Ch 17 – Nervous System

Which of these is NOT true of the autonomic nervous system?
It is composed only of fibers that have an inhibitory function on various organs of the body.
You spray an insect with common insecticide that destroys the ability of acetylcholinesterase to recycle acetylcholine. What then happens?
The insect loses control of body functions as nerve impulses flow continuously.
Which of the following does NOT pertain to neurons?
cell walls
What are the potential effects of heavy marijuana usage?
Hallucinations, anxiety, depression, body image distortion, and other psychotic symptoms.
Heroin binds to receptors on neurons that travel from the spinal cord to the region of the brain that feels pleasure. These receptors are normally meant for
endorphins.
Which of the following is not a way that a drug affects the brain?
builds up along the outside of the brain because it cannot pass the blood-brain barrier
A nerve impulse is caused by
a change in the difference in positive and negative ions on the outer and inner surfaces of the neuron membrane, a change that opens adjacent channels and propagates its flow.
In Figure 17.4 of an action potential, number 1 indicates the movement of
Na+ to the inside.
The primary functions of the spinal cord involve
reflex actions and communication between the brain and peripheral nerves.
The difference between a weak stimulus and an intense stimulus is
the axon fires at a greater frequency for an intense stimulus.
The membranes that protect the brain and spinal cord are called
meninges.
Which of the following is NOT true about the cerebrum?
It is responsible for maintenance of breathing and heart rate.
Which description best fits the Central Nervous System (CNS)?
Consists of the brain and spinal cord, located in the midline of the body.
Language is NOT dependent on
the spinal cord
Which statement is NOT true about the development of an action potential?
The action potential ends when the polarity across the membrane reaches +40 mV.
Which part of a simple reflex takes the message away from the CNS?
motor neuron
The brains of Alzheimer disease patients show no abnormalities post-mortem.
false
The limbic system is a separate part of the brain located behind the cerebellum on top of the brain stem.
false
Which statement is true regarding the sympathetic and parasympathetic divisions of the autonomic motor pathways?
Both divisions have two neurons per message.
In order for transmission across the synapse to occur,
synaptic vesicles fuse with the presynaptic membrane.
Dendrites
carry impulses toward a cell body.
Neurotransmitters are molecules that cross the synaptic cleft via
passive diffusion and either excite or inhibit the postsynaptic neuron.
Which is the correct arrangement of tissues from outermost to innermost?
vertebrae → meninges → spinal cord → central canal
In the axon, the nerve impulses travel
away from the cell body.
Why does the primary somatosensory area have a larger section dedicated to the fingers and hand, than to the feet and toes?
the fingers and hand are how we take in more sensory information from our surroundings than the feet and toes
People claim that once you have learned to ride a bicycle you can always ride a bicycle, even if you haven’t ridden for a long time. What type of memory is associated with this?
skill memory
How fast a person can type or play the piano is ultimately limited by the number of impulses a person can send to their finger muscles per second. This in turn is limited by
the speed with which sodium ion can be pumped back outside the neuron membrane.
Which of the following is not part of the brain?
the meninges
Nicotine is not considered a drug because it does not affect the body physically.
false
Which part of the brain contains centers for the heartbeat and respiration?
medulla oblongata
Which of the following is not a symptom of addiction to a certain drug?
the drug continues to cause physical or psychological changes in your body
Transmission of a nerve impulse from one neuron to another neuron is NOT dependent on
a refractory period.
Which of the following is the best description of the cause of multiple sclerosis (MS)?
myelin sheath lesions impair normal coordination of impulses
What are the two parts of the diencephalon?
the hypothalamus and the thalamus
Which amino acid, in mice, was discovered to play a role in memory?
glutamate
Which of the following drugs is a powerful CNS stimulant?
methamphetamine
When the dorsal root of a spinal nerve is cut,
incoming sensory nerve impulses are lost.
Which of the following is NOT true about the myelin sheath?
It decreases the speed of nerve impulse conduction.
Which structures are associated with the limbic system?
cerebral lobes, basal nuclei, and diencephalon
Which is NOT a correct association of brain structures and functions?
thalamus—regulates heartbeat and blood pressure
Which limbic structure allows us to respond to and display anger and also prompts the release of adrenaline into the bloodstream?
amygdala
Administration of norepinephrine would
dilate the bronchi and increase oxygen for blood.
The cerebrum is the largest portion of the brain in humans.
true
In Figure 17.16, the structure at “c” is a(n)
interneuron.
A stroke results from a disruption of the blood supply to the brain.
true
A post-synaptic membrane
must be either a dendrite membrane or cell body membrane.
Which of the following is NOT true about the autonomic nervous system?
