Ch. 10 – PSY 350

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control variable
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a potential variable that an experimenter holds constant on purpose
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comparison group
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a group in an experiment whose level on the independent variable differs from those of the treatment group in some intended and meaningful way. also called comparison condition
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control group
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a level of an independent variable that is intended to represent \”no treatment\” or a neutral condition
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treatment group
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the participants in an experiment who are exposed to the level of the independent variable that involves a medication, therapy or intervention
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placebo group
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a control group that is exposed to an intern treatment
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confound
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a general term for a potential alternative explanation for a research finding
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design confound
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a threat to internal validity in an experiment to which a second variable happens to vary systematically along with the independent variable and therefore is an alternative explanation for the results
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systematic variability
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in an experiment, the levels of a variable coinciding in some predictable way with experimental group membership, creating a potential confound
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unsystematic variability
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in an experiment, when levels of a variable fluctuate independently of experimental group membership, contributing to variability within groups
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selection effect
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a threat to internal validity that occurs in an independent groups design when the kinds of participants at one level of the independent variable are systematically different from those at the other level
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matched groups
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an experimental design technique in which participants who are similar on some measured variable are grouped into sets; the members of each matched set are then randomly assigned to different experimental conditions (also called matching)
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independent-groups design
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an experimental design in which different groups of participants are exposed to different levels of the independent variable, such that each participants experiences only one level of the independent variable (also called between-subjects design)
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within-groups design
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an experimental design in which each participant is presented with all levels of the independent variable
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post test only design
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an experiment using an independent-groups design in which participants are tested on the dependent variable only once
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pretest/post test design
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an experiment using an independent-groups design in which participants are tested on the key dependent variable twice, once before and once after exposure to the independent variable.
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concurrent measures design
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an experiment using a within groups design in which participants are exposed to all the levels of an independent variable at roughly the same time, and a single attitudinal or behavioral preference is the dependent variable
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repeated measures design
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an experiment using a within groups design in which participants respond to a dependent variable more than once, after exposure to each level of the independent study
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power
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the likelihood that a study will show a statistically significant result when some effect is truly present in the population; the probability of not making a type 2 error
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order effect
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in a within-groups design, a threat to internal validity in which exposure to one contain changes participants responses to a later
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practice effect
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a type of order effect in which people’s performance improves over time because they become practiced at the dependent measure (not because of the manipulation or treatment)
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carryover effect
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a type of order effect in which some form of contamination carries over from one condition to the next
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counterbalancing
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in a repeated measures experiment, presenting the levels of the independent variable to participants in different sequences to control fro order effects
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full counterbalancing
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a meth0d of counterbalancing in which all possible condition orders are represented
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partial counterbalancing
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a method of counterbalancing in which some, but not all, of the possible condition orders are represented.
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latin square
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a formal system of partial counterbalancing that ensures that each condition in a within-groups design appears in each position at least once
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demand characteristics
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a threat to internal validity that occurs when some cue leads participants to guess a study’s hypotheses or goals
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manipulation check
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in an experiment, an extra dependent variable researchers can include to determine how well an experimental manipulation worked
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pilot study
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a study completed before the study of primary interest, usually to test the effectiveness or characteristics of the manipulations
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Cara is running a study to examine the effect of music on mood. She randomly assigns participants to three conditions — rock, jazz, and country. She has the participants rate their mood with a short questionnaire, then listen to their assigned music for 20 minutes, and then fill out the mood questionnaire again. What kind of design is she using
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pretest/posttest
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What is the name for a variable that the experimenter holds constant on purpose?
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control variable
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What is the name for the level of the independent variable that is intended to represent a neutral condition?
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control group
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Participants in a research study are given a list of words to study for 3 minutes and then, following a delay, are asked to recall the list. The length of the delay is manipulated between participants to be either 2 minutes, 5 minutes, or 10 minutes. Which of the following scenarios would present a design confound in this experiment?
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All participants in the 2-minute condition are tested at 8:00 a.m.; those in the 5-minute condition are tested at noon; and those in the 10-minute condition are tested at 4:00 p.m.
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____________ is an extra dependent variable that can be used to help researchers quantify how well an experimental manipulation worked
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A manipulation check
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experiment
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researchers manipulated at least one variable and measured another.
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manipulated variable
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a variable that is controlled. (Independent Variable)
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measured variables
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take the form of records of behaviors or attitudes, such as self-reports, behavioral observations, or physiological measures. (Dependent Variable)
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Conditions
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One of the levels of the independent variable in an experiment. Similar enough to also be known as a variable’s levels.
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Dependent Variable
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outcome variable. How a participant acts on the measured variable depends on the level of the independent variable.
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On a graph, how can you tell which is the I.V. and which is the D.V.?
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The independent variable is almost always on the x-axis, and the dependent variable is almost always on the y-axis.
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Control variable
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A potential variable that an experimenter holds constant on purpose. When researchers manipulate a variable, they need to make sure they are only varying one thing at a time. Researchers control potential third variables in their studies by holding all other factors constant. Any variable that the experimenter holds constant on purpose is called the control variable. Control variables are important for establishing internal validity
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What are the minimum requirements for a study to be an experiment?
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To be an experiment the study must have at least one measured and one manipulated variable.
