Ch 2 Diversity in Organizations

question

Kimberly Ortiz strongly believes in working for a company which promotes diversity. She believes that such organizations are respectful of differences and allow employees more exposure. She recently attended an interview where she was told that the company follows policies which focus on organizational diversity. However, when she finally joined the company, she had a strong feeling that the company’s claim was not true. Which of the following, if true, weakens Kimberly’s belief that the company does not encourage diversity? A) Eighty-five percent of the top management positions in the company are held by men. B) She is the only African-American member in the entire workforce. C) The workforce is not dominated by any specific ethnic or racial group. D) The previous company she worked for made a conscious effort to employ an equal number of men and women. E) Her team members believe that they are treated equally in spite of differences in performance.
answer

C) The workforce is not dominated by any specific ethnic or racial group.
question

________ diversity refers to diversity in observable attributes such as race, ethnicity, sex, and age. A) Psychographic B) Additive C) Surface-level D) Disjunctive E) Conjunctive
answer

C) Surface-level
question

Which of the following is true with respect to surface-level diversity? A) It refers to psychographic characteristics of the members of a group. B) People with surface-level diversity will also share deep-level diversity. C) It indicates differences of values, emotions and personality traits between people. D) It refers to differences in easily perceived characteristics, such as gender and race. E) It represents a person’s or group’s thought processes and feelings.
answer

D) It refers to differences in easily perceived characteristics, such as gender and race.
question

Differences in ________ indicate surface-level diversity. A) personality B) values C) style of work D) ethnicity E) attitudes
answer

D) ethnicity
question

Which of the following most likely indicates surface-level similarity? A) Tim and Jake are colleagues who take risks and are quick decision makers. B) The employees at GenSys prefer teamwork over individual assignments. C) Nina and Chuck are colleagues who share similar views on corporate social responsibility. D) Jane and Sara grew up in the same town and went to school together. E) Hannah and Nate are both introspective and tend to be slow to reach decisions.
answer

D) Jane and Sara grew up in the same town and went to school together.
question

________ diversity refers to diversity with respect to attributes that are less easy to observe initially but that can be inferred after more direct experience. A) Surface-level B) Additive C) Demographic D) Deep-level E) Conjunctive
answer

D) Deep-level
question

Which of the following best represents deep-level similarity? A) colleagues who both hail from the same neighborhood in Alabama B) employees who are college graduates with a degree in business management C) employees who speak Spanish and share similar religious values D) employees who seek challenges in assignments and like to work collaboratively E) employees in their mid-thirties with 10 years’ work experience in the publishing industry
answer

D) employees who seek challenges in assignments and like to work collaboratively
question

Malcolm Industries recently hired a large number of workers for the company’s new construction factory in Colorado. During the hiring process, the management made a clear effort to recruit physically strong individuals because the work at the factory involves manual labor. The jobs need to be performed by individuals who have the energy and physical stamina to work for long hours. Which of the following surface-level characteristics did the company most likely concentrate on when selecting the new workers? A) age B) values C) beliefs D) religion E) personality
answer

A) age
question

A difference in ________ would indicate deep-level diversity. A) gender B) age C) ethnicity D) disability E) values
answer

E) values
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________ differences between people represent deep-level diversity. A) Race B) Age C) Ethnicity D) Gender E) Personality
answer

E) Personality
question

The management at Climate Action Development needs to recruit campaign managers for its Renewable Energy Project. They are looking for candidates who are assertive, extroverted, and who can tackle challenges head-on. Which of the following deep-level characteristics should they focus on to best help them recruit the right candidate for the job? A) race B) age C) ethnicity D) values E) personality
answer

E) personality
question

The human resources department of Orbit Bank believes in being unbiased toward all employees and treating them fairly. They believe it is crucial that the company treat all their employees equally. However Susan Daniels, an employee at the bank, recently filed a lawsuit against the company, claiming that she was discriminated against. Which of the following, if true, best justifies Susan’s action? A) The company did not give her preferential treatment even though she was from the host country. B) She was asked whether she was over eighteen during the first round in the interview process. C) Her colleagues expressed their dissatisfaction over their pay and severance packages. D) She had faced a similar situation of discrimination in her previous company. E) She was given the same incentives as her colleagues in spite of performing better than them.
answer

