Ch. 11 – PSY 350

question

floor effects
answer

Which of the following is NOT one of the three most common threats to internal validity?
question

She could add a comparison group.
answer

Emma is planning an experiment to examine whether reading to children increases their vocabulary size. She plans to measure the vocabulary size of a group of 18-month-olds, read to them three times a week for three months, then measure their vocabulary size again. How could Emma change the design of the study to remove a major threat to internal validity?
question

history
answer

A city in California has asked Professor Rodriguez to conduct an experiment on earthquake preparedness. Professor Rodriguez will assess the preparedness of a random sample of residents in the city and the city will mail out their annual brochure on earthquake safety. Then, two weeks later, he will again assess the preparedness of those residents. Right after the brochures are mailed, a large earthquake is reported in Japan. What threat to internal validity does this pose?
question

attrition
answer

Which threat to internal validity occurs when there is a greater systematic loss of participants in one condition than the other condition?
question

instrumentation
answer

As part of an experiment on the effects of behavior modeling, a set of raters are evaluating the prosocial behavior in a series of videotapes of a class of preschoolers. Initially, the raters were quite strict in their ratings, but after three hours of rating, their criteria had changed. What type of threat to internal validity has occurred?
question

maturation threats
answer

Some internal validity threats can be addressed simply by including a comparison group, while other internal validity threats can occur even in studies with a comparison group. Which of the following threats to internal validity would be improved with the inclusion of a comparison group?
question

selection-attrition threat
answer

Dr. Harrison wants to test the effectiveness of the support group he runs for undergraduates who have drinking problems. He recruits a group of students who have been referred to the counseling center. He randomizes them to two groups — a treatment group and a control group. The treatment group attends 10 structured support group sessions at 8:00 a.m. on Fridays that are facilitated by Dr. Harrison. The control group attends 10 unstructured meetings at 3:00 p.m. on Wednesdays that are facilitated by members of the group. Several of the participants in the treatment group stop attending the group after just a couple of sessions. All of the control group members attend their group regularly. At the end of the 10 weeks of groups, Dr. Harrison measures drinking behavior of the people who are still attending the groups. He finds that the drinking behavior of people who attended all 10 of the structured group sessions is less than the drinking behavior of people who attended all 10 of the unstructured group sessions. What kind of threat to internal validity should Dr. Harrison be concerned about?
question

large sample size
answer

Which of the following is NOT a problem that may contribute to a null effect in a study?
question

ceiling effect
answer

The students in a 50-student Introductory Psychology class were randomly assigned to one of two review sessions, each being taught with a different technique. The next day, every student got all 10 of the test questions correct. What problem does Professor Zhao have in determining the better teaching technique for review sessions?
question

ceiling effect
answer

Which of the following does NOT contribute to within-groups variability?
question

Use a double-blind study.
answer

Individual differences can contribute to too much within-group variability. Which of the following is NOT a possible solution to individual differences?
question

insensitive measures
answer

In an experiment on improving children’s handwriting, two different techniques of improving handwriting and a control condition are used. Using a pretest/posttest design, both groups who received the treatment showed more improvement than the control group. However, the two groups didn’t show any difference from each other. The researcher believes that there is a difference, but that the 5-point assessment scale of handwriting cannot detect it. What measurement problem is the researcher concerned with?
question

regression
answer

Jared is conducting an experiment with ESP (extrasensory perception) training. He begins with a pretest of his 40 participants and divides them into two groups based on their scores. The participants with the 10 lowest scores are given extensive training on how to detect the signals. The participants with the 30 highest scores are given no training. Both groups are retested and the average score of the participants with the training improved, while the average score of the participants without the training actually fell. What threat to internal validity should Jared consider?
question

demand characteristics
answer

Lucia is interested in studying discrimination in hiring. She designs an experiment in which the participant takes the role of an employer looking at job candidates for a specific position. Each participant is given two very similar resumĂ©s—one of a candidate with a female name and one of a candidate with a male name—and is then asked to rate the suitability of each candidate for a job. Lucia finds no difference in participants’ ratings of male and female candidates. What threat to internal validity should she be concerned about?
question

internal validity and construct validity
answer

What two types of validity in an experiment can observer bias threaten?
question

attrition
answer

Frances did a study to investigate the effect of concreteness on memory. She created a list of 12 items that are very concrete (such as pencil and table) and a list of 12 items that are very abstract (such as justice and freedom). Each item was viewed for one second, then participants recalled them in order. Ten participants were tested in each condition. The study showed null effects. Which is NOT a possible explanation?
question

maturation
answer

Emma is planning an experiment to examine whether reading to children increases their vocabulary size. She plans to measure the vocabulary size of a group of 18-month-olds, read to them three times a week for three months, then measure their vocabulary size again. What threat to internal validity should she be most concerned about?
question

