Ch. 17 Matching Review WS, APUSH

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Great Railroad Strike of 1877
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Nationwide strike, 1000s of rr workers & labor allies, protested growing power of rr corps. & steep wage cute imposed by rr managers amid a severe eco depression, began in 1873.
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Management revolution
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International management structure adopted by + large, complex corps., distinguished top executives from day-to-day operations & departmentalized operations by function.
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Interstate Commerce Act
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1886, created fed. regulatory agency designed to oversee rr industry & prevent collision & unfair rates.
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Knights of Labor
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1st mass labor org. created among Ams working class. 1869, peaked in strength mid-1880s. Attempted to bridge boundaries of ethnicity, gender, ideology, race & occupation to build “universal brotherhood” of all workers.
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Anarchism
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Advocacy of a stateless society achieved by revolutionary means. Feared for their views, ppl who took approach became scapegoats for 1886 Haymarket Square bombing.
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Greenback-Labor Party
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National pol. movement calling on gov. to + $ supply in order to assist borrowers & foster eco. growth. Also called for greater regulation of corporations & laws enforcing 8-hour workday.
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American Federation of Labor
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Org. created by Samuel Gompers, 1886, coordinated activities of craft unions & called for direct negotiation w/ employers in order to achieve benefits for skilled workers.
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Haymarket Square
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5/4/1886, conflict, both workers & policemen killed/wounded during labor demonstration in Chicago, called by local anarchists. Created backlash against all labor orgs., Knights of Labor.
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Vertical integration
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Business model, corporation controlled all aspects of production, raw materials -> packaged products. Robber barons/industrial innovators (Gustavus Swift & Andrew Carnegie) pioneered business form at end of CW.
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Scientific management
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System of organizing work developed by Frederick W. Taylor in late 19th century. Designed to coax max output from individual worker, + efficiency & – production costs.
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Closed shop
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Workplace where a job seeker had to be union member to gain employment. Advocated by craft unions, to keep out lower-wage workers & strengthening unions’ bargaining position w/ employers.
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Producerism
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Real eco. wealth, created by workers who make living by physical labor (ie farmers & craftsmen) & merchants, lawyers, bankers & other middlemen unfairly gain wealth from workers.
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Trust
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Small group of associates, hold stock from a group of combined firms, managing them as a single entity.
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Chinese Exclusion Act
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1882, barred Chinese laborer from entering US. Continued until 1940s.
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Horizontal integration
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Business concept, late 19th century, pressure competitors & force rivals to merge cos into conglomerate. John D. Rockefeller, Standard Oil pioneered business model.
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Farmers’ Alliance
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Rural movement founded in TX during depression of 1870s, spread across Plains states & S. Advocated cooperative stores & exchanges that would circumvent middlemen, & called for gr8er gov. aid to farmers & stricter reg. of rrs.
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Mass production
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Coined by Henry Ford, helped to invent system based on assembly of standardized parts. Accompanied continued des killing of industrial labor.
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Granger laws
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Eco. reg. laws passed in some midW states in late 1870s, triggered by pressure from farmers & Greenback-Labor Party.
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Homestead lockout
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1892, against workers a steel mill after Andrew Carnegie refused to renew union contract. Union supporters attacked guards hired to close them out & protect strike-breakers, employed by mill, but National Guard suppressed resistance & Homestead, like other steel plants, became non-union mill.
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Deskilling
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Elimination of skilled labor under new system of mechanized manufacturing, workers completed discrete, small-scale tasks rather than crafting an entire product. Employers found they could pay workers less & replace them + easily.

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