E) She was given the same incentives as her colleagues in spite of performing better than them.
question

In a workplace, ________ involves overt threats or bullying directed at members of specific groups of employees. A) intimidation B) risk aversion C) inequity aversion D) optimism bias E) ambiguity aversion
answer

A) intimidation
question

April’s colleague Nathan has consistently pestered her to go out on a date with him. Though she has refused his offer several times, he keeps persisting. She found an envelope on her desk from Nathan with inappropriate pictures and cartoons, which left her infuriated. She now intends to go discuss the matter with the human resource department of her company. Which of the following forms of discrimination is April most likely to cite? A) sexual harassment B) cyberstalking C) mobbing D) exclusion E) electronic harassment
answer

A) sexual harassment
question

Which of the following refers to a kind of discrimination which refers to overt threats or bullying directed at members of specific groups of employees? A) intimidation B) impact bias C) inequity aversion D) framing effect E) benefaction
answer

A) intimidation
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Which of the following is the best example of the use of intimidation? A) Anya’s boss, Kira, sets difficult targets and hints that Anya may lose her job if she doesn’t meet them. B) Jill’s manager, Steve, rarely considers her business ideas, but he consistently praises the contributions of Jill’s colleague, Emily. C) Natasha’s colleagues often make jokes using cultural or ethnic stereotypes. D) Although Kathleen had spent a longer time in the organization, her colleague Gary was promoted to a management position. E) Jane’s colleagues recently forgot to invite her to a team lunch, a fact that caused her great distress.
answer

A) Anya’s boss, Kira, sets difficult targets and hints that Anya may lose her job if she doesn’t meet them.
question

Hazel Samuels has been working at her company for the past two years and consistently gets yelled at by her manager even when she is not at fault. He often makes derogatory references to her ethnicity. In addition, during team meetings, she is his target for practical jokes and nasty pranks. She is extremely upset and decides not to be subjected to such treatment any longer. Which of the following kinds of discrimination is she most likely to report to the human resource department in such a situation? A) intimidation B) sexual harassment C) hazing D) mobbing E) whistle-blowing
answer

A) intimidation
question

Which of the following is the best example of mockery as a tool of discriminatory treatment in organizations? A) Rifka’s supervisor often stereotypes Rifka because of her ethnic heritage and makes jokes about her ethnicity. B) Because she is considerably older than the rest of her team, Hannah’s colleagues often do not invite her to team lunches or informal team get-togethers. C) Joan’s boss sets impossible targets and reprimands her in front of her colleagues if she fails to complete them on time. D) Sheena is the only African-American employee in her department and often feels left out of office jokes and gossip. E) Most of Leanne’s co-workers are male and share inappropriate jokes at the office.
answer

A) Rifka’s supervisor often stereotypes Rifka because of her ethnic heritage and makes jokes about her ethnicity.
question

A person who is made fun of because he is an Arab-American is being subjected to ________, a kind of discrimination in work environments. A) mockery B) vandalism C) cyberstalking D) gaslighting E) monomania
answer

A) mockery
question

Stacy Hanes is an African-American woman who has recently taken her first job and does not seem to like the work environment at all. Her colleagues put down her ideas at team meetings and refer to them as “stupid.” In addition, they make fun of her race and often ask her if she is educated enough to work for the company. Which of the following kinds of discrimination is Hanes most likely subject to? A) mockery B) sexual harassment C) stalking D) deception E) subterfuge
answer

A) mockery
question

________, which may occur intentionally or unintentionally, refers to keeping certain people in a work place away from job opportunities, social events, discussions, or informal mentoring. A) Exclusion B) Mockery C) Stalking D) Ragging E) Bullying
answer

A) Exclusion
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Jill Ivey has been working as a sales executive at Orbit Bank for the last two years. However, she has noticed that she is often not given an opportunity to attend training programs that her team members attend every quarter. She also is disappointed about the fact that she never gets to handle corporate clients, which provides better chances of a promotion. Which of the following kinds of discrimination is she most likely to have been subjected to? A) exclusion B) mockery C) gaslighting D) destabilization E) mobbing
answer