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Define IV, DV, and Control Variable using your own words.
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IV: manipulated variable DV: measured variable CV: variable held constant to rule out third variables and establish internal validity.
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comparison group
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A group in an experiment whose levels on the independent variable differ from those of the treatment group in some intended and meaningful way. Also called comparison condition.
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control group
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A level of an independent variable that is intended to represent ‘ no treatment ‘ or a neutral condition.
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Treatment group(s)
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The participants in an experiment who are exposed to the level of the independent variable that involves a medication, therapy, or intervention.
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placebo group/placebo control group
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When the control group is exposed to an inert treatment such as a sugar pill
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Why are experiments useful?
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Experiments establish covariance. Experiments establish temporal precedence. The ability to establish temporal precedence is a feature that makes experiments superior to correlational designs. Well-designed experiments establish internal validity. To be internally valid, a study must ensure that the causal variable and not other factors, is responsible for the change in the effect variable.
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Confounds
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A general term for a potential alternative explanation for a research finding (a threat to internal validity). For any given research question, there can be several possible alternative explanations.
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design confound
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An experimenter’s mistake in designing the independent variable; it is a second variable that happens to vary systematically along with the intended independent variable and therefore is an alternative explanation for the results. Can be a threat to internal validity
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Systematic variability
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In an experiment, the levels of a variable coinciding in some predictable way with experimental group membership, creating a potential confound
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Unsystematic variability
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In an experiment, when levels of a variable fluctuate independently of experimental group membership, contributing to variability within groups. (random or haphazard variability across both groups) Unsystematic variability can lead to problems; it can obscure, or make it difficult to detect differences in the dependent variable.
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selection effect
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Occurs when the kinds of participants in one level of the independent variable are systematically different from those in the other. Can occur when experimenters let participants chose which group they want to be in. EX: letting parents chose which group they would like their autistic children to be in, the intensive treatment group, or the usual treatment group.
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Random Assignment
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The use of a random method (e.g., flipping a coin) to assign participants into different experimental groups. A way of desystematizing the types of participants who end up in each level of the independent variable. Used to avoid selection effects
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Matched groups
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An experimental design technique in which participants who are similar on some measured variable are grouped into sets; the members of each matched set are then randomly assigned to different experimental conditions. This method is particularly useful if the experiment’s design has outliers (exceptionally clever or inept participants) and if the sample groups are small in size. This method also ensures that the groups are equal on some important variable, such as IQ, before the manipulation of the independent variable.
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Independent – Groups Design
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Different groups of participants are placed into different levels of the independent variable. An experimental design in which different groups of participants are exposed to different levels of the independent variable, such that each participant experiences only one level of the independent variable AKA between-subjects design or between-groups design 2 Basic forms of independent-groups designs are the posttest-only design and the pretest/posttest design.
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Within-Groups design/ Within – Subjects Design
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There is only one group of participants, and each person is presented with all levels of the independent variable
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posttest – only design / equivalent groups
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participants are randomly assigned to independent variable groups and are tested on the dependent variable once. An experiment using an independent-groups design in which participants are tested on the dependent variable only once. Also called equivalent groups, posttest-only design.
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pretest/pottest design
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Participants are randomly assigned to at least two groups and are tested on the key dependent variable twice – once before and once after exposure to the independent variable. Researchers might do this if they want to evaluate whether random assignment made the groups equal This design also works well to track how participants in the experimental groups have changed over time in response to some manipulation.
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What is the difference between independent groups and within groups designs?
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The number of levels of the independent variable the participants are exposed to. In a within groups design they are exposed to all levels, in an independent groups design they are only exposed to one level.
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Concurrent – measures design
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Participants are exposed to all the levels of an independent variable at roughly the same time, and a single attitudinal or behavioral preference is the dependent variable. EX: babies shown male and female faces at the same time. The babies chose to look at the female face more often than not.
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Repeated – measures design
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A within groups design in which participants are measured on a dependent variable more than once – that is, after exposure to each level of the independent variable. EX: participant –> interact with own toddler –> measure oxytocin levels –> interact with new toddler —> measure oxytocin level.
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What are some advantages of within groups designs?
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It ensures the participants in the two groups will be equivalent (because they are the same people). Variations among participants will not effect results because their scores are only rated against themselves and not others. Statistically speaking, extraneous differences in personality, living conditions, gender, ability etc are held constant across all conditions, so researchers will be more likely to detect an effect of the independent variable manipulation if there is one. Generally requires fewer participants overall.
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power
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Refers to the ability of a study to show a statistically significant result when an independent variable truly has an effect in the population.
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order effects
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Being exposed to one condition changes how participants react to the other condition Happen when exposure to one level of the independent variable influences responses to the next level of the independent variable.`
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practice effects/fatigue effects
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A long sequence might lead participants to get better at the task, or to get tired or bored towards the end.
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carryover effects
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Some form of contamination carries over from one condition to the next.
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counterbalancing
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When researchers use counterbalancing, they present the levels of the independent variable to participants in different orders. With counterbalancing, any order effects should cancel each other out when all the data are collected.
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full counterbalancing
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all possible condition orders are represented. Ex: A – B- C, A – C- B, B – A – C, B – C- A, C – A – B, C – B – A 2 conditions = 2 orders 3 conditions = 6 orders 4 conditions = 24 orders
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Partial counterbalancing
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Only some of the possible condition orders are represented. One way to partially counterbalance is to present the conditions in a randomized order for each subject.
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Latin Square
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A formal system of partial counterbalancing that ensures that each condition in a within – groups design appears in each position at least once. The first row is set up according to a formula, and then the conditions simply go in numerical order down each column
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What are the three main disadvantages of within – groups designs?
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Repeated Measures designs have the potential for order effects, which can threaten internal validity. (Can be controlled for using counterbalancing) Might not be possible/practical. (such as teaching children to ride a bike. You teach them with method A, you cannot go back to the baseline and teach them with method B. People might change the way they act if they see all levels of the independent variable. (Demand characteristics)