She could make it a masked design.
answer

Dr. Robinson designs an intervention that is meant to reduce college students’ risky sexual decisions. She hypothesizes that shaming college students about their risky sexual decisions will improve their decision making. She recruits participants and randomizes them to two conditions—the intervention group and the control group. The sexual behavior of all participants is measured in an interview with Dr. Robinson. After the pretesting, participants who are randomized to the intervention group are scheduled for an individual shaming session with Dr. Robinson. The control group does not participate in the shaming session. One week after the intervention, both groups are interviewed with Dr. Robinson about their sexual behavior over the past week. She finds that the intervention group reported less risky sexual decisions during the posttest interview. How could Dr. Robinson improve the internal validity of her study?
question

change the design to be within-groups
answer

Frances did a study to investigate the effect of concreteness on memory. She created a list of 12 items that are very concrete (such as pencil and table) and a list of 12 items that are very abstract (such as justice and freedom). Each item was viewed for one second, then participants recalled them in order. Ten participants were tested in each condition. The study showed null effects, and almost all of the participants remembered all of the words on both lists. What is a likely solution?
question

add more participants
answer

Frances did a study to investigate the effect of concreteness on memory. She created a list of 12 items that are very concrete (such as pencil and table) and a list of 12 items that are very abstract (such as justice and freedom). Each item was viewed for one second, then participants recalled them in order. Ten participants were tested in each condition. The study showed null effects, and large variability within the groups. What is a likely solution?
question

one-group, pretest/posttest
answer

On the first exam in an Introductory Psychology class, the grades are lower than Professor Mutola expected. She suspects that multitasking is to blame. She bans computers and cell phones from her class between the first and the second exam. When she compares the scores on the two exams, she finds a significant improvement on the second exam. What is the formal name for this type of design?
question

maturation
answer

On the first exam in an Introductory Psychology class, the grades are lower than Professor Mutola expected. She suspects that multitasking is to blame. She bans computers and cell phones from her class between the first and the second exam. When she compares the scores on the two exams, she finds a significant improvement on the second exam. Professor Mitchell points out that in her classes, students always do better on the second exam because they are more used to her tests. What threat to validity is she suggesting?
question

attrition
answer

On the first exam in an Introductory Psychology class, the grades are lower than Professor Mutola expected. She suspects that multitasking is to blame. She bans computers and cell phones from her class between the first and the second exam. When she compares the scores on the two exams, she finds a significant improvement on the second exam. When Professor Mutola rechecks her data, she finds that the five students with the lowest scores on the first exam have dropped the class. What threat to internal validity is this?
question

instrumentation
answer

On the first exam in an Introductory Psychology class, the grades are lower than Professor Mutola expected. She suspects that multitasking is to blame. She bans computers and cell phones from her class between the first and the second exam. When she compares the scores on the two exams, she finds a significant improvement on the second exam. Professor Mutola looks back over the second exam and begins to wonder if it was just an easier exam. What threat to internal validity is she considering?
question

testing threat
answer

An instructor hypothesizes that doing jumping jacks will improve his students’ quiz performance. On Monday, he has his class sit in their chairs for five minutes before completing a multiple-choice quiz on their reading assignment. On Wednesday, he has his class do two minutes of jumping jacks before completing the same quiz that they took on Monday. The students performed better on the quiz on Wednesday. What is a possible threat to internal validity in this study?
question

Attrition Threat
answer

In a repeated-measures design or quasi-experiment, a threat to internal validity that occurs when a systematic type of participant drops out of a study before it ends.
question

Ceiling Effect
answer

An experimental design problem in which independent variable groups score almost the same on a dependent variable, such that all scores fall at the high end of their possible distribution.
question