It functions voluntarily and consciously.
Spinal nerves contain
both sensory and motor fibers.
Generally, nerve impulses do not move “backward” along a series of neurons. What is the reason for this?
There is a short refractory period during which sodium gates cannot open and an action potential cannot move backwards.
A reflex
is an automatic, involuntary response.
Which of the following is a long-term effect of heroin use?
The body decreases the production of endorphins.
An impulse traveling up the spinal cord first enters the brain at the
medulla
Which is NOT a correct association of memory type?
semantic memory—non-language memory
In dissection, most nerve fibers appear gray to white because
they are mostly myelin sheath made of lipid or fat molecules.
The likely effect on a neuron of two excitatory signals and twenty inhibitory signals is
prohibiting the axon from firing at all.
In Figure 17.4, number 3 represents
action potential.
Since the membrane is more permeable to K+ than to Na+,
there are always more positive ions outside the membrane than inside.
Which is NOT a correct association of structure and function?
sensory neuron—controls sensory organs such as eyes
If you have extreme difficulties learning how to hit a baseball or play the piano, there may be a problem with your cerebellum.
true
Consciousness is best associated with the
cerebrum
The enzyme that breaks down acetylcholine within the synaptic cleft is
acetylcholinesterase
Certain people have an inability to speak due to brain damage. The most likely area of the brain that has been damaged is
Broca’s area.
Due to experimentation, it was discovered that which structure was involved in the conversion of short-term memories to long-term memories?
hippocampus
Which structure communicates with the prefrontal area of the brain and is involved in learning and memory?
hippocampus
Myelinated axons that run together in bundles in the CNS are
tracts
Which description bets fits the Peripheral Nervous System (PNS)?
Nerves that carry sensory messages to the CNS and motor commands to the muscles and glands.
Carpal tunnel syndrome results in damage to the median nerve, resulting in lack of control to the wrist and also numbness. This indicates that
the nerve contained both sensory and motor neurons.
The main function of the cerebrospinal fluid is
to cushion and protect the central nervous system.
Myasthenia gravis can be treated with immunosuppressive drugs although there is no cure.
true
A nerve is
composed of the long fibers of long axons.
Which type of memory is associated with specific facts, persons, and events?
episodic
When individuals experience fear and pleasure, what part of the brain has been stimulated?
limbic system
Which of the following is not a function of the cerebrum?
maintains posture and balance
Saltatory conduction occurs when
the action potential jumps from node to node.
What are the long-term consequences associated with the use of cocaine?
A decrease in dopamine production.
The sodium/potassium pump is primarily responsible for the
resting potential.
When anyone severs his spinal cord, as Christopher Reeve did in a horse riding accident, they suffer a loss of sensation and a loss of voluntary control.
true
Which is NOT a correct association of disease with cause or symptoms?
fetal alcohol syndrome—increased intelligence and physical performance
The summing up of excitatory and inhibitory signals in a neuron is called
synaptic integration.
Which of the following is an accurate comparison of Alzheimer’s and Parkinson’s diseases?
Patients with AD produce too much beta amyloid while those with PD produce too little dopamine.
Jeremy has developed a problem with regulating his waking/sleeping cycle and regulating his body temperature. Doctors suspect he may have a brain lesion. Where might this lesion be located?
in the hypothalamus
Most illicit drugs affect the action of the brain by interfering with the Na+-K+ pump and nerve impulses.
false
One group of neurotransmitters retards heart rate, promotes digestion, contracts the eye pupil, etc. The other group has the opposite effect. These drugs are affecting the
sympathetic and parasympathetic nervous systems.
What is the definition of learning?
The ability to retain and utilize past memories.
Which disease is associated with mild tremors in one or more limbs, abnormally high levels of glutamate in the cerebrospinal fluid and onset between the ages of 40 and 60?
amyotrophic lateral sclerosis
Which part of the brain is used to integrate incoming information and send it to the appropriate portion of the cerebrum?
thalamus
Which types of cells are found only in the Central Nervous System?
interneurons
What are the interconnecting spaces that produce and serve as a reservoir for cerebrospinal fluid in the brain called?
ventricles
Both meningitis and kuru involve infectious agents.
true
In Figure 17.16, the structure at “a” is a(n)
effector
Which brain structure serves as a bridge between the sensory association areas and the prefrontal area?
hippocampus
Which lobe of the cerebrum is responsible for vision?
occipital
Which is a combination of physiological and psychological dependence?
increasing a drug to get the same effect and preoccupation with trying to get more drugs
Which body part is associated with only the primary somatosensory area?
genitals
Which part of the brain is a seahorse-shaped structure deep in the temporal lobe?
hippocampus