A) exclusion
question

Women being assigned marginal job roles that do not lead to promotion is an example of the ________ form of discrimination. A) hazing B) gaslighting C) coercion D) exclusion E) battery
answer

D) exclusion
question

Which of the following is true with respect to workplace discrimination? A) Discrimination occurs more at lower levels in the organization than higher levels. B) It may lead to reduced productivity and citizenship behavior. C) Only intentional discrimination is addressed by diversity management efforts. D) Forms of discrimination like exclusion are easy to root out. E) The discriminators are invariably aware of their action toward the victim.
answer

B) It may lead to reduced productivity and citizenship behavior.
question

Which of the following is a biographical characteristic of an employee? A) length of tenure B) work preferences C) personality D) values E) beliefs
answer

A) length of tenure
question

Which of the following is true with respect to biographical characteristics? A) They are non-objective in nature and cannot be observed. B) They represent characteristics such as personality and work ethics. C) They cannot be obtained from personnel records. D) They are representative of surface-level diversity. E) They comprise features such as motivation and commitment.
answer

D) They are representative of surface-level diversity.
question

Which of the following explains why the relationship between age and job performance is likely to be of increasing importance during the next decade? A) The workforce is shrinking, and older workers are compelled to work beyond retirement. B) A decline in immigration has opened up more entry-level positions for older workers. C) Increasing job opportunities are opening up in the domestic sector, resulting in a dearth of employees. D) U.S. legislation, in effect, outlaws mandatory retirement. E) A majority of people believe that productivity rises as a person grows older.
answer

D) U.S. legislation, in effect, outlaws mandatory retirement.
question

Raylon Inc. is in the process of recruiting a new operations manager. The human resources team has narrowed the candidate list down to two candidates but cannot come to an agreement about whom to hire. Though both candidates have the relevant qualifications for the post, one will soon be 60 years old. The other candidate is in his early thirties. Rachel, a member of the HR team, recommends hiring the older candidate, citing his years of experience and leadership ability. Tim, on the other hand, strongly recommends that the company hire the younger candidate, as he is likely to be more flexible when it comes to working. Which of the following, if true, most strengthens Rachel’s argument? A) The job requires frequent travel around the company’s six factories located across the country. B) Most of the employees the operations manager will be supervising are under 30 years of age. C) Research has shown that older workers are more prone to absenteeism for health-related issues. D) Almost half of the company’s top managers are in the 45-65 age bracket. E) The company recently instituted a new production system that cuts waste by 30 percent.
answer

B) Most of the employees the operations manager will be supervising are under 30 years of age.
question

Which of the following is the most likely reason why employers should employ older workers? A) They adjust to new technology promptly. B) Older workers have extensive work experience. C) Older workers are flexible and learn quickly. D) They have shorter tenures and hence lower pension benefits than younger workers. E) The rates of unavoidable absences are lower than those of younger workers.
answer

B) Older workers have extensive work experience.
question

Thurman Inc., a manufacturing company in Vermont, needs to hire employees for its new office in the city. The positions require the employees to travel across the country regularly. The management has specified that they are looking for employees below the age of 40 who are young and dynamic. Which of the following beliefs is the management most likely to hold? A) Younger workers make stronger judgments. B) Younger workers are more flexible to change. C) Younger workers have more experience. D) Younger workers have stronger work ethics. E) Younger workers are more committed to quality.
answer

B) Younger workers are more flexible to change.
question

Angela Wells recently applied for a job at Spiga, a lounge in Paris. Having worked in several restaurants and lounges in and across France, she was confident that she would get the job. However, soon after the interview, she was informed that another candidate was offered the job, even though the other candidate had limited experience in comparison to her. Angela feels that she was discriminated against. Which of the following, if true, would best justify Angela’s assumption? A) The woman who was selected over her could speak French fluently. B) Angela is a single mother with two young children. C) Angela does not have a degree in hospitality management. D) The lounge caters to elite business clientele in Paris. E) Angela learned of the position through a friend working at the lounge.
answer

