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Ch 16 AP Euro Review – Marsh

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The Scientific Revolution of the seventeenth century
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although an innovative phase in western thinking, was based upon the intellectual and scientific accomplishments of previous centuries.
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All of the following are considered possible influences and causes of the Scientific Revolution except
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the practical knowledge and technical skills emphasized by sixteenth-century universities.
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Which of these ancient authorities was not relied on by medieval scholars?
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Galileo
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According to Leonardo da Vinci, what subject was the key to understanding the nature of things?
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Mathematics
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Scholars devoted to Hermeticism
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saw the world was a living embodiment of divinity where humans could use mathematics and magic to dominate nature.
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The general conception of the universe before Copernicus was that
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the earth was the stationary center and heavenly spheres orbited it.
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The greatest achievements in science during the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries came in what three areas?
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Astronomy, medicine, and mechanics
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The Ptolemaic conception of the universe was also known as
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the geocentric conception.
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Copernicus preferred the heliocentric model because
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it made the planetary orbits easier to calculate
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Copernicus’s major book was titled
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On the Revolutions of the Heavenly Spheres
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The immediate reaction of the clerics to the theories of Copernicus was
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condemnation, initially by Protestant leaders like Luther who condemned the discovery as contrary to their literal interpretation of the Bible.
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The ideas of Copernicus were
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nearly as complicated as those of Ptolemy
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Following upon Copernicus’s heliocentric theories
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Johannes Kepler used data to derive laws of planetary motion that confirmed Copernicus’s heliocentric theory but showed that the orbits were elliptical
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Tycho Brahe contributed to the advance of astronomy by
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making accurate observations of the planets
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Johannes Kepler was the first astronomer to show that
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planetary orbits are elliptical
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Galileo wrote
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The Starry Messenger.
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The first European to make systematic observations of the heavens by telescope was
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Galileo.
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Galileo was convicted of heresy and sentenced to house arrest for life in 1633 for
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ridiculing the Ptolemaic model in print.
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Galileo’s Dialogue on the Two World Systems was really an attempt to
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suppport copericus through a publication in italian accessible to a wide audience
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What actions did the Catholic Church pursue concerning Galileo and his ideas?
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foreced to recant them in a trial before the inquisition
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Galileo’s ideas on motion included the
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principle of inertia
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Isaac Newton’s scientific Discoveries
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although readily accepted in his own country, were resisted on the continent
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Newton’s contribution to astronomy was to prove that
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the planets obey the same laws as do objects on earth.
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Newton invented
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the calculus.
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Newton’s major work was
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Principia
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Paracelsus revolutionized the world of medicine in the sixteenth century by
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advocating the chemical philosphy of medicine
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Among the following, who is not associated with major changes in sixteenth and seventeenth-century scientific research?
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Galen
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On the Fabric of the Human Body
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was Andreas Vesalius’ masterpiece on anatomical structure.
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William Harvey’s On the Motion of the Heart and Blood refuted the ideas of
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the liver as the beginning point of the circulation of blood.
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The scientist whose work led to the law that states that the volume of a gas varies with the pressure exerted upon it and who argued that matter is composed of atoms, later known as the chemical elements, was
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Robert Boyle.
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Antoine Lavoisier
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is regarded as the father of modern chemistry.
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The role of women in the Scientific Revolution is illustrated by
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Margaret Cavendish, who participated in her era’s scientific debates.
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The overall effect of the Scientific Revolting on the argument about women was to
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generate facts about differences between men and women that were used to prove male dominance.
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Margaret Cavendish attacked the belief
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that humans through science were masters of nature.
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Maria Winkelmann
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a German astronomer.
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Benedict Spinoza believed that women
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were “naturally” inferior to men.
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The philosophy of Rene Descartes
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stressed a separation of mind and matter.
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What was the name of Descartes’ book that expounded his theories about the universe?
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Discourse on Method
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Descartes believed that the world could be understood by
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the same principles inherent in mathematical thinking.
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The Foundation of Francis Bacon’s methodology was
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inductive reasoning.
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Organized religions in the seventeenth century
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rejected scientific discoveries that conflicted with the Christian view of the world.
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Benedict de Spinoza
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claimed that God was not just the creator the universe – God was the universe.
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For Spinoza, the failure to understand God led to
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people using nature for their own self-interest.
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In his work Pensees, Pascal
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attempted to convince rationalists that Christianity was valid by appealing to their reason and emotions.
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For Blaise Pascal, humans
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could not understand infinity, only God could.
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Concerning the first important scientific societies, the French Academy differed from the English Royal Society in the former’s
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corporal and capital punishment were on the decline
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During the seventeenth century, royal and princely patronage of science
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became an international phenomenon.
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The scientific societies of early modern Europe established the first
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scientific journals appearing regularly.
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Science became an integral part of Western culture in the eighteenth century because
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it offered a new means to make profits and maintain social order.
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Which one of the following comments best summarizes impact of the Scientific Revolution on Western Civilization?
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It was a major turning point.