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Demand Characteristics aka Experimental Demand
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When an experiment contains cues that lead participants to guess its hypothesis.
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what are two simple forms of within – groups designs?
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Concurrent measures repeated measures
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Describe how counterbalancing improves the internal validity of a within – groups design?
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With counterbalancing, any order effects should cancel each other out when all the data are collected.
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Summarize the three advantages and the three potential disadvantages of within – groups designs
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Advantages: assurance of equivalence of the groups requirement of fewer participants more statistical power Disadvantages: Participants cannot be returned to their original state after each condition. Demand characteristics may result from hypothesis guessing with repeated testing. Order effects can threaten internal validity.
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manipulation check
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an extra dependent variable that researchers can insert into an experiment to help them quantify how well an experimental manipulation worked.
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Pilot Study
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a simple study, using a separate group of participants, that is completed before (or sometimes after) conducting the stufy of primary interest. Researchers might use pilot study data to confirm the effectiveness of their manipulations.
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Describe Cohen’s guidelines for effect size strength
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.20 = small or weak comparable to an r of .10 .50 = medium, or moderate comparable to an r of .30 .80 = large or strong comparable to an r of .50
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Cara is running a study to examine the effect of music on mood. She randomly assigns participants to three conditions — rock, jazz, and country. She has the participants rate their mood with a short questionnaire, then listen to their assigned music for 20 minutes, and then fill out the mood questionnaire again. What kind of design is she using? posttest only pretest/posttest concurrent measures repeated measures
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b
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Dr. Keller wants to test the effect of a new anti-anxiety medication. He recruits a group of anxious patients and randomly assigns them to two groups. One group will receive his new medication and the other will receive a sugar pill. What is the second group called? treatment group placebo group experimental group manipulation group
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b
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What is the name for a variable that the experimenter holds constant on purpose? dependent variable independent variable control variable confound variable
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c
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What is the name for the level of the independent variable that is intended to represent a neutral condition? treatment group manipulation group experimental group control group
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d
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Participants in a research study are given a list of words to study for 3 minutes and then, following a delay, are asked to recall the list. The length of the delay is manipulated between participants to be either 2 minutes, 5 minutes, or 10 minutes. Which of the following scenarios would present a design confound in this experiment? All participants in the 2-minute condition are tested at 8:00 a.m.; those in the 5-minute condition are tested at noon; and those in the 10-minute condition are tested at 4:00 p.m. The same list is used for each condition and is randomized for each participant. The three groups are run simultaneously in three different rooms, and the room for each condition is randomly chosen before each group arrives. Three different experimenters are in charge of administering the task, and they rotate which condition they are administering.
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a
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Participants in a research study are given a list of words to study for 3 minutes and then, following a delay, are asked to recall the list. The length of the delay is manipulated between participants to be either 2 minutes, 5 minutes, or 10 minutes. Since different groups need different amounts of time, the first 25 participants who arrive are assigned to the 10-minute group, the next 25 are assigned to the 5-minute group, and the final 25 are assigned to the 2-minute group. What confound does this create? demand characteristic selection effect experimenter bias carryover effect
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b
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Kathryn wants to control for intelligence in her study. She has a list of all of the participants for her study and their IQ scores. She sorts the list of participants according to their IQ scores and then forms groups making sure that the groups are balanced in terms of IQ scores. Finally, she randomly assigns each group to one of the conditions of her study. What kind of design is Kathryn using? independent groups concurrent measures matched-groups within-groups
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c
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What design is an experiment in which each participant is randomly assigned to one level of the independent variable and then tested on the dependent variable once? within-groups repeated measures pretest/posttest posttest only
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d
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Which of these is NOT an advantage of within-groups designs? elimination of practice effects assurance of equivalence of the groups requirement of fewer participants more statistical power
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a
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Which of the following does NOT need to be considered as an alternative explanation of the results in a within-groups design experiment? order effects selection effects practice effects carryover effects
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b
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How many possible orders for full counterbalancing are there in a study with four conditions? four eight sixteen twenty-four
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d
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Eric designs a study to examine drink preferences of university freshmen. He is planning to have all of the freshmen who participate in his study drink a cup of coffee then rate their enjoyment of the coffee, then drink a cup of tea and rate their enjoyment of the tea, and finally drink a cup of milk and rate their enjoyment of the milk. Eric tells Theresa about the plans for his study and she says she is concerned that he could have a problem with order effect in his study. How can Eric fix this problem? matched groups random sampling counterbalancing random assignment
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c
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Which of these is NOT a potential drawback of a within-groups design? Extraneous differences are held constant across conditions. Participants cannot be returned to their original state after each condition. Demand characteristics may result from hypothesis guessing with repeated testing. Order effects can threaten internal validity.
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a
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Eric designs a study to examine drink preferences of university freshmen. He is planning to have all of the freshmen who participate in his study drink a cup of coffee then rate their enjoyment of the coffee, then drink a cup of tea and rate their enjoyment of the tea, and finally drink a cup of milk and rate their enjoyment of the milk. What kind of design is this? posttest only pretest/posttest concurrent measures repeated measures
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d
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According to Cohen’s conventions for effect size, how do you describe an effect size when d = 0.50? not existent weak moderate strong
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c
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In psychology lab, Tetiana is conducting an experiment on depth perception using the Howard-Dolman box. Inside the box are two vertical rods and a horizontal ruler. The participant manipulates the rods until they appear to be aligned at the same distance away, then the experimenter measures how far out of alignment they are. There are three conditions: left eye only, right eye only, and both eyes. Tetiana is using a repeated-measures design. What is the independent variable in this experiment? depth perception number of trials disparity from perfect alignment eye/eyes used
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d
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In psychology lab, Tetiana is conducting an experiment on depth perception using the Howard-Dolman box. Inside the box are two vertical rods and a horizontal ruler. The participant manipulates the rods until they appear to be aligned at the same distance away, then the experimenter measures how far out of alignment they are. There are three conditions: left eye only, right eye only, and both eyes. Tetiana is using a repeated-measures design. What is the dependent variable in this experiment? distance out of alignment of the rods how long the participant takes to complete the experiment improvement in performance by the participant eye/eyes used
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a
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In an experiment, researchers: measure more than two variables. measure two variables. manipulate two variables. manipulate one variable and measure another.
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d
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In psychology lab, Tetiana is conducting an experiment on depth perception using the Howard-Dolman box. Inside the box are two vertical rods and a horizontal ruler. The participant manipulates the rods until they appear to be aligned at the same distance away, then the experimenter measures how far out of alignment they are. There are three conditions: left eye only, right eye only, and both eyes. Tetiana is using a repeated-measures design. She finds that d = 1.53. What effect size is this? weak moderate strong This cannot be determined without knowing the number of participants.
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c
question