B) Angela is a single mother with two young children.
question

Raylon Inc. needs to hire a new floor supervisor. As the company has recently made an effort to increase diversity within the organization, the HR team wants to hire a qualified female candidate for the role instead of adequately qualified male candidates. However, top management insists that optimal performance is the top priority and that the candidate hired should be the person best suited for the job. Which of the following, if true, would most strengthen HR’s case for hiring the female candidate? A) There are nearly as many female employees on the floor as male employees. B) The company has recently introduced policies that provide greater benefits for working and single mothers. C) Most of the top-level managers in the company are female. D) The company policy stipulates that each employee has to work at least one week per month on a night shift. E) Both candidates have the qualifications required to perform up to expectations.
answer

E) Both candidates have the qualifications required to perform up to expectations.
question

________ refers to the biological heritage people use to identify themselves. A) Race B) Values C) Beliefs D) Religion E) GMA
answer

A) Race
question

Green Planet, an environmental organization, recently opened an office in Indonesia. The organization is currently looking for employees to staff a deforestation project in the country. They need to recruit individuals who understand the intricacies of Jakarta’s culture and the mindset of the locals and are fluent in the local language. Which of the following are they most likely to consider while they recruit for these positions? A) race B) age C) beliefs D) gender E) length of service
answer

A) race
question

________ may be defined as an individual’s current capacity to perform the various tasks in a job. A) Ability B) Age C) Duty D) Role E) Tenure
answer

A) Ability
question

________ is a dimension of intellectual ability which refers to the ability to do speedy and accurate arithmetic. A) Number aptitude B) Verbal comprehension C) Deductive reasoning D) Spatial visualization E) Amodal perception
answer

A) Number aptitude
question

________ is a dimension of intellectual ability which refers to the ability to understand what is read or heard and the relationship of words to each other. A) Lateral masking B) Verbal comprehension C) Depth perception D) Spatial visualization E) Visual perception
answer

B) Verbal comprehension
question

________ refers to a dimension of intellectual ability which involves identifying a logical sequence in a problem and using this logical sequence to solve the problem. A) Inductive reasoning B) Spatial visualization C) Form perception D) Visual perception E) Visual prosthesis
answer

A) Inductive reasoning
question

________ is a dimension of intellectual ability which involves using logic to assess the implications of an argument. A) Deductive reasoning B) Spatial visualization C) Haptic perception D) Multistable perception E) Lateral masking
answer

A) Deductive reasoning
question

Which of the following best describes spatial visualization? A) the ability to imagine how an object would look if its position were changed B) the ability to retain and recall or remember past experiences C) the ability to identify visual similarities and differences quickly and accurately D) the ability to understand what is read or heard and the relation between words E) the ability to calculate numbers in a speedy and accurate manner
answer

A) the ability to imagine how an object would look if its position were changed
question

Rene Cox works as a media officer in a global forest protection organization. Her job requires her to interact with a large number of people from the press with whom she needs to establish strong professional relationships. This requires her to remember a large number of people’s names and the organizations with which they are associated. Which of the following dimensions of intellectual ability will best help her accomplish this task? A) inductive reasoning B) spatial visualization C) memory D) visual perception E) polymodality
answer

C) memory
question

Gina Sanchez, an architect in California, is renovating an old school building and turning it into a retail and entertainment space. She must decide how the existing layout can be redesigned and modified to best suit the new uses. Which of the following dimensions of intelligence will most help Gina reimagine the existing building? A) haptic perception B) spatial visualization C) memory D) inductive reasoning E) deductive reasoning
answer

B) spatial visualization
question

Irene Jones, a project manager at a water conservation foundation, is holding a team meeting to discuss the different modes of spreading awareness about the issue of water conservation to the public. A team member, John Sullivan, states that using broadcasting media is the best way to reach out to the public. On the other hand, Pamela Riley states that print media is the right medium to spread word about the issue. Jones is now weighing the pros and cons of both her team members’ suggestions before choosing the medium which will be most appropriate for the water conservation project. Which of the following dimensions of intellectual ability is Jones most likely to be using to make her decision? A) number aptitude B) spatial visualization C) memory D) lateral masking E) deductive reasoning
answer