Demand Characteristic
answer

A threat to internal validity that occurs when some cue leads participants to guess a study’s hypotheses or goals. Also called experimental demand.
question

Double-Blind Placebo Control Study
answer

A study that uses a treatment group and a placebo group and in which neither the research staff nor the participants know who is in which group.
question

Double-Blind Study
answer

A study in which neither the participants nor the researchers who evaluate them know who is in the treatment group and who is in the comparison group.
question

Floor Effect
answer

An experimental design problem in which independent variable groups score almost the same on a dependent variable, such that all scores fall at the low end of their possible distribution. See also ceiling effect.
question

History Threat
answer

A threat to internal validity that occurs when it is unclear whether a change in the treatment group is caused by the treatment or by a historical factor or event that affects everyone or almost everyone in the group
question

Instrumentation Threat
answer

A threat to internal validity that occurs when a measuring instrument changes over time from having been used before. Also called instrument decay.
question

Manipulation Check
answer

In an experiment, an extra dependent variable researchers can include to determine how well an experimental manipulation worked.
question

Masked Design
answer

A study design in which the observers are unaware of the experimental conditions to which participants have been assigned. Also called blind design.
question

Maturation Threat
answer

A threat to internal validity that occurs when an observed change in an experimental group could have emerged more or less spontaneously over time.
question

Measurement Error
answer

The degree to which the recorded measure for a participant on some variable differs from the true value of the variable for that participant. Measurement errors may be random, if over a sample they both inflate or deflate true scores, or they may be systematic, in which case they may result in biased measurement.
question

Noise
answer

The unsystematic variability among the members of a group in an experiment. Also called error variance, unsystematic variance.
question

Null Effect
answer

A finding that an independent variable did not make a difference in the dependent variable; there is no significant covariance between the two. Also called null result.
question

Observer Bias
answer

A bias that occurs when observers’ expectations influence their interpretation of the participants’ behaviors or the outcome of the study.
question

One-Group, Pretest/posttest Design
answer

An experiment in which a researcher recruits one group of participants; measures them on a pretest; exposes them to a treatment, intervention, or change; and then measures them on a posttest.
question

Placebo Effect
answer

A response or effect that occurs when people receiving an experimental treatment experience a change only because they believe they are receiving a valid treatment.
question

Power
answer

The likelihood that a study will show a statistically significant result when some effect is truly present in the population; the probability of not making a Type II error when the null hypothesis is false.
question

Regression Threat
answer

A threat to internal validity related to regression to the mean, a phenomenon in which any extreme finding is likely to be closer to its own typical, or mean, level the next time it is measured (with or without the experimental treatment or intervention).
question

Selection-Attrition Threat
answer

A threat to internal validity in which members are likely to drop out of either the treatment group or the comparison group, not both.
question

Selection-History Threat
answer

A threat to internal validity in which a historical or seasonal event systematically affects only the subjects in the treatment group or only those in the comparison group, not both.
question

Situation Noise
answer

Unrelated events, sounds, or distractions in the external environment that create unsystematic variability within groups in an experiment.
question

Testing Threat
answer

In a repeated-measures experiment or quasi-experiment, a kind of order effect in which scores change over time just because participants have taken the test more than once; includes practice effects and fatigue effects.
question

Lucia is interested in studying discrimination in hiring. She designs an experiment in which the participant takes the role of an employer looking at job candidates for a specific position. Each participant is given two very similar resumĂ©s—one of a candidate with a female name and one of a candidate with a male name—and is then asked to rate the suitability of each candidate for a job. Lucia finds no difference in participants’ ratings of male and female candidates. What threat to internal validity should she be concerned about?
answer

Demand Characteristics -She should be concerned that the participants guessed the manipulation in the study and gave what they thought was the more socially acceptable answer
question

Which of the following is NOT one of the three most common threats to internal validity?
answer

Floor Effects -Floor effects are a special case of weak manipulations and insensitive measures, not one of the three most common threats
question

Frances did a study to investigate the effect of concreteness on memory. She created a list of 12 items that are very concrete (such as pencil and table) and a list of 12 items that are very abstract (such as justice and freedom). Each item was viewed for one second, then participants recalled them in order. Ten participants were tested in each condition. The study showed null effects, and almost all of the participants remembered all of the words on both lists. What is a likely solution?
answer

