Ch.20 AP World History

Flashcard maker : Sam Arent
Osei Tutu
Member of Oyoko clan of Akan peoples in Gold Coast region of Africa; responsible for creating unified Asante Empire; utilized Western firearms. Took the name asantehene.
Zulu Wars
Fought in 1879 between the British Empire and the Zulu Empire in Africa. The war ended the Zulu nation’s independence.
William Wilberforce
British statesman and reformer; leader of abolitionist movement in English parliament that led to end of English slave trade in 1807.
El Mina
The Most important of early Portuguese trading factories in forest zone of Africa. Located in present day Ghana
Oyoko
A matrilineal clan within the Asante Empire that dominated because of their access to firearms .
Luo
Nilotic people who migrated from Upper Nile valley; established dynasty among existing Bantu population in lake region of central eastern Africa; center at Bunyoro. ( I’M THIS )
Factories
Portuguese trading fortresses and compounds with resident merchants; utilized throughout Portuguese trading empire to assure secure landing places and commerce.(First and most important was El Mina.
Charles Boxer
Historian who says that no people can enslave another for 400 years without developing an air of superiority..
Nzinga Mvemba
King of Kongo south of Zaire River from 1507 to 1543; converted to Christianity and took title Alfonso I; under Portuguese influence attempted to Christianize all of his kingdom. He also tried to end slave trade and limit Portuguese officials and was somewhat successful early on.
Luanda
Portuguese factory established in 1520s south of Kongo; became basis for Portuguese colony of Angola. Showed how Portugal tried to dominate existing trade system of the African Ports.
Asantehene
Title taken by rule of Asante Empire; supreme civil and religious leader; authority symbolized by golden stool.
Monomotapa
Kingdom which stretched between Zambezi and Limpopo rivers of southern Africa, named that by Portuguese, dominance over gold found in interior of Africa, communicated with Arab port of Sofala on coast. Also called Mwenemutapa by Africans. Just Think GOLD, GOLD , GOLD.
1441
The year the first slaves were brought to Portugal from Africa, early on this was very limited(maybe 50 a year till 1450) before the Europeans realized that raid tactics were not working and tried trading.
Royal African Company
Chartered in 1660s to establish a monopoly over the slave trade among British merchants; supplied African slaves to colonies in Barbados, Jamaica, and Virginia. Early on had a survival rate of 10% due to tropical diseases like malaria.
Indies Piece
Term utilized within the complex exchange system established by the Spanish for African trade; referred to the value of an adult male slave.
Triangular Trade
A three way system of trade during 1600-1800s Aferica sent slaves to America, America sent Raw Materials to Europe, and Europe sent Guns and Rum to Africa, Long term profits of this trade are heavily disputed.
Polygyny
A polygamous mating system involving one male and many females. May have been caused Sub-Saharan Africa because of the nature of the slave trade.
Zambezi River
A river in southern Africa, flowing east through Zimbabwe and Mozambique into the Indian Ocean. 4th largest in Africa
Asante Empire
Established in Gold Coast among Akan people settled around Kumasi; dominated by Oyoko clan; many clans linked under Osei Tutu after 1650.
Dahomey
Kingdom developed among Fon or Aja peoples in 17th century; center at Abomey 70 miles from coast; under King Agaja expanded to control coastline and port of Whydah by 1727; accepted Western firearms and goods in return for African slaves.
Fon clan
One of the major ethnic groups in the West African nation of Benin;Ruled Kingdom of Dahomey in 18th century.
King Agaja
Under this King, the kingdom of Dahomey moved toward the coast (seizing the port town of Whydah in 1727
Bight of Benin
A region in Africa on the coast between the Volta and Benin Rivers.
Oba
Another word for ruler; of Benin; based his right to rule on claims of descent from the first king of Ife
Yoruba
A West African people who formed several kingdoms in what is now Benin and southern Nigeria, contrasted with Dahomey in the fact that several of its state had governing councils.
Hausa
Peoples of northern Nigeria; formed states following the demise of Songhay empire that combined Muslim and pagan traditions.
Fulani
Pastoral people of western Sudan; adopted purifying Sufi variant of Islam; under Usuman Dan Fodio in 1804, launched revolt against Hausa kingdoms; established state centered on Sokoto. Their attack on a fellow Muslim kingdom(Bornu) demonstrated that it was for political not just religious gain.
Usuman Dan Fodio
A studious Muslim Fulani scholar, preached reformist ideology in Hausa kingdoms- ideas became revolution in 1804- preached a jihad against Hausa kings ( who he felt wern’t following Muhammad’s teachings)
Xhosa
One of the original ethnic groups of South Africa. There population was largely diminished by the 1779-1878 Frontier Wars. One day, a young girl was down by the creek, and she claims to have been told by her ancestors that if the killed of their remaining cattle population (a large majority had been killed off due to a disease like anthrax), then their ancestors would rise up and defeat the white men. They killed off their cattle, but died off due to the lack of food and a great famine.
Cape Colony
Dutch colony established at Cape of Good Hope in 1652 initially to provide a coastal station for the Dutch seaborne empire; by 1770 settlements had expanded sufficiently to come into conflict with Bantus. The British came to power in 1795- 1806.
Orange River
-longest river in South Africa
-flows west into the Atlantic
-1,367 miles long
-originates in the Drakensburg Mountains
horizontally across South Africa from Lesotho
Great Trek
Movement of Boer settlers in Cape Colony of southern Africa to escape influence of British colonial government in 1834; led to settlement of regions north of Orange River and Natal.
Frontier Wars
A series of nine wars between the Xhosa people and European settlers from 1779 to 1879 in what is now the Eastern Cape in South Africa.
Nguni
Meta-cultural classification referring to the Zulu, Swazi, and Xhosa peoples in Southern Africa; heavy emphasis on singing (Mande), began their unification under Shaka Zulu by 1818.
mfecane
Wars of 19th century in southern Africa; created by Zulu expansion under Shaka; revolutionized political organization of southern Africa.
Swazi
New African state formed on model of Zulu chiefdom; survived mfecane.
Lesotho
Southern African state that survived mfecane; not based on Zulu model; less emphasis on military organization, less authoritarian government
Middle Passage
A voyage that brought enslaved Africans across the Atlantic Ocean to North America and the West Indies.
Saltwater Slaves
Slaves transported from Africa (African-born); almost invariably black
Creole Slaves
American-born descendants of saltwater slaves; result of sexual exploitation of slave women or process of miscegenation.
Obeah
African religious ideas and practices in the English and French Caribbean islands.
candomble
African religious ideas and practices in Brazil, particularly among the Yoruba people.
Vodun
African religious ideas and practices among descendants of African slaves in Haiti.
Palmares
Kingdom of runaway slaves with a population of 8,000 to 10,000 people; located in Brazil during the 17th century; leadership was Angolan.
Suriname
Formerly a Dutch plantation colony on the coast of South America, location of runaway slave kingdom in 18th century; able to retain independence attempts to crush goriella resistence
John Wesly
English Anglican minister and founder of Methodism, a new religious movement
Maroon Wars
A series of struggles between the British and the Jamaican Maroons, mid 1700s, Jamaican Maroons were runaway slaves who successfully stayed hidden in the topography of Jamaica and eventually signed a treaty acknowledging them as free people as long as they returned other slaves. They made North American slave/plantation owners nervous because they could travel through the island as they wanted and were supposed to stay away from plantations but often didnt.

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