In psychology lab, Tetiana is conducting an experiment on depth perception using the Howard-Dolman box. Inside the box are two vertical rods and a horizontal ruler. The participant manipulates the rods until they appear to be aligned at the same distance away, then the experimenter measures how far out of alignment they are. There are three conditions: left eye only, right eye only, and both eyes. Tetiana is using a repeated-measures design. How is the independent variable being manipulated in Tetiana’s design? independent groups within-groups concurrently as a participant variable
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b
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In a business class experiment on the endowment effect, Theo is comparing the value of a coffee mug to someone who owns it and is selling it to someone who is buying it. The endowment effect describes the tendency of sellers to value something they own more than buyers do. Participants are randomly assigned to be buyers or sellers of a mug with their first name on it. Buyers select the maximum price they would pay for the mug. Sellers select the minimum price they would accept for the mug. What is the independent variable in this experiment? role of the participant price that the buyer will pay price that the seller will accept type of mug
answer

a
question

In a business class experiment on the endowment effect, Theo is comparing the value of a coffee mug to someone who owns it and is selling it to someone who is buying it. The endowment effect describes the tendency of sellers to value something they own more than buyers do. Participants are randomly assigned to be buyers or sellers of a mug with their first name on it. Buyers select the maximum price they would pay for the mug. Sellers select the minimum price they would accept for the mug. What is the dependent variable in this experiment? role of the participant value selected for the mug type of mug the range of prices that the buyer and seller each consider
answer

b
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In a business class experiment on the endowment effect, Theo is comparing the value of a coffee mug to someone who owns it and is selling it to someone who is buying it. The endowment effect describes the tendency of sellers to value something they own more than buyers do. Participants are randomly assigned to be buyers or sellers of a mug with their first name on it. Buyers select the maximum price they would pay for the mug. Sellers select the minimum price they would accept for the mug. How does Theo control for selection effects? by using a control group by using matched-groups design by using random assignment of participants by using a pretest/posttest design
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c
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__________ is a simple study that uses a separate group of participants that is generally completed before conducting the study of primary interest in order to confirm the effectiveness of a manipulation. A pilot study A Latin square Counterbalancing A manipulation check
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a
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____________ is an extra dependent variable that can be used to help researchers quantify how well an experimental manipulation worked. A pilot study A Latin square Counterbalancing A manipulation check
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d
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Carryover Effect
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A type of order effect, in which some form of contamination carries over from one condition to the next
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Comparison Group
answer