Change the design to eliminate ceiling effects -If all of the participants are getting all of the items correct then Frances should make the task more difficult to eliminate the ceiling effect
question

Which threat to internal validity occurs when there is a greater systematic loss of participants in one condition than the other condition?
answer

Attrition -Attrition is not a threat if it occurs uniformly across both groups, but if it is systematic it becomes a threat
question

Frances did a study to investigate the effect of concreteness on memory. She created a list of 12 items that are very concrete (such as pencil and table) and a list of 12 items that are very abstract (such as justice and freedom). Each item was viewed for one second, then participants recalled them in order. Ten participants were tested in each condition. The study showed null effects. Which is NOT a possible explanation?
answer

Attrition -In a study that only lasts a few minutes, attrition isn’t usually an issue. There was no mention of participant loss.
question

As part of an experiment on the effects of behavior modeling, a set of raters are evaluating the prosocial behavior in a series of videotapes of a class of preschoolers. Initially, the raters were quite strict in their ratings, but after three hours of rating, their criteria had changed. What type of threat to internal validity has occurred?
answer

Instrumentation -The raters, who are the measuring instrument, are changing over time
question

On the first exam in an Introductory Psychology class, the grades are lower than Professor Mutola expected. She suspects that multitasking is to blame. She bans computers and cell phones from her class between the first and the second exam. When she compares the scores on the two exams, she finds a significant improvement on the second exam. What is the formal name for this type of design?
answer

One-Group, Pretest/Posttest -She is using the first exam as the pretest and the second as the posttest
question

A city in California has asked Professor Rodriguez to conduct an experiment on earthquake preparedness. Professor Rodriguez will assess the preparedness of a random sample of residents in the city and the city will mail out their annual brochure on earthquake safety. Then, two weeks later, he will again assess the preparedness of those residents. Right after the brochures are mailed, a large earthquake is reported in Japan. What threat to internal validity does this pose?
answer

History -The earthquake is an external or \”historical\” event that occurs to everyone in the study, therefore the effect of the brochure cannot be assessed
question

The students in a 50-student Introductory Psychology class were randomly assigned to one of two review sessions, each being taught with a different technique. The next day, every student got all 10 of the test questions correct. What problem does Professor Zhao have in determining the better teaching technique for review sessions?
answer

Ceiling Effect -Because all the scores are squeezed together at the high end, the effect of the independent variable couldn’t be measured
question

Jared is conducting an experiment with ESP (extrasensory perception) training. He begins with a pretest of his 40 participants and divides them into two groups based on their scores. The participants with the 10 lowest scores are given extensive training on how to detect the signals. The participants with the 30 highest scores are given no training. Both groups are retested and the average score of the participants with the training improved, while the average score of the participants without the training actually fell. What threat to internal validity should Jared consider?
answer

Regression -The group that was given training had an unusually bad performance on the pretest, so was likely to regress upward in performance on the posttest, even without training.
question

On the first exam in an Introductory Psychology class, the grades are lower than Professor Mutola expected. She suspects that multitasking is to blame. She bans computers and cell phones from her class between the first and the second exam. When she compares the scores on the two exams, she finds a significant improvement on the second exam. Professor Mutola looks back over the second exam and begins to wonder if it was just an easier exam. What threat to internal validity is she considering?
answer

Instrumentation -Instrumentation threat occurs when the pretest and posttest are not sufficiently equivalent
question

Frances did a study to investigate the effect of concreteness on memory. She created a list of 12 items that are very concrete (such as pencil and table) and a list of 12 items that are very abstract (such as justice and freedom). Each item was viewed for one second, then participants recalled them in order. Ten participants were tested in each condition. The study showed null effects, and large variability within the groups. What is a likely solution?
answer

Adding more participants -Adding more participants to a study reduces the impact of individual differences within groups and will increase the chance of finding differences between groups
question

Individual differences can contribute to too much within-group variability. Which of the following is NOT a possible solution to individual differences?
answer

Use a double-blind study -Double-blind studies can control for observer effects and demand characteristics, but this wouldn’t help with the contribution of individual differences to within-group variability
question