E) deductive reasoning
question

A market researcher who uses his ability to identify a logical sequence to predict demand for a new line of winter clothing is using the ________ dimension of intellectual ability. A) spatial visualization B) inductive reasoning C) verbal comprehension D) lateral masking E) deductive reasoning
answer

B) inductive reasoning
question

Jeremy Samuels works in a police department in California. His job often requires him to observe clues that criminals leave behind. His job is to analyze these clues, which helps the department catch the criminal. Which of the following dimensions of intellectual ability does Samuels most likely have? A) spatial visualization B) perceptual speed C) extent flexibility D) dynamic flexibility E) number aptitude
answer

B) perceptual speed
question

Lorna Perry, who works in a financial firm in Michigan, is required to calculate a large number of clients’ accounts daily. She needs to tally figures and check accuracy at a high speed. Which of the following dimensions of intellectual ability does Perry most likely use? A) number aptitude B) perpetual speed C) extent flexibility D) visual perception E) deductive reasoning
answer

A) number aptitude
question

Audrey Smith is a renowned psychiatrist in New Jersey. While interacting with patients, she needs to understand their points of view by listening intently to what they say. It is important that she understands their problems so that she can offer advice. In such a situation, Smith is using the ________ dimension of intellectual ability. A) number aptitude B) perpetual speed C) spatial visualization D) verbal comprehension E) lateral thinking
answer

D) verbal comprehension
question

________ refers to an overall factor of intelligence as suggested by the positive correlations among specific intellectual ability dimensions. A) General mental ability B) Malleable intelligence C) Extelligence D) The Flynn effect E) Virtual memory
answer

A) General mental ability
question

The ________ is the most widely used intelligence test in hiring decisions and takes only twelve minutes to be completed. A) Wonderlic Cognitive Ability Test B) Ammons Quick Test C) Stanford-Binet Intelligence Scales D) Kohs block design test E) Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale
answer

A) Wonderlic Cognitive Ability Test
question

________ may be referred to as the capacity to undertake tasks that demand stamina, dexterity, and strength. A) Cognitive abilities B) Intellectual abilities C) Mental abilities D) Physical abilities E) Emotional intelligence
answer

D) Physical abilities
question

________ refers to the ability to exert force against external objects. A) Body coordination B) Dynamic flexibility C) Static strength D) Extent flexibility E) Cognitive ability
answer

C) Static strength
question

Which of the following is a kind of physical ability which refers to the ability to make rapid, repeated flexing movements? A) equilibrium B) balance C) dynamic flexibility D) static strength E) body coordination
answer

C) dynamic flexibility
question

Which of the following best describes the physical ability known as trunk strength? A) the ability to maintain equilibrium despite forces pulling off balance B) the ability to coordinate the simultaneous actions of different parts of the body C) the ability to expend a maximum of energy in one or a series of explosive acts D) the ability to exert muscular strength using the abdominal muscles E) the ability to move the trunk and back muscles as far as possible
answer

D) the ability to exert muscular strength using the abdominal muscles
question

Which of the following best describes the physical ability known as dynamic strength? A) the ability to maintain equilibrium despite forces pulling off balance B) the ability to coordinate the simultaneous actions of different parts of the body C) the ability to exert muscular force repeatedly or continuously over time D) the ability to expend a maximum of energy in one or a series of explosive acts E) the ability to move the trunk and back muscles as far as possible
answer

C) the ability to exert muscular force repeatedly or continuously over time
question

Which of the following best describes the physical ability known as dynamic flexibility? A) the ability to exert force against external objects B) the ability to make rapid, repeated flexing movements C) the ability to exert muscular force repeatedly or continuously over time D) the ability to expend a maximum of energy in one or a series of explosive acts E) the ability to move the trunk and back muscles as far as possible
answer

B) the ability to make rapid, repeated flexing movements
question

The ability to move the trunk and back muscles as far as possible is known as ________. A) static strength B) stamina C) trunk strength D) extent flexibility E) balance
answer