A group in an experiment whose levels on the independent variable differ from those of the treatment group in some intended and meaningful way. AKA: Comparison Condition
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Concurrent-Measure
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An experiment using a with-in groups design in which participants are exposed to all the levels of an independent variable at roughly the same time, and a single attitudinal or behavioral preference is the dependent variable.
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Condition
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One of the levels of the independent variable in an experiment.
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Confound
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A general term for a potential alternative explanation for a research finding (a threat to internal validity).
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Control Group
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A level of an independent variable that is intended to represent \”no treatment\” or neutral condition.
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Control Variable
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A potential variable that an experimenter holds constant on purpose.
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Counterbalancing
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In an experiment, presenting the levels of the independent variable to participants in different sequences to control for order effects.
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Demand Characteristic
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A threat to internal validity that occurs when some cue leads participants to guess a study’s hypotheses or goals. AKA: experimental demand
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Dependent Variable
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In an experiment, the variable that is measured. In a multiple-regression analysis, the single outcome, or criterion variable, the researchers are most interested in understanding or predicting. AKA: outcome variable
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Design Confound
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A threat to internal validity in an experiment in which a second variable happens to vary systematically along with the independent variable and therefore is an alternative explanation for the results.
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Experiment
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A study in which one variable is manipulated and the other is measured.
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Full Counterbalancing
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A method of counterbalancing in which all possible condition orders are represented.
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Independent-Groups Design
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An experimental design in which different groups of participants are exposed to different levels of the independent variable, such that each participant experiences only one level of the independent variable. AKA: between-subjects design or between-groups design
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Independent Variable
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A variable that is manipulated in an experiment. In a multiple-regression analysis, a predictor variable used to explain variance in the criterion variable.
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Latin Square
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A formal system of partial counterbalancing that ensures that each condition in a within-groups design appears in each position at least once.
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Manipulated Variable
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A variable in an experiment that a researcher controls, such as by assigning participants to its different levels (values).
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Manipulation Check
answer

In an experiment, an extra dependent variable researchers can include to determine how well an experimental manipulation worked.
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Matched Groups
answer

An experimental design technique in which participants who are similar on some measured variable are grouped into sets; the members of each matched set are then randomly assigned to different experimental conditions. AKA: matching
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Measured Variable
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A variable in an experiment whose levels (values) are observed and recorded.
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Order Effect
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In a within-groups design, a threat to internal validity in which exposure to one condition changes participants’ responses to a later condition.
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Partial Counterbalancing
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A method of counterbalancing in which some, but not all, of the possible condition orders are represented.
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Pilot Study
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A study completed before (or sometimes after) the study of primary interest, usually to test the effectiveness or characteristics of the manipulations.
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Placebo Group
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A control group that is exposed to an inert treatment (e.g., a sugar pill). AKA: placebo control group
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Posttest-only Design
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An experiment using an independent-groups design in which participants are tested on the dependent variable only once. AKA: equivalent groups, posttest-only design
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Power
answer

The likelihood that a study will show a statistically significant result when some effect is truly present in the population; the probability of not making a Type II error when the null hypothesis is false.
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Practice Effect
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A type of order effect in which people’s performance improves over time because they become practiced at the dependent measure (not because of the manipulation or treatment).
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Pretest/Posttest Design
answer

An experiment using an independent-groups design in which participants are tested on the key dependent variable twice: once before and once after exposure to the independent variable.
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Random Assignment
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The use of a random method (e.g., flipping a coin) to assign participants into different experimental groups.
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Repeated-Measures Design
answer

An experiment using a within-groups design in which participants respond to a dependent variable more than once, after exposure to each level of the independent variable.
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Selection Effect
answer

A threat to internal validity that occurs in an independent-groups design when the kinds of participants at one level of the independent variable are systematically different from those at the other level.
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Systematic Variability
answer

In an experiment, the levels of a variable coinciding in some predictable way with experimental group membership, creating a potential confound.
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Treatment Group
answer

The participants in an experiment who are exposed to the level of the independent variable that involves a medication, therapy, or intervention.
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Unsystematic Variability
answer

In an experiment, when levels of a variable fluctuate independently of experimental group membership, contributing to variability within groups
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Within-Groups Design
answer

An experimental design in which each participant is presented with all levels of the independent variable. Also called within-subjects design.
question