Dr. Robinson designs an intervention that is meant to reduce college students’ risky sexual decisions. She hypothesizes that shaming college students about their risky sexual decisions will improve their decision making. She recruits participants and randomizes them to two conditions—the intervention group and the control group. The sexual behavior of all participants is measured in an interview with Dr. Robinson. After the pretesting, participants who are randomized to the intervention group are scheduled for an individual shaming session with Dr. Robinson. The control group does not participate in the shaming session. One week after the intervention, both groups are interviewed with Dr. Robinson about their sexual behavior over the past week. She finds that the intervention group reported less risky sexual decisions during the posttest interview. How could Dr. Robinson improve the internal validity of her study?
answer

She could make it a masked design -While in this case it is not possible for the participants to be blind to their condition, it is possible to make the person assessing the dependent variable blind to group membership, which should make the students more likely to be honest
question

On the first exam in an Introductory Psychology class, the grades are lower than Professor Mutola expected. She suspects that multitasking is to blame. She bans computers and cell phones from her class between the first and the second exam. When she compares the scores on the two exams, she finds a significant improvement on the second exam. When Professor Mutola rechecks her data, she finds that the five students with the lowest scores on the first exam have dropped the class. What threat to internal validity is this?
answer

Attrition -The rise in scores on the second test may be due to the loss of these extreme scores, which is attrition
question

Emma is planning an experiment to examine whether reading to children increases their vocabulary size. She plans to measure the vocabulary size of a group of 18-month-olds, read to them three times a week for three months, then measure their vocabulary size again. How could Emma change the design of the study to remove a major threat to internal validity?
answer

She could add a comparison group -Adding a comparison group would allow her to show that her intervention had an effect above and beyond the normal effects of maturation
question

in a study of the span of apprehension or how many objects you can assess after a brief exposure the length of exposure is held constant and the number of objects is varied from one to twelve. After a large number of trails the percentage correct for each number of objects is found. Whats is the dependent variable in this experiment?
answer

the percentage correct (dependent variable is never manipulated)
question

in a study of the span of apprehension or how many objects you can assess after a brief exposure the length of exposure is held constant and the number of objects is varied from one to twelve. After a large number of trails the percentage correct for each number of objects is found.what is the independent variable?
answer

number of objects
question

in a word list learning experiment participants are give a list of words to study for 3 minutes and the following a delay are asked to recall the list. The length of time between the study period and the recall is being manipulated: in 2 minutes, 5 minutes or 10 minutes, which of the following is a confounding variable?
answer

All participants in the 2 minutes condition are tested at 8 am those in the 5 minute condition are tested at noon and those in the 10 minute condition are tested at 4 pm
question

in a word list learning experiment participants are give a list of words to study for 3 minutes and the following a delay are asked to recall the list. The length of time between the study period and the recall is being manipulated: in 2 minutes, 5 minutes or 10 minutes. since different groups need different amounts of time the first 25 participants who arrive are assigned to the 10 minute group the next 25 are assigned to the 5 min group and the final 25 are assigned to the 2 minute group. What confound does this create?
answer

selection effect
question

Emma is planning an experiment on the effects of being read to on vocabulary size in toddlers. She plans to measure the vocabulary size of a group of 18 month olds, read to them three times a week for month, then measure the vocabulary size again. What threat to internal validity should she be concerned about?
answer

Maturation
question

A city in california has asked professor Rodriguez to conduct an experiment on earthquake preparedness. professor rodriguez will assess the preparedness of a random sample of residents in the city and the city will mail out their annual brochure on earthquake safety. the two weeks later he will again assess the preparedness of those residents. right after brochures are mailed a large earthquake is reported in japan, what threat to internal validity does it poses?
answer

History
question

a recent study conducted in the Netherlands on the effects of commercials for alcohol or alcohol consumption in the movie theater, found that young adults who consume large amounts of alcohol each week are influenced by the commercials, whereas young adults who consume small amounts of alcohol each week were not influenced. Participants saw one of two types of beverage commercials: alcoholic or nonalcoholic. their consumption of alcohol during the movie was then measured. finally they completed a questionnaire on the drinking habits. What type of design is this?
answer

independent groups factoria
question

a recent study conducted in the Netherlands on the effects of commercials for alcohol or alcohol consumption in the movie theater, found that young adults who consume large amounts of alcohol each week are influenced by the commercials, whereas young adults who consume small amounts of alcohol each week were not influenced. Participants saw one of two types of beverage commercials: alcoholic or nonalcoholic. their consumption of alcohol during the movie was then measured. finally they completed a questionnaire on the drinking habits.What is a factor in this study?
answer

