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ch 15 psychology

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therapy
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treatment methods aimed at making people feel ether and function more effectively
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psychotherapy
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typically involves an individual, couple, or small group of individuals working directly with a therapist and discussing their concerns or problems
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insight therapies
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therapies aimed mainly at understanding one’s motives and actions
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action therapy
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a therapy that is directed more at changing behavior than providing insights into the reason for that behavior
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biomedical therapies
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use of drugs, surgical methods, electric shock treatments, and noninvasive stimulation techniques
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psychoanalysis
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a therapy technique designed to help patients feel more relaxed, open, and able to explore their innermost feelings without fear of embarrassment or rejection
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dream interpretation
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the analysis of elements within a patents dream
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manifest content
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actual dream
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latent content
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hidden, symbolic meaning of those events that would, if correctly interpreted, reveal the unconscious conflicts that were creating the nervous disorder
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free association
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repressed impulses and other material were trying to break free into consciousness
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transference
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when the therapist becomes a symbol of a parental authority figure from the past
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resistance
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the point at which the patient becomes unwilling to talk about certain topics
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directive
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modern therapy of asking questions, suggesting helpful behavior, and giving opinions and interpretations earlier in the relationship
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psychodynamic therapy
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typically shorter in duration and focusing on the process of transference
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interpersonal psychotherapy
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a psychotherapy developed to address depression; not considered to be a psychodynamic therapy as it combines aspects of humanistic and cognitive-behavior therapies; unlike others has some research support
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person-centered therapy
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Rogers; goal of therapist is to provide unconditional positive regard that is lacking in client’s life and help person recognize discrepancies between real and ideal selves; called this bc the person is truly the center of the process; based on humanistic ideas
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nondirective
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Rogers therapy; bc the person has to do all of the work
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authenticity
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Rogers; therapist must show this in a genuine, open, and honest response to the individual
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unconditional positive regard
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Rogers; warmth respect et.
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empathy
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Rogers; therapist needs to acknowledge what people are feeling and experiencing by using a kind of understanding
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countertransference
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therapists must avoid getting their own feelings mixed up with their client’s feelings
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reflection
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refers to a technique therapists use to allow clients to continue to talk and have insights without the interference of the therapist’s interpretations and possible biases.
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Basic Elements for Rogers
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Authenticity, unconditional positive regard, empathy
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motivational interviewing
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variation of person centered therapy; has specific goals, to reduce ambivalence about change and to increase intrinsic motivation to bring that change about; used for addictive disorders, treatment of anxiety and mood disorders
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principles of motivational interviewing
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express empathy, develop discrepancy between client’s present behaviors and values, roll with resistance, and support client’s self efficacy
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Gestalt therapy
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based on humanistic ideas; person experiences unhappiness and maladjustment when the inner self does not match the mask
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directive;nondirective
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Gestalt therapy is _________ and person-centered therapy is ____________
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hidden; denied
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psychoanalysis focuses on ______ past whereas Gestalt therapy focuses on _______ past
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humanistic therapy drawbacks
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little experimental research, people must be intelligent and verbal and be able to express thoughts
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Philippe Pinel
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one of the first therapists to begin a movement towards the humane treatment of patients
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insight
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psychotherapies that attempt to increase the understanding of client’s motives are known as ________ therapies
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psychodynamic
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although the term may apply to many therapies, transference is typically associated with _______ therapies
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behavior therapies
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action based rather than insight based unlike humanistic and psychodynamic therapies
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classical conditioning
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used by behavior therapists to replace old and undesirable automatic responses with new desirable ones
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applied behavior analysis
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using learning techniques to change undesirable behavior; used to be called behavior modification- new term better highlights the need for functional analysis of behavior to be modified which is then followed by conditioning techniques to modify behavior
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systematic desensitization
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therapist guides the client through a series of steps meant to reduce fear and anxiety and is normally used to treat phobic disorders and is a 3 step process
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hierarchy of fears
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list of fears
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aversion therapy
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placing an unpleasant stimulus with the stimulus that results in the undesirable response; not good for phobias bc phobia is already unpleasant
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exposure therapies
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behavioral techniques that introduce the client to situations under carefully controlled conditions, which are related to their anxieties or fears
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flooding
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used under very controlled conditions produces extinction of the conditioned response by preventing an escape or avoidance response
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operant conditioning
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include reinforcement, shaping, modeling to change frequency of voluntary behavior
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eye-movement sensitization and reprocessing
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exposure based therapy that involves very brief and repeated imaginal gloodig cognitive reprocessing and dessnisatifcatoi
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modeling
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learning through observation and imitation of a model
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participant modeling
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a model demonstrates the desired behavior in a step-by-step gradual process; dental office fears
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reinforcement
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strengthening of a response by following it with some pleasurable consequence or the removal of an unpleasant stimulus
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token economy
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objects known as tokens can be traded for food, candy, treats, or special privileges.
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contingency contracting
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this contract is a formal agreement between therapist and client in which bot parties’ responsibilities and goals are clearly stated
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extinction
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involves the removal of a reinforcer to reduce the frequency of a particular response;time out
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time out
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a child is removed from situation that provides reinforcement
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cognitive therapy
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focused on helping people change their ways of thinking
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arbitrary influence
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refers to jumping to conclusions without any evidence. means to decide something base on nothing more than personal whims.