In a business class experiment on the endowment effect, Theo is comparing the value of a coffee mug to someone who owns it and is selling it to someone who is buying it. The endowment effect describes the tendency of sellers to value something they own more than buyers do. Participants are randomly assigned to be buyers or sellers of a mug with their first name on it. Buyers select the maximum price they would pay for the mug. Sellers select the minimum price they would accept for the mug. What is the dependent variable in this experiment?
answer

Value selected for the mug -The value of the mug is the measured variable
question

Which of the following does NOT need to be considered as an alternative explanation of the results in a within-groups design experiment?
answer

Selection Effects -Selection effects only apply to independent-groups designs
question

In a business class experiment on the endowment effect, Theo is comparing the value of a coffee mug to someone who owns it and is selling it to someone who is buying it. The endowment effect describes the tendency of sellers to value something they own more than buyers do. Participants are randomly assigned to be buyers or sellers of a mug with their first name on it. Buyers select the maximum price they would pay for the mug. Sellers select the minimum price they would accept for the mug. What is the independent variable in this experiment?
answer

Role of the participant -Theo assigns the participants to their roles, so that is the manipulated variable
question

What is the name for the level of the independent variable that is intended to represent a neutral condition?
answer

Control Group -The group that represents \”no treatment\” or the neutral condition is the control group
question

In psychology lab, Tetiana is conducting an experiment on depth perception using the Howard-Dolman box. Inside the box are two vertical rods and a horizontal ruler. The participant manipulates the rods until they appear to be aligned at the same distance away, then the experimenter measures how far out of alignment they are. There are three conditions: left eye only, right eye only, and both eyes. Tetiana is using a repeated-measures design. What is the dependent variable in this experiment?
answer

Distance out of alignment of the rods -Tetiana is measuring how far out of alignment the rods are, making that the dependent variable.
question

Eric designs a study to examine drink preferences of university freshmen. He is planning to have all of the freshmen who participate in his study drink a cup of coffee then rate their enjoyment of the coffee, then drink a cup of tea and rate their enjoyment of the tea, and finally drink a cup of milk and rate their enjoyment of the milk. Eric tells Theresa about the plans for his study and she says she is concerned that he could have a problem with order effect in his study. How can Eric fix this problem?
answer

Counterbalancing -Eric could avoid an order effect by having participants consume and rate the drinks in varying orders
question

____________ is an extra dependent variable that can be used to help researchers quantify how well an experimental manipulation worked.
answer

