ch 13 practice questions

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1. The spinal cord conducts signals up and down the body passing through gray and white matter, respectively.
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false
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2. Cervical and lumbar enlargements are wide points in the spinal cord marking the emergence of motor nerves.
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false
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Each portion of the spinal cord served by a spinal nerve is called a segment of the cord.
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true
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Nerve fibers in a given tract in the white matter are similar in origin, destination, and function.
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true
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5. Motor signals typically begin in an upper motor neuron in the thalamus.
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false
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6. Most nerves are motor nerves.
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false
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A nerve fiber is enclosed in its own fibrous sleeve called perineurium.
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false
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8. A ganglion is a swelling along a nerve containing cell bodies of peripheral neurons.
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true
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9. A dermatome is a nerve innervating a specific region in the skin.
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false
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Posterior root ganglia contain somas of unipolar neurons.
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true
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Somatic reflexes are responses of skeletal, smooth, and cardiac muscles.
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false
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The stretch reflex is a tendency of a muscle to stretch when it is overcontracted.
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false
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13. A stretch reflex is often accompanied by reciprocal inhibition.
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true
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14 The tendon reflex is the inhibition of a muscle contraction that occurs when its tendon is excessively stretched.
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false
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The cross extension reflex is the contraction of the extensors on one side of the body when the flexors are contracted on the other side.
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true
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16. The upper motor neurons that control skeletal muscles begin with a soma in A. the posterior horn of the spinal cord. B. the anterior horn of the spinal cord. C. the motor association cortex of the cerebrum. D. the postcentral gyrus of the cerebrum. E. the precentral gyrus of the cerebrum.
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E. the precentral gyrus of the cerebrum.
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The signals that control your handwriting travel down the spinal cord in A. the tectospinal tracts. B. the corticospinal tracts. C. the lateral vestibulospinal tracts. D. the medial vestibulospinal tracts. E. the spinocerebellar tracts.
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B. the corticospinal tracts.
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Many upper motor neurons synapse with lower motor neurons in A. the posterior horns. B. the anterior horns. C. the posterior column. D. the anterior column. E. the posterior root ganglion.
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B. the anterior horns.
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Which of the following sensory functions involves neurons in the posterior root ganglia? A. smell B. hearing C. touch D. taste E. vision
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C. touch
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20. The spinal cord is divided into all of the following regions except A. cervical. B. thoracic. C. lumbar. D. pelvic. E. sacral.
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D. pelvic.
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The following are all functions associated with the spinal cord except A. to protect neurons in both the ascending and descending tracts. B. to mediate a reflex such as the withdrawal of a hand from pain. C. to conduct sensory information up to the brain. D. to conduct motor information down the cord. E. to coordinate the alternating contraction of several muscle groups associated with locomotion.
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A. to protect neurons in both the ascending and descending tracts.
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22. Which of the following fractures would be the least likely to cause a spinal cord injury? A. a fracture of vertebra C2 B. a fracture of vertebra C6 C. a fracture of vertebra T5 D. a fracture of vertebra T12 E. a fracture of vertebra L4
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E. a fracture of vertebra L4
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This figure shows a detail of the spinal cord, meninges, and spinal nerves. What does “1” represent? A. anterior horn B. anterior root of a spinal nerve C. posterior root of a spinal nerve D. posterior horn E. spinal nerve
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C. posterior root of a spinal nerve
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This figure shows a detail of the spinal cord, meninges, and spinal nerves. What does “4” represent? A. gray matter B. white matter C. dura mater D. arachnoid mater E. pia mater
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D. arachnoid mater
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25. Epidural anesthesia is introduced in the epidural space between the ___ to block pain signals during pregnancy. A. dural sheath and dura mater B. dural sheath and vertebral bones C. dura mater and arachnoid mater D. arachnoid mater and pia mater E. dura mater and pia mater
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C. dura mater and arachnoid mater
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This figure shows a cross section of the spinal cord. What does “3” represent? A. anterior horn B. posterior horn C. anterior column D. posterior column E. anterior root of spinal cord
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A. anterior horn
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27. Cerebrospinal fluid fills in the space between the A. dural sheath and dura mater. B. dural sheath and vertebral bones. C. dura mater and arachnoid mater. D. arachnoid mater and pia mater. E. dura mater and pia mater.
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D. arachnoid mater and pia mater.