the movie shown
question

After reading a report by Rockoff, Yingying is studying the effect of other present and their roles on the rate of gambling bets using a simulated slot machine. Her levels of other present are one, two, or six. Her levels of roles are gamblers and observers. She constructs a 2×3 table of her results of average time between bets. there are two rows for the roles and three columns for the others present. the values in the first row are 15, 15 and 15 and in the second row are 20, 15 and 10. Describe her results.
answer

no effect f role, no effect of others present and an interacrion
question

maturation threat
answer

a threat to internal validity that occurs when an observed change in an experimental group could have emerged more or less spontaneously over time
question

history threat
answer

a threat to internal validity that occurs when it is unclear whether a change in the treatment group is caused by the treatment or by a historical factor or event that affects everyone or almost everyone in the group
question

regression threat
answer

a threat to internal validity related to regression to the mean, a phenomenon in which any extreme finding is likely to be closer to its own typical, or mean, level the next time it is measured
question

attrition threat
answer

in a repeated measures design or quasi experiment, a threat to internal validity that occurs when a systematic type of participant drops out of a study before it ends
question

instrumental threat
answer

a threat to internal validity that occurs when a measuring instrument changes over time from having been used before
question

selection-history threat
answer

a threat to internal validity in which members are likely to drop out of either the treatment group or the comparison, not both
question

selection-attrition threat
answer

a threat to internal validity in which members are likely to drop out of either the treatment group or the comparison g group, not both
question

observer bias
answer

a bias that occurs when observers expectations influence their interpretation of the participants behaviors or the outcome of the study
question

demand characteristics
answer

a threat to internal validity that occurs when some cue leads participants to guess a study’s hypotheses or goals
question

double blind study
answer

a study in which neither the participants nor the researchers who evaluate them know who is in the treatment group and who is in the comparison group
question

masked design
answer

a study design in which the observers are unaware of the experimental conditions to which participants have been assigned
question

double blind placebo controlled study
answer

a study that uses a treatment group and a placebo group and in which neither the research staff nor the participants know who is in which group
question

null effect
answer

a finding that an independent variable did not make a difference in the dependent variable; there is no significant covariance between the two
question

ceiling effect
answer

an experimental design problem in which independent variable groups score almost the same on a dependent variable, such that all scores fall at the high end of their possible distribution
question

floor effect
answer

an experimental design problem in which independent variable group score almost the same on a dependent variable, such that all scores fall at the low end of their possible distribution.
question

manipulation check
answer

in an experiment, an extra dependent variable researches can include to determine how well an experimental manipulation worked
question

noise
answer

the unsystematic variability among the members of a group in an experiment
question

measurement error
answer

the degree to which the recorded measure for a participant on some variable differs from the true value of the variable for that participant. measurement errors may be random, if over a sample they both inflate or deflate true scores, or they may be systematic in which case they may result in biased measurement
question

situation noise
answer

unrelated events or distractions in the external environment that create unsystematic variability within groups in an experiment
question

power
answer

the likelihood that a study will show a statistically significant result when some effect is truly present in the population; the probability of not making a type 2 error
question

Which of the following is NOT one of the three most common threats to internal validity
answer

floor effects
question

Emma is planning an experiment to examine whether reading to children increases their vocabulary size. She plans to measure the vocabulary size of a group of 18-month-olds, read to them three times a week for three months, then measure their vocabulary size again. How could Emma change the design of the study to remove a major threat to internal validity
answer

She could add a comparison group
question

Which of the following is NOT a problem that may contribute to a null effect in a study
answer

large sample size
question

What two types of validity in an experiment can observer bias threaten
answer

internal validity and construct validity
question

An instructor hypothesizes that doing jumping jacks will improve his students’ quiz performance. On Monday, he has his class sit in their chairs for five minutes before completing a multiple-choice quiz on their reading assignment. On Wednesday, he has his class do two minutes of jumping jacks before completing the same quiz that they took on Monday. The students performed better on the quiz on Wednesday. What is a possible threat to internal validity in this study
answer

testing threat

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