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arbitrary example
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suzy canceled our lunch date–I bet she’s seeing someone else.
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selective thinking
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person focuses only on one aspect of a situation, leaving out other relevant facts that might make things seem less negative.
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selective thinking example
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Peters teacher praised his paper but made one comment about needing to check his punctuation and peter assumes that his paper is lousy ignoring the positive comments
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overgeneralization
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A person draws a sweeping conclusion from one incident and then assumes that the conclusion applies to areas of life that have nothing to do with the original event.
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overgeneralization example
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I got yelled at by my boss. My boyfriend is going to break up with me and kick me out.
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magnification and minimization
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a person blows bad things out of proportion while not emphasizing good things
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magnification and minimization example
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a student who has received good grades on every other exam believes the C she got on her last quiz means she is not going to succeed in college
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personalization
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an individual takes responsibility or blame for events that are not really connected to the individual
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personalization example
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when sandy’s husband comes home in a bad mood bc of something that happened at work, she immediately assumes that he is angry with her
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cognitive-behavioral therapy
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therapies using cognitive methods and have behavioral elements; 1. relieve symptoms and help clients solve problems, 2. help clients develop strategies that can be used to cope with future problems; 3. help clients change the way they think
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CBT basic elements
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cognitions affect behavior, cognitions can be changed, and behavior change can result from cognitive change
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rational emotive behavior therapy
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clients are taught a way to challenge their own irrational beliefs with more rational helpful statements; directive
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psychodynamic therapy
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aims to reveal unconscious conflicts through dream interpretation, free association, resistance, and trasference
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family counseling
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all of the members of a family who are experiencing some type of problem are seen by the therapist as a group
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self-help groups
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are usually formed around a particular problem
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evaluation
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typically shorter and less expensive than insight therapies; treating the symptom not the cause is both a feature and a criticism; especially effective for many disorders including depression anxiety disorders and personality disorders
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token economies
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successful across multiple settings in the establishment of desirable behaviors and modification of problem behaviors
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action
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cognitive and behavior
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insight
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psychodynamic and humanistic
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common factors approach
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in psychotherapy is a modern approach to eclecticism and focuses on those factors common to successful outcomes from different forms of therapy
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therapeutic alliance
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most important common factor of successful psychotherapy; the relationship between the client and therapist
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evidence based treatment
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refers to techniques or interventions that have produced desired outcomes or therapeutic change in controlled studies
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culture bound values
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including individual centered versus other centered, verbal/emotional/behavioral expressiveness communication patterns from client to counselor; differing cultural values can cause therapists to fail at forming an empathetic relationship
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class-bound values
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clients from impoverished backgrounds may have values and experiences that the therapist cannot understand
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language
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speaking different languages becomes a problem in understanding what both client and therapists are saying and in psychological testing
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nonverbal communication
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body language, nonverbal communication, can also differ between cultures and ethnicities
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cybertherapy
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refers to psychotherapy that is offered on the internet, and the people who practice are called cybertherapists
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biomedical therapies
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directly affecting the biological functioning of the brain and body
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antipsychotic drugs
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drugs used to treat psychotic symptoms sic as hallucinations, delusions, and bizarre behavior
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typical antipsychotic drugs
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work by blocking certain dopamine receptors in the brain namely the D2 receptor thereby reducing the effete of dopamine in synaptic transmission
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atypical antipsychotic drugs
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may also suppress dopamine but to a much greater degree in the one dopamine pathway that seems to cause psychotic problems
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antianxiety drugs
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address anxiety and related disorders; include the moor tranquilizers that have a sedative effect–also have potential for addiction and abuse; antidepressant drugs also used to treat anxiety disorders
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antimanic drugs
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address the manic episodes associated with bipolar disorder, most commons lithium; may also include antioconvulsants and antidepressants
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antidepressant drugs
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used to treat symptoms of depression and include monoamine oxidase inhibitors, try cyclic antidepressants and selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors
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electroconvulsive therapy
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still used to treat sever depression and a few other disorders that have not responded to other forms of treatment; involves the application of an electric shock and resulting seizure that appears to normalize the balance of neurotransmitters within the brain; side effects:extreme memory loss, broken bones, have been minimized by lower levels of current and use of both muscle realxers and anesthesia
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psychosurgery
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used as a last resort involves cutting into brain to remove or destroy brin tissues associated with symptoms; prefrontal lobotomies were widely used but before development of antipsychotic drugs, bilateral anterior cingulotomy is uses primarily for obsessive compulsive disorder;has also been used for depression and bipolar disorder
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emerging technologies
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repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation; trasncranial direct current stimulation….being evaluated as treatment option for PTSD and depression; deep brain stimulation (DBS) for depression and OCD
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addictive
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antidepressants are taking place of many anxiety drugs in the treatment of anxiety disorders bc anxiety drugs are more _________ and have more side effects
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DBS
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shown to have promise of treatment of anorexia nervosa where other treatments have failed