A manipulation Check -Manipulation checks help researchers measure how well their manipulation worked
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In psychology lab, Tetiana is conducting an experiment on depth perception using the Howard-Dolman box. Inside the box are two vertical rods and a horizontal ruler. The participant manipulates the rods until they appear to be aligned at the same distance away, then the experimenter measures how far out of alignment they are. There are three conditions: left eye only, right eye only, and both eyes. Tetiana is using a repeated-measures design. She finds that d = 1.53. What effect size is this?
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Strong -her findings give a d well above 0.80, so the effect size is strong
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How many possible orders for full counterbalancing are there in a study with four conditions?
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Twenty-four -For full counterbalancing, all the possible condition orders must be used, which is 24 for four conditions
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What design is an experiment in which each participant is randomly assigned to one level of the independent variable and then tested on the dependent variable once?
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Posttest only -The participants are randomly assigned to the groups and only a posttest is administered
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Experiment
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A study in which one variable is manipulated and the other is measured
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Manipulated Variable
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A variable in an experiment that a researcher controls, such as by assigning participants to its different levels (values).
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measured variable
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A variable in an experiment whose levels (values) are observed and recorded
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independent variable
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A variable that is manipulated in an experiment. In a multiple-regression analysis, a predictor variable used to explain variance in the criterion variable.
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condition
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One of the levels of the independent variable in an experiment
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dependent variable
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An an experiment, the variable that is measured. In a multiple-regression analysis, the single outcome, or criterion variable, the researchers are most interested in understanding or predicting
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control variable
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A potential variable that an experimenter holds constant on purpose.
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comparison group
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A group in an experiment whose level on the independent variable differs from those of the treatment group in some intended and meaningful way.
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control group
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A level of an independent variable that is intended to represent \”no treatment\” or a neutral condition.
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treatment group
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The participants in an experiment who are exposed to the level of the independent variable that involves a medication, therapy, or intervention.
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placebo group
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A control group that is exposed to an inert treatment (e.g. a sugar pill).
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confound
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A general term for a potential alternative explanation for a research finding (a threat to internal validity).
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design confound
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A threat to internal validity in an experiment in which a second variable happens to vary systematically along with the independent variable and therefore is an alternative explanation for the results.
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systemic variability
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In an experiment, the levels of a variable coinciding in some predictable way with experimental group membership, creating a potential confound.
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unsystematic variability
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In an experiment, when levels of a variable fluctuate independently of experimental group membership contributing to variability within groups.
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selection effect
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A threat to internal validity that occurs in an independent-groups design when the kinds of participants at one level of the independent variable are systematically different from those at the other level.
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random assignment
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The use of a random method (e.g. flipping a coin) to assign participants to different experimental groups.
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matched groups
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An experimental design technique in which participants who are similar on some measured variable are grouped into sets; the numbers of each matched set are then randomly assigned to different experimental conditions.
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independent-groups design
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An experimental design in which different groups of participants are assigned to different levels of the independent variable, such that each participant experiences only one level of the independent variable.
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posttest-only design
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An experiment using an independent-groups design in which participants are tested on the dependent variable only once.
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pretest/posttest design
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An experiment using an independent-groups design in which participants are tested on the key dependent variable twice: once before and once after exposure to the independent variable.
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concurrent-measures design
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An experiment using a within-groups design in which participants are exposed to all the levels of an independent variable at roughly the same time, and a single attitudinal or behavioral preference is the dependent variable.
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repeated-measures design
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An experiment using a within-groups design in which participants respond to a dependent variable more than once, after exposure to each level of the independent variable.
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power
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order effect
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practice effect
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carryover effect
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counterbalancing
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full counterbalancing
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partial counterbalancing
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Latin square
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demand characteristic
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manipulation check
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pilot study
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Which of these is not a drawback of a within-groups design? Extraneous differences are held constant across conditions. Participants cannot be returned to their original state after each condition. Demand characteristics may result from hypothesis guessing with repeated testing. Order effects can threaten internal validity.
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Extraneous differences are held constant across conditions.
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Which of these does not need to be considered as an alternative explanation of the results in a within-groups design experiment? fatigue selection practice boredom
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selection
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In a business class experiment on the endowment effect, Theo is comparing the value of a coffee mug to someone who owns it and is selling it to someone who is buying it. The endowment effect describes the tendency of sellers to value something they own more than buyers do. Participants are randomly assigned to be buyers or sellers of a mug with their first name on it. Buyers select the maximum price they would pay for the mug. Sellers select the minimum price they would accept for the mug. What is the independent variable in this experiment? role of the participant price that the buyer will pay price that the seller will accept name of the participant
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role of the participant
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What design is an experiment in which participants are randomly assigned to independent variable groups then tested on the dependent variable once? within-groups repeated measures pretest/posttest posttest only
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posttest only
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In psychology lab, Tetiana is conducting an experiment on depth perception using the Howard-Dolman box. Inside the box are two vertical rods and a horizontal ruler. The participant manipulates the rods until they appear to be aligned at the same distance away, then the experimenter measures how far out of alignment they are. There are three conditions: left eye only, right eye only, and both eyes. Tetiana is using a repeated measures design. How is the independent variable being manipulated in Tetiana’s design? independent groups within-groups concurrently as a participant variable
answer

within-groups
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In a word list-learning experiment, participants are given a list of words to study for 3 minutes and then, following a delay, are asked to recall the list. The length of time between the study period and the recall is being manipulated: it is 2 minutes, 5 minutes, or 10 minutes. Which of the following is a confounding variable? All participants in the 2-minute condition are tested at 8:00a.m., those in the 5-minute condition are tested at noon, and those in the 10-minute condition are tested at 4:00 p.m. The same list is used for each condition and is randomized for each participant. The three groups are run simultaneously in three different rooms, and the room for each condition is randomly chosen before each group arrives. Three different experimenters administer the task and rotate which condition they are administering.
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All participants in the 2-minute condition are tested at 8:00a.m., those in the 5-minute condition are tested at noon, and those in the 10-minute condition are tested at 4:00 p.m.
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Which of the following is not a method to interrogate construct validity in an experimental design? pilot studies checking for statistical significance manipulation checks adding additional conditions
answer

checking for statistical significance
question

In psychology lab, Tetiana is conducting an experiment on depth perception using the Howard-Dolman box. Inside the box are two vertical rods and a horizontal ruler. The participant manipulates the rods until they appear to be aligned at the same distance away, then the experimenter measures how far out of alignment they are. There are three conditions: left eye only, right eye only, and both eyes. Tetiana is using a repeated measures design. What is the independent variable in this experiment? depth perception number of trials disparity from perfect alignment eye/eyes used
answer

eye/eyes used
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In a business class experiment on the endowment effect, Theo is comparing the value of a coffee mug to someone who owns it and is selling it to someone who is buying it. The endowment effect describes the tendency of sellers to value something they own more than buyers do. Participants are randomly assigned to be buyers or sellers of a mug with their first name on it. Buyers select the maximum price they would pay for the mug. Sellers select the minimum price they would accept. Which validity is concerned with applying the results to more expensive objects? construct internal statistical external
answer

external
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Which of these is not an advantage of within-groups designs? elimination of practice effects assurance of equivalence of the groups requirement of fewer participants more statistical power
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elimination of practice effects
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In a business class experiment on the endowment effect, Theo is comparing the value of a coffee mug to someone who owns it and is selling it to someone who is buying it. The endowment effect describes the tendency of sellers to value something they own more than buyers do. Participants are randomly assigned to be buyers or sellers of a mug with their first name on it. Buyers select the maximum price they would pay for the mug. Sellers select the minimum price they would accept for the mug. How does Theo control for selection effects? by using a control group by using matched-groups design by random assignment of participants by using a pretest/posttest design
answer

by random assignment of participants
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What does use of a Latin square assure with regard to conditions in a within-groups experiment? that each participant will have a unique order of the conditions that the order of the conditions will be randomized for each group that each condition appears in each position within the order at least once that all possible orders of conditions will be used
answer

that each condition appears in each position within the order at least once
question

