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Ch. 13 Learning Curve Review

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Where did the Americans who migrated to Oregon in the 1840s primarily settle?
answer

The Willamette Valley
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General Winfield Scott led American forces in an invasion of Mexico in 1847 and marched 260 miles to capture what site?
answer

Mexico City
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What book did Harriet Beecher Stowe write that increased northern sentiment against slavery?
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Uncle Tom’s Cabin
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John Brown intended to end which institution by his raid at Harpers Ferry in 1859?
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Slavery
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What was the name given to the Mexican elite of California?
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Californios
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What position did John C. Calhoun take on the question of the admission of California?
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Congress could not legally ban slavery from any territory.
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The Republican Party was least likely to be supported by which group?
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Anti-Immigration nativists
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Where was the federal arsenal that abolitionist John Brown attacked in 1859?
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Harpers Ferry, Virginia
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What name is given the belief in a god given American cultural and racial superiority that lay behind the desire to make the entire continent part of American Democracy?
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Manifest Destiny
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Why did the Fugitive Slave Act prove to be the most controversial part of the Compromise of 1850?
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The new law denied people accused of being runaways of fundamental rights.
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In the election of 1860, what proportion of the popular vote did Lincoln win?
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40 percent
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Who were the first Indians to develop a specialized horse culture?
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Comanches
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In 1849, what group made up most of the migrants who came to California by land and sea to mine for gold?
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white men
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What did the events in Kansas suggest would be the result of the popular sovereignty policy?
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violence
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Who was Abraham Lincoln’s political role model?
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Henry Clay
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What connection did John L. O’ Sullivan’s term “manifest destiny” have to American expansion of the nineteenth century?
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The phrase embodied the dreams of American expansionists.
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Why did the Whigs select Zachary Taylor as their candidate for the presidency in 1848?
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He was a war hero
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Why was Harriet Beecher Stowe’s Uncle Tom’s Cabin so successful with readers?
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It highlighted the cruelty of slavery with heartrending power.
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When did the Republican Party gain support in the North and Midwest?
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When the Democratic Party split over the Lecompton constitution in Kansas
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What was the slogan of Polk’s Democratic campaign in 1844?
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“Fifty-four forty or fight!”
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What term did Democratic presidential candidate Lewis Case use in 1848 to refer to his plan to allow residents of a territory to decide on slavery?
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Squatter sovereignty
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Why did President Franklin Pierce want to buy the land from Mexico that became the Gadsden Purchase?
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To build a transcontinental railroad
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Why did Buffalo herd of the northern plains begin to shrink in the 1830s?
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Sloux Indians and other plain tribes began to trade buffalo hides with European fur traders.
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Which president pursued his ambition of acquiring Texas, New Mexico, and California for the United States even at the risk of war?
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James K. Polk
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Opposition to what action led some Democrats to join the Republican Party when it formed in the mid-1850s?
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The Kansas-Nebraska Act
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After losing reelection to the House of Representatives and withdrawing from politics, opposition to what event led Abraham Lincoln to return to politics?
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The Kansas-Nebraska Act
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Which plain tribe came to dominate the northern Great Plains by 1830s?
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Lakota Sioux
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Why did the free-soil concept achieve significant popular support?
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It stressed protection of white economic oppurtunity
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What was the primary agenda of the Know-Nothing Party?
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Nativism
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What positions did Lincoln support on the Mexican War while serving one term in Congress?
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Both the war and the Wilmot Proviso
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What was the name of the written statement, issued by the American diplomats in Europe in 1854, that justified the U.S seizure of Cuba?
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The Ostend Manifesto
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What statement describes Lincoln’s politics in 1854?
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He was a Republican and former Whig who supported a gradualist view on abolition.
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What was the cause of “Oregon fever?”
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Reports of potential harbors and fertile soil in Oregon.
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The admission of what state prompted the Compromise of 1850?
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California
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What was the new party created in 1854 to oppose the expansion of slavery?
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The Republican Party
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Why was the Liberty Party important in the 1844 presidential election?
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Its votes decided the election.
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What abolitionist, inflamed by the sack of the free-soil town of Lawrence, Kansas, led the vigilantes who took revenge on proslavery settlets in the “Pottawatomie massacre?”
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John Brown
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Lincoln’s ambition propelled him into politics after having been raised by what kind of father?
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A struggling yeoman farmer.
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Who was the American merchant who lived in CA under the Mexican regime in the early 1820s?
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Thomas Larkin
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What did the Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo stipulate?
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Payment to Mexico of $15 million from the U.S. in return for vast tracts of land.
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What was the ruling in the Ableman v. Booth court case?
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The Wisconsin Supreme Court declared that the Fugitive Slave Act violated the rights of Wisconsin’s citizens.
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Lincoln’s famous “House Divided” speech was an attack on what event?
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The Dred Scott decision
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What indigenous animal sustained many Great Plains tribes in the 1800s?
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Buffalo
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How did President John Tyler hope to secure his reelection in 1844?
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By running as a Democrat in favor of acquiring both Oregon and Texas.
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Which proposal was intended to prohibit slavery in any territories acquired from Mexico as a result of the Mexican-American War?
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The Wilmot Proviso
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Why did James K. Pol win the presidential election of 1844?
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Henry Clay’s stand on Texas cost him the election.
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Whom did President James K. Polk dispatch to CA in 1835 to lead a heavily armed “exploring” party?
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John C. Fremont
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Which part of the Compromise of 1850 was the most controversial after passage?
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The terms of the Fugitive Slave Act
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Which statement describes the outcome of the election of 1860?
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The vote was divided along strictly sectional lines
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By 1870, what was the major agricultural product of CA?
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Wheat
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What event proved to be the last nail in the coffin of the Second Party System and contributed directly to the emergence of the Republican Party?
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The Kansas-Nebraska Act
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Why did Californios raise cattle in the 1820s to the 1840s?
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The hide and tallow trade
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In 1818, the U.S. and Great Britain established joint occupation of what areas?
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Oregon
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How did Americans settling in CA in the 1820s and the 1830s differ from American settlers in Texas?
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They assimilated into Mexican culture
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How was Texas annexed by the U.S.?
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When Congress approved a joint resolution to that effect
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How did Democrats build up support for the annexation of Texas in 1844?
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By linking Texas to the Oregon question.
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In the 1840s, the U.S. Navy published a glowing report about the harbors in what area?
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Puget Sound
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In response to federal passage of the Fugitive Slave Act of 1850, northern states passed what kinds of laws?
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Personal-liberty laws.
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Why did most Californios who had lived in CA before the gold rush lose their land?
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Their land claims were ignored or illegally reduced.
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Which statement describes James Buchanan, who was elected president in 1856?
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His actions in Kansas raised fears that he was part of a slave owners’ conspiracy.
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Why did the idea of popular sovereignty on the slavery question appeal to so many Americans in 1850?
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It linked the resolution of the sectional conflict to republican ideology.
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Instead of agreeing to President Franklin Pierce’s offer to buy more Mexican territory, Mexican officials agreed to sell a small amount of land earmarked by James Gadsden that would be used for what purpose?
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Construction of a transcontinental railroad.
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Why did Calhoun fear the annexation of large swaths of Mexican territory south of the Rio Grande?
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He feared that such an annexation would mean the addition of racially inferior people.
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Why did President James K. Polk retreat from his demand for “fifty-four forty or fight”?
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He had begun a war with Mexico and wanted to avoid a simultaneous one with Britain.