
alveolar dead space
A 30-year-old male is involved in a motor vehicle accident and sustains trauma to the lungs and chest wall. He experiences respiratory failure. Which of the following lab values would be expected?
The most common cause of pulmonary edema is:
A 47-year-old male is diagnosed with pulmonary edema. Which of the following would be expected with this condition?
Pink, frothy sputum
A 65-year-old male recently had a cerebrovascular accident that resulted in dysphagia. He now has aspiration of gastric contents. This condition could cause:
pneumonitis and pneumonia
A 26-year-old female recently underwent surgery and is now experiencing dyspnea, cough, fever, and leukocytosis. Tests reveal that she has a collapsed lung caused by removal of air from obstructed alveoli. This condition is called:
A 45-year-old male undergoes lung transplantation. He now suffers from airway occlusion secondary to fibrosis. The most likely diagnosis is:
A 50-year-old male presents with hypotension, hypoxemia, and tracheal deviation to the left. Tests reveal that the air pressure in the pleural cavity exceeds barometric pressure in the atmosphere. The most likely diagnosis is:
A 57-year-old male presents with cough, sputum production, dyspnea, and decreased lung volume. He is diagnosed with pneumoconiosis. His illness is probably caused by:
inhalation of silica, asbestos, mica
A 42-year-old female presents with dyspnea, rapid, shallow breathing, inspiratory crackles, decreased lung compliance and hypoxemia. Tests reveal a fulminant form of respiratory failure characterized by acute lung inflammation and diffuse alveolocapillary injury. Which of the following is the most likely diagnosis?
A 60-year-old female with emphysema is having difficulty expiring a given volume of air. She is most likely experiencing __ pulmonary disease.
Asthma is thought to be caused by:
interactions between genetic and environmental factors
Asthma is classified by:
Airway hyperresponsiveness in asthma is related to:
exposure to an allergen cx mast cell degranulation
Airway obstruction contributing to increased airflow resistance and hypoventilation in asthma is caused by:
mucus secretion, bronchoconstriction, and airway edema
A 22-year-old female presents with chronic bronchitis. Tests reveal closure of the airway during expiration. This condition is most likely caused by:
thick mucus from hypertrophied glands
A 25-year-old male presents with chronic bronchitis of 5 months’ duration. Which of the following is most likely to cause this condition?
A 25-year-old male presents with chronic bronchitis of 5 months’ duration. Which of the following is the most significant concern in this patient?
Recurrent pulmonary infections
A 53-year-old male with a 20-year history of smoking is diagnosed with emphysema. His airways are obstructed because of:
loss of elastic recoil
A 53-year-old male with a 20-year history of smoking is diagnosed with emphysema. Changes in his lungs are caused by:
Individuals with a recent diagnosis of emphysema most often present with:
A 60-year-old female with a 25-year history of smoking is diagnosed with emphysema. She has an increased anterior-posterior chest diameter because of:
Nosocomial pneumonia is generally acquired:
A 30-year-old male prison inmate contracted tuberculosis during an outbreak. The organism that caused this condition is a:
A 30-year-old male prison inmate contracted tuberculosis during an outbreak. He can transmit this disease through:
A 70-year-old female is in the hospital for pelvic fracture. She develops pulmonary thromboembolism. This condition is the result of occlusion of a portion of the pulmonary vascular bed by an embolus of:
Which of the following shows a correct sequence of events in pulmonary embolism?
Hypoxemia inhibits the production of surfactant, cx alveolar collapse
An 80-year-old female is in the hospital for bone fracture. While there she develops a large, nonlethal pulmonary embolus. Which of the following is a direct result of the obstruction to blood flow?
A massive pulmonary embolism will most likely lead to:
shock and death
A 50-year-old male is diagnosed with pulmonary embolism. Which of the following symptoms most likely occurred before treatment?
chest pain and SOB
Pulmonary hypertension is defined as a rise in pulmonary artery pressure of __ mm Hg above normal.
5 to 10
Secondary pulmonary hypertension is usually caused by:
chronic pulmonary dz
A 50-year-old male with a 30-year history of smoking was diagnosed with lung cancer. He was previously exposed to air pollution, asbestos, and radiation at his job. Which of the following most likely had the greatest impact on development of his cancer?
A 60-year-old male with a 40-year history of smoking presents with chest pain, cough, sputum production, and pneumonia. Tests reveal widespread metastatic cancer. Which of following is the most likely type of cancer?
Non-small cell carcinoma
A 1-year-old female is diagnosed with croup. The most likely cause of this disease is:
A 1-year-old female is diagnosed with croup. Which of the following symptoms is most likely present?
respiratory stridor and braking cough
Respiratory distress and hypoxemia in laryngotracheobronchitis are caused by:
mucosal edema and laryngeal secretions
A 10-year-old male was diagnosed with obstructive sleep apnea. Which of the following treatments would most likely be tried first?
A newborn has respiratory distress syndrome. Which of the following is the most important predisposing factor for this condition?
A newborn has respiratory distress syndrome. He develops atelectasis because of:
lack of surfactant
Cardiovascular alterations seen in respiratory distress syndrome include:
opening of fetal shunt pathways
A newborn has respiratory distress syndrome. This condition appeared:
within minutes of birth
During a respiratory assessment of an infant with respiratory distress syndrome, a sinking in the supraclavicular and intercostal areas of the thorax was noted with inspiration. This observation is called:
An infant was born 10 weeks premature and put on mechanical ventilation. Two months later he presents with hypoxemia and hypercapnia. Which ofthe following is most likely diagnosis?
Bronchiolitis mainly occurs in children under the age of:
A 6-month-old female presents with rhinorrhea, cough, poor feeding, lethargy, and fever. She is diagnosed with bronchiolitis. Which of the following is most likely causing her condition?
Respiratory Syncytial Virus
A 2-year-old male presents with fever and cough. He is diagnosed with pneumonia. Which ofthe following is the most likely cause?
An 11-year-old female presents with a low-grade fever and cough. She is diagnosed with atypical pneumonia. This condition is also known as:
A 2-week-old female presents with fever, cough, respiratory distress, and empyema. Which of the following is the most likely diagnosis?
A 9-year-old male contraCted influenza. Which ofthe following complications is of greatest concern?
In asthma, __ is (are) reduced.
expiratory flow rates
A 14-year-old male is experiencing an asthma exacerbation. Which of the following cells in the submucosa promote this inflammatory response?
A 13-year-old female is diagnosed with asthma. Which of the following should she recognize as part of an asthmatic attack?
Cystic fibrosis is an:
autosomal recessive dz
A 2-year-old female fell in a swimming pool and nearly drowned. She then developed acute respiratory distress syndrome. Which of the following did she most likely experience?
A l-year-old child with cystic fibrosis would demonstrate elevated levels of which of these compounds in both sweat and salivary gland secretions?
A 7-month-old male presents with failure to thrive and frequent, loose, and oily stools. Sweat testing reveals increased chloride. Which of the following would also accompany this disease?
A thick mucous
Sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS) occurs most often between __ months of age.
3 and 4
To prevent sudden infant death syndrome, parents should be instructed to:
always lay infants down on their back to sleep