In psychology lab, Tetiana is conducting an experiment on depth perception using the Howard-Dolman box. Inside the box are two vertical rods and a horizontal ruler. The participant manipulates the rods until they appear to be aligned at the same distance away, then the experimenter measures how far out of alignment they are. There are three conditions: left eye only, right eye only, and both eyes. Tetiana is using a repeated measures design. She plans to have 60 participants and to use full counterbalancing. How many participants will be in each group? six ten twenty thirty
answer

ten
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In a word list-learning experiment, participants are given a list of words to study for 3 minutes and then, following a delay, are asked to recall the list. The length of time between the study period and the recall is being manipulated: it is 2 minutes, 5 minutes, or 10 minutes. Since different groups need different amounts of time, the first 25 participants who arrive are assigned to the 10-minute group, the next 25 are assigned to the 5-minute group, and the final 25 are assigned to the 2-minute group. What confound does this create? demand characteristic selection effect experimenter bias carryover effect
answer

selection effect
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What is a variable that the experimenter holds constant on purpose? dependent independent control confound
answer

control
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According to Cohen’s conventions for effect size, how do you describe an effect size when d = 0.50? not existent weak moderate strong
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moderate
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What type of group is a level of the independent variable that is intended to represent a neutral condition? treatment comparison experimental control
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control
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In a study of the span of apprehension, or how many objects you can assess (report seeing) after a brief exposure, the length of exposure is held constant and the number of objects is varied, from one to twelve. After a large number of trials, the percentage correct for each number of objects is found. What is the dependent variable in this experiment? the percentage correct the number of objects the length of exposure the number of trials
answer

the percentage correct
question

In psychology lab, Tetiana is conducting an experiment on depth perception using the Howard-Dolman box. Inside the box are two vertical rods and a horizontal ruler. The participant manipulates the rods until they appear to be aligned at the same distance away, then the experimenter measures how far out of alignment they are. There are three conditions: left eye only, right eye only, and both eyes. Tetiana is using a repeated measures design. What is the dependent variable in this experiment? distance out of alignment of the rods how long the participant takes to complete the experiment improvement in performance by the participant eye/eyes used
answer

distance out of alignment of the rods
question

In a business class experiment on the endowment effect, Theo is comparing the value of a coffee mug to someone who owns it and is selling it to someone who is buying it. The endowment effect describes the tendency of sellers to value something they own more than buyers do. Participants are randomly assigned to be buyers or sellers of a mug with their first name on it. Buyers select the maximum price they would pay for the mug. Sellers select the minimum price they would accept for the mug. What is the dependent variable in this experiment? role of the participant value selected for the mug type of mug name of the participant
answer

value selected for the mug
question

In a study of the span of apprehension, or how many objects you can assess (report seeing) after a brief exposure, the length of exposure is held constant and the number of objects is varied, from one to twelve. After a large number of trials, the percentage correct for each number of objects is found. What is the independent variable? the percentage correct the number of objects the length of exposure the number of trials
answer

the number of objects
question

In psychology lab, Tetiana is conducting an experiment on depth perception using the Howard-Dolman box. Inside the box are two vertical rods and a horizontal ruler. The participant manipulates the rods until they appear to be aligned at the same distance away, then the experimenter measures how far out of alignment they are. There are three conditions: left eye only, right eye only, and both eyes. Tetiana is using a repeated measures design. She finds that d = 1.53. What effect size is this? weak moderate strong This cannot be determined without knowing the number of participants.
answer

strong
question

How many possible orders for full counterbalancing are there in a study with four conditions? four eight sixteen twenty-four
answer

twenty-four
question

In a business class experiment on the endowment effect, Theo is comparing the value of a coffee mug to someone who owns it and is selling it to someone who is buying it. The endowment effect describes the tendency of sellers to value something they own more than buyers do. Participants are randomly assigned to be buyers or sellers of a mug with their first name on it. Buyers select the maximum price they would pay for the mug. Sellers select the minimum price they would accept. Which validity is concerned with the significance of the difference in the prices? construct internal statistical external
answer

statistical
question

In what type of design does the experimenter sort the participants from lowest to highest of a relevant trait, form groups based on similar scores on that trait, then randomly assign those within each group to the different conditions? independent groups concurrent measures matched-groups within-groups
answer

matched-groups

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