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28. Which of the following structures is the richest in lipid content? A. gray matter B. white matter C. arachnoid mater D. dura mater E. pia mater
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B. white matter
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Gray matter contains A. glial cells, axons of motor neurons, and Schwann cells. B. glial cells and myelinated fibers. C. neurosomas, dendrites, and proximal parts of axons of neurons. D. the distal part of axons of lower order motor neurons. E. glial cells only.
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C. neurosomas, dendrites, and proximal parts of axons of neurons.
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___ carry motor commands from the brain along the spinal cord. A. Both anterior and posterior roots B. Ascending tracts C. Spinal nerves D. Cranial nerves E. Descending tracts
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E. Descending tracts
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Second-order neurons synapse with third-order neurons in the A. thalamus. B. dorsal root ganglion. C. spinal cord. D. cerebral cortex. E. medulla oblongata.
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A. thalamus.
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___ keep(s) nerve fibers insulated from one another. A. Perineurium B. Endoneurium C. Fascicles D. Epineurium E. Blood vessels
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B. Endoneurium
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33. ___ fibers innervate eyes and ears. A. White B. Visceral C. Somatic D. Special E. General
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D. Special
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A ganglion is a A. bundle of axons in the CNS. B. cluster of dendrites in either the CNS or the PNS. C. cluster of neurosomas in the PNS. D. bundle of axons in the PNS. E. cluster of neurosomas in the CNS.
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C. cluster of neurosomas in the PNS.
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35. There are __ pairs of spinal nerves. A. 12 B. 24 C. 31 D. 35 E. 62
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C. 31
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This figure shows the anatomy of a nerve. What does “3” represent? A. nerve fiber B. spinal nerve C. epineurium D. endoneurium E. perineurium
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E. perineurium
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This figure shows the posterior aspect of spinal nerve roots and plexuses. What does “3” represent? A. cervical plexus B. brachial plexus C. coccygeal plexus D. sacral plexus E. lumbar plexus
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B. brachial plexus
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This figure shows the posterior aspect of spinal nerve roots and plexuses. What does “2” represent? A. the medulla oblongata B. a bundle of spinal nerves C. a bundle of cranial nerves D. the cervical enlargement E. the brachial enlargement
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D. the cervical enlargement
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The ventral rami of the spinal nerves form nerve plexuses in all regions except A. the thoracic region. B. the brachial region. C. the cervical region. D. the lumbar region. E. the sacral region.
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A. the thoracic region.
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The cervical plexus gives origin to the ___ nerve(s). A. oculomotor B. sciatic C. musculocutaneous D. radial E. phrenic
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E. phrenic
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41. Which of the following nerves originates in the lumbosacral plexus? A. axillary B. sciatic C. phrenic D. ilioinguinal E. obturator
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B. sciatic
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This figure shows a dermatome map. A patient with no sensation in the left thumb would probably have a nerve damaged in A. T1. B. T5. C. C5. D. C6. E. L3.
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D. C6.
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Which of these is an ascending tract of the spinal cord? A. the lateral tectospinal tract B. the medial reticulospinal tract C. the ventral corticospinal tract D. the vestibulospinal tract E. the gracile fasciculus
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E. the gracile fasciculus
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44. A mixed nerve consists of both A. myelinated and unmyelinated fibers. B. glial cells and nerve cells. C. afferent and efferent fibers. D. association and integration neurons. E. spinal and cranial fibers.
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C. afferent and efferent fibers.
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Which of the following branches of a spinal nerve have somas of solely sensory neurons? A. posterior (dorsal) root B. anterior (ventral) root C. posterior ramus D. anterior ramus E. meningeal branch
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A. posterior (dorsal) root
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46. The bundle of nerve roots that occupy the vertebral canal from L2 to S5 is called the A. medullary cone. B. cauda equina. C. lumbar enlargement. D. cervical enlargement. E. spinal cord.
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B. cauda equina.
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Somatosensory refers to these sensory signals except the sensory signals from A. bones and muscles. B. joints. C. proprioceptors. D. the viscera. E. the skin.
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D. the viscera.