D) extent flexibility
question

The physical ability that allows a body to maintain equilibrium despite opposing forces is known as ________. A) stamina B) extent flexibility C) static strength D) body coordination E) balance
answer

E) balance
question

The physical ability that allows a body to continue maximum effort at maintaining prolonged effort over time is known as ________. A) stamina B) extent flexibility C) static strength D) body coordination E) balance
answer

A) stamina
question

T/F: Over the past 50 years, the earnings gap between whites and other racial and ethnic groups has decreased significantly.
answer

True
question

T/F: Demographics mostly reflect deep-level rather than surface-level diversity.
answer

False
question

T/F: Two colleagues who bond over similarities of growing up in a French-speaking locality can be said to have deep-level similarities rather than surface-level similarities.
answer

False
question

T/F: Differences in easily perceived characteristics, such as gender, race, ethnicity, age, and disability, give rise to surface-level diversity.
answer

True
question

T/F: Unfair discrimination involves noticing and being aware of individual characteristics among people in a group.
answer

False
question

T/F: Effective diversity management involves eliminating unfair discrimination.
answer

True
question

T/F: Women being passed over for promotion even when they are performing better than men is an example of a discriminatory practice.
answer

True
question

T/F: Denying overseas assignments to certain deserving employees over others is a form of exclusion, a kind of workplace discrimination.
answer

True
question

T/F: Recent U.S. legislation has instituted mandatory retirement at 70 in order to ensure that jobs are available for younger workers.
answer

False
question

T/F: Older people are more likely to quit and change jobs than younger employees.
answer

False
question

T/F: In general, older employees have lower rates of avoidable absence than do younger employees. However, they have equal rates of unavoidable absence, such as sickness absences.
answer

True
question

T/F: There has been a significant decrease in the female participation in the workforce over the past 40 years.
answer

False
question

T/F: Studies show that satisfaction tends to continually increase among nonprofessionals as they age, whereas it falls among professionals during middle age and then rises again in the later years.
answer

False
question

T/F: The U.S. Bureau of the Census does not allow for classification of individuals by race.
answer

False
question

T/F: Hispanics can be of any race.
answer

True
question

T/F: Religious discrimination claims have been a shrinking source of discrimination claims in the United States.
answer

False
question

T/F: According to the Americans with Disabilities Act, employers are under no obligation to make accommodations for individuals with physical or mental disabilities.
answer

False
question

T/F: A person suffering from alcoholism is not classified as disabled according to the U.S. Equal Employment Opportunity Commission, as alcoholism is self-induced.
answer

False
question

T/F: Federal law in the United States prohibits discrimination against employees based on sexual orientation.
answer

False
question

T/F: The less complex a job in terms of information-processing demands, the more general intelligence and verbal abilities are necessary to perform successfully.
answer

False
question

T/F: The structures and measures of intellectual abilities generalize across cultures.
answer

True
question

T/F: Perceptual speed is the ability to imagine how an object would look if its position in space were changed.
answer

False
question

T/F: Inductive reasoning is the ability to identify a logical sequence in a problem and then solve the problem.
answer

True
question

T/F: Memory is not a component of intelligence and is considered as a separate faculty.
answer

False
question

T/F: There is a strong correlation between intelligence and job satisfaction.
answer

False
question

T/F: Physical abilities may be defined as the capacity to do tasks that demand stamina, dexterity, strength, and similar characteristics.
answer

True
question

T/F: Diversity management refers to being unbiased by overlooking the differences between individuals in an organization.
answer

False
question

T/F: A method of enhancing workforce diversity is to target recruiting messages to specific demographic groups who are underrepresented in the workforce.
answer

True
question

T/F: Targeting recruiting messages to specific demographic groups underrepresented in the workforce is an example of unfair discrimination.
answer

False
question

T/F: A diversity program effective in improving representation in management is a strategy to measure the representation of minorities in managerial positions.
answer

True
question

T/F: Improving recruiting practices and making selection systems more transparent are ways of preventing target groups from being underutilized.
answer

True

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