Ch. 23 vocab

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clear-cutting
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Method of timber harvesting in which all trees in a forested area are removed in a single cutting. Compare, seed-tree cutting, selective cutting, shelterwood cutting, strip cutting.
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corridors
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Long areas of land that connect habitat that would otherwise become fragmented.
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controlled burning
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Deliberately set, carefully controlled surface fires that reduce flammable litter and decrease the chances of damaging crown fires. See ground fire, surface fire.
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crown fire
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Extremely hot forest fire that burns ground vegetation and treetops. Compare controlled burning, ground fire, surface fire.
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debt-for-nature swap
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Agreement in which a certain amount of foreign debt is canceled in exchange for local currency investments that will improve natural resource management or protect certain areas in the debtor country from harmful development.
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deforestation
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Removal of trees from a forested area without adequate replanting.
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ecological restoration
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Deliberate alteration of a degraded habitat or ecosystem to restore as much of its ecological structure and function as possible.
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even-aged management
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Method of forest management in which trees, sometimes of a single species in a given stand, are maintained at about the same age and size and are harvested all at once. Compare uneven-aged management.
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gap analysis
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Scientific method used to determine how adequately native plant and animal species and the existing network of conservation lands protects natural communities. Species and communities not adequately represented in existing conservation lands constitute conservation gaps. The idea is to identify these gaps and then eliminate them by establishing new reserves or changing land management practices.
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ground fire
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Fire that burns decayed leaves or peat deep below the ground surface. Compare crown fire, surface fire.
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inherent value/ intrinsic value
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Value of an organism, species, ecosystem, or the earth’s biodiversity based on its existence, regardless of whether it has any usefulness to us. Compare instrumental value.
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instrumental value/ utilitarian value
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Value of an organism, species, ecosystem, or the earth’s biodiversity based on its usefulness to us. Compare intrinsic value.
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multiple use
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Use of an ecosystem such as a forest for a variety of purposes such as timber harvesting, wildlife habitat, watershed protection, and recreation. Compare sustainable yield.
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old-growth forest
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Virgin and old, second-growth forests containing trees that are often hundreds, sometimes thousands of years old. Examples include forests of Douglas fir, western hemlock, giant sequoia, and coastal redwoods in the western United States. Compare second-growth forest, tree plantation.
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reforestation
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Renewal of trees and other types of vegetation on land where trees have been removed; can be done naturally by seeds from nearby trees or artificially by planting seeds or seedlings.
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restoration ecology
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Research and scientific study devoted to restoring, repairing, and reconstructing damaged ecosystems.
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second-growth forest
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Stands of trees resulting from secondary ecological succession. Compare old-growth forest, tree plantation.
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seed-tree cutting
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Removal of nearly all trees on a site in one cutting, with a few seed-producing trees left uniformly distributed to regenerate the forest. Compare clear-cutting, selective cutting, shelterwood cutting, strip cutting.
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selective cutting
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Cutting of intermediate-aged, mature, or diseased trees in an uneven-aged forest stand, either singly or in small groups. This encourages the growth of younger trees and maintains an uneven-aged stand. Compare clear-cutting, seed-tree cutting, shelterwood cutting, strip cutting.
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shelterwood cutting
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Removal of mature, marketable trees in an area in a series of partial cuttings to allow regeneration of a new stand under the partial shade of older trees, which are later removed. Typically, this is done by making two or three cuts over a decade. Compare clear-cutting, seed-tree cutting, selective cutting, strip cutting.
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strip cutting
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Variation of clear-cutting in which a strip of trees is clear-cut along the contour of the land, with the corridor narrow enough to allow natural regeneration within a few years. After regeneration, another strip is cut above the first, and so on. Compare clear-cutting, seed-tree cutting, selective cutting, shelterwood cutting.
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surface fire
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Forest fire that burns only undergrowth and leaf litter on the forest floor. See controlled burning. Compare crown fire, ground fire.
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sustainable yield (sustained yield)
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Highest rate at which a potentially renewable resource can be used without reducing its available supply throughout the world or in a particular area. See also environmental degradation.
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tree farm/ tree plantation
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Site planted with one or only a few tree species in an even-aged stand. When the stand matures it is usually harvested by clear-cutting and then replanted. These plantations normally are used to grow rapidly growing tree species for fuelwood, timber, or pulpwood. See even-aged management. Compare old-growth forest, second-growth forest, uneven-aged management.
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uneven-aged management
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Method of forest management in which trees of different species in a given stand are maintained at many ages and sizes to permit continuous natural regeneration. Compare even-aged management.
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wilderness
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Area where the earth and its community of life have not been seriously disturbed by humans and where humans are only temporary visitors.

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