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Neurosomas of the posterior root are located in the ___, whereas neurosomas of the anterior root are located in the ___. A. posterior root ganglion; gray matter B. posterior root ganglion; white matter C. gray matter; white matter D. posterior root; anterior root E. white matter; gray matter
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A. posterior root ganglion; gray matter
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A ___ is a cordlike organ composed of numerous ___. A. nerve fiber; nerves B. nerve fiber; axons C. nerve; axons D. nerve fiber; neurosomas E. nerve; neurosomas
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C. nerve; axons
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Which one of the following best describes the order of a somatic reflex? A. somatic receptor → interneuron → afferent nerve fiber → efferent nerve fiber → skeletal muscle B. somatic receptor → efferent nerve fiber → interneuron → afferent nerve fiber → skeletal muscle C. somatic receptor → afferent nerve fiber → interneuron → efferent nerve fiber → skeletal muscle D. somatic receptor → efferent nerve fiber → afferent nerve fiber → interneuron → skeletal muscle E. somatic receptor → afferent nerve fiber → interneuron → efferent nerve fiber → smooth muscle
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C. somatic receptor → afferent nerve fiber → interneuron → efferent nerve fiber → skeletal muscle
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Which of the following groups of muscles have the most muscle spindles? A. muscles of the hand B. muscles of the back C. muscles of the thigh D. muscles of the middle-ear E. muscles of the torso
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A. muscles of the hand
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52. These are all properties of reflexes except A. reflex responses are very predictable. B. reflexes are responses to sensory inputs. C. reflexes are quick responses of the nervous system. D. reflexes are not voluntary. E. reflexes are spontaneous actions of the nervous system.
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E. reflexes are spontaneous actions of the nervous system.
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A muscle spindle contains mostly A. glial cells. B. muscle fibers. C. fascicles. D. nerves. E. nerve cells.
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B. muscle fibers.
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54 ?A nurse pricks your finger to type your blood. You flinch at the pain, pulling your hand back. This is called the A. painful reflex. B. stretch (myotatic) reflex. C. flexor (withdrawal) reflex. D. tendon reflex. E. crossed extension reflex.
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C. flexor (withdrawal) reflex.
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The quickest reflex arcs involve only two neurons, thus forming __ reflex arcs. A. ipsilateral B. contralateral C. polysynaptic D. monosynaptic E. autonomic
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D. monosynaptic
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The flexor (withdrawal) reflex employs a ____, which maintains a sustained contraction. A. parallel after-discharge circuit B. diverging circuit C. converging circuit D. closed circuit E. reverberating circuit
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A. parallel after-discharge circuit
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If a bee sting on the right thigh causes a quick involuntary reaction of the right arm, this would be an example of A. an ipsilateral reflex. B. an intersegmental reflex. C. a withdrawal reflex. D. a crossed extensor reflex. E. a contralateral reflex.
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B. an intersegmental reflex.
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The sensitivity of the muscle spindle is maintained by A. a stretch reflex. B. alpha motor neurons. C. gamma motor neurons. D. anulospiral endings. E. secondary afferent (group II) fibers.
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C. gamma motor neurons.
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The fibers that carry action potentials to cause skeletal muscle to contract are A. gamma motor neurons. B. anulospiral endings. C. intrafusal fibers. D. extrafusal fibers. E. alpha motor neurons.
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E. alpha motor neurons.
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60. You go to the movies after a long day and you begin to nod off as soon as the movie starts. Your head starts to lower a little but this reflex causes your head to rise. This is called the A. tendon reflex. B. crossed extension reflex. C. withdrawal reflex. D. stretch (myotatic) reflex. E. flexor (withdrawal) reflex.
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D. stretch (myotatic) reflex.
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61. In the patellar tendon reflex arc, the patellar ligament is stretched, which stretches the quadriceps femoris muscle of the thigh. This reflex will cause the quadriceps femoris to A. contract and the antagonist muscles, the hamstrings, to relax. B. contract and the hamstrings also to contract. C. relax and the hamstrings to contract. D. relax and the hamstrings also to relax. E. relax without any effect on the hamstrings.
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A. contract and the antagonist muscles, the hamstrings, to relax.
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A reflex where the sensory input and motor output are on opposite sides of the spinal cord is called a(n) _____ reflex arc. A. intersegmental B. contralateral C. ipsilateral D. polysynaptic E. monosynaptic
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B. contralateral
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The tendon reflex A. causes a muscle that is being stretched to contract. B. makes the contralateral motor neurons contract. C. makes the ipsilateral motor neurons relax. D. prevents overcontraction of a muscle. E. causes a tendon to contract.
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D. prevents overcontraction of a muscle.
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This reflex shows the least synaptic delay. A. polysynaptic reflex B. cross extension reflex C. withdrawal reflex D. flexor reflex E. tendon reflex
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E. tendon reflex
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65. Tendon organs are A. chemoreceptors. B. visceral receptors. C. proprioceptors. D. pain receptors. E. nociceptors.
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C. proprioceptors.

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