Ch. 14 Vocab PSYCH

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Social psychology
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The scientific study of how individuals behave, think, and feel in social situations.
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Social role
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Expected behavior patterns associated with particular social positions (such as daughter, worker, student)
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Role conflict
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Trying to occupy two or more roles that make conflicting demands on behavior.
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Group structure
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The network of roles, communication pathways, and power in a group.
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Group cohesiveness
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The degree of attraction among group members or their commitment to remaining in the group.
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In-group
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A group with which a person identifies.
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Out-group
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A group with which a person does not identify.
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Social status
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And individual position in a social structure especially with respect to power, privilege, or importance.
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Norm
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A widely accepted (but often unspoken) standard of conduct for appropriate behavior.
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Social cognition
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The process of thinking about ourselves and others in a social context
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Social comparison
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Making judgments about ourselves through comparison with others
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Attribution
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The process of making inferences about the causes of one’s own behavior, and that of others.
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Fundamental attribution error
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The tendency to attribute the behavior of others to intern all causes (personality likes and so forth)
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After-observer basis
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The tendency to attribute the behavior of others to internal causes while attribute seeing one’s own behavior to external causes (situations and circumstances).
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Attitude
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A learned tendency to respond to people objects or institutions in a positive or negative way.
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Reference group
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Any group that individual identifies with and uses as a standard for social comparison.
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Persuasion
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A deliberate attempt to change attitudes or beliefs with information and arguments.
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Cognitive dissonance
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And uncomfortable class between self image, thoughts, beliefs, attitudes, or perceptions and one’s behavior.
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Social influence
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Changes in a person’s behavior induced by the presence or actions of others.
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Mere presence
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The tendency for people to change their behavior just because of the presence of other people.
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Social facilitation
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The tendency to perform better when in the presence of others.
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Social loafing
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The tendency of people to work less hard when part of a group than when they are solely responsible for their work
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Conformity
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Bringing one’s behavior into agreement or harmony with norms or with the behavior of others and a group.
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Groupthink
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A compulsion by members of decision-making groups to maintain agreement, even at the cost of critical thinking
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Compliance
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Bending to the requests of a person who has little or no authority or other form of social power.
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Foot-in-the-door affect
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The tendency for a person who has first complied with a small request to be more likely later to fulfill a larger request
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Door-in-the-face effect
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The tendency for a person who has refused a major request to subsequently be more likely to comply with a minor request.
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Lowball technique
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A strategy in which commitment is gained first to reasonable or desirable terms, which are then made less reasonable or desirable.
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Obedience
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Conformity to the demands of an authority.
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Coercion
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Being forced to change your beliefs or your behavior against your will
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Cult
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A group that professes great devotion to some person and follows that person almost without question; called members are typically victimized by their leaders in various ways
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Self-assertion
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A direct, honest expression of feelings and desires
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Aggression
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Hurting another person or achieving one’s goals at the expense of another person
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Prosocial behavior
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Any behavior that has a positive impact on other people
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Need to affiliate
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The desire to associate with other people
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Interpersonal attraction
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Social attraction to another person
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Self-disclosure
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The process of revealing private thoughts, feelings, and one’s personal history to others
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Romantic love
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Love that is associated with high levels of interpersonal attraction, heightened arousal, mutual absorption, and sexual desire.
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Intimacy
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Feelings of connectedness and affection for another person.
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Passion
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Deep emotional andor sexual feelings for another person.
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Commitment
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The determination to stay in a long-term relationship with another person.
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Liking
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A relationship based on intimacy, but lacking passion and commitment.
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Companionate love
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Form of love characterized by intimacy and commitment but not passion.
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Consummate love
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Form of love characterized by intimacy, passion, and commitment.
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Evolutionary psychology
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Study of the evolutionary origins of human behavior patterns.
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Bystander effect (bystander apathy)
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Unwillingness of bystanders to offer help during emergencies or to become involved in others’ problems.
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Diffusion of responsibility
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Spreading the responsibility to act among several people; reduces the likelihood that help will be given to a person in need.
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Empathic arousal
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Emotional arousal that occurs when you feel some of another person’s pain, fear, or anguish.
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Empathy-helping relationship
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Observation that we are most likely to help someone else when we feel emotions such as empathy and compassion.
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Antisocial behavior
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Any behavior that has a negative impact on other people.
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Bullying
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The deliberate and repeated use of verbal or physical, direct or indirect, aggression as a tactic for dealing with everyday situations.
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Frustration-aggression hypothesis
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States that frustration tends to lead to aggression.
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Social learning theory
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Combines learning principles with cognitive processes, socialization, and modeling, to explain behavior.
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Prejudice
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A negative emotional attitude held against members of a particular group of people.
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Discrimination
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Treating members of various social groups differently in circumstances where their rights or treatment should be identical.
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Authoritarian personality
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A personality pattern characterized by rigidity, inhibition, prejudice, and an excessive concern with power, authority, and obedience.
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Ethnocentrism
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Placing one’s own group or race at the center-that is, tending to reject all other groups that one’s own.
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Dogmatism
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An unwarranted positiveness or certainty in matters of belief or opinion.
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Stereotype threat
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The anxiety caused by the fear of being judged in terms of a stereotype.
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Social stereotypes
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Oversimplified images of the traits of individuals who belong to a particular social group.
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Symbolic prejudice
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Prejudice that is expressed in disguised fashion.
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Superordinate goal
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A goal that exceeds or overrides all others; a goal that renders all other goals.

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