Cbet Study Guide 1

Deoxygenated blood leaves the Heart thru what?
The Pulmonary Artery

A PH above 7 is considered?
An Alkaline

What is the term for how the body regulates itself?
Homeostasis

Bronchi and Avioli exchange gas in the what?
Lungs

Meaning of Acute?
Rapid and Short

Blood sugar problems are also know as?
Pancreas dis-function.

High Saline levels is known as?
Hypertonic

Excess of white blood cells is?
Leukemia

Where does food enter the blood supply?
Filia or Intestines

What is the plural cavity?
Lungs

Motor response is controlled by what part of the brain?
Occipital

Skin on the outside of the Lung is?
Pleura

Term for around the heart?
Pericardium

What is the injectate to test cardiac output?
10 ML cold water

Adrenal glands are located?
Above the Kidneys.

What secretes insulin?
Pancreas

What system moves O2 to cells?
Circulatory.

Term for % of red blood cells?
Hematocrit

Hypoglycemic hormon in the pancreas?
Insulin

3 waves with artifact on lead 2 and 3. What lead is bad?
LL

Bone in the foot(heel bone)
Calcaneus

Clot that moves is called?
Embolism

Term for inflammation?
itis

Ventricle depolarizes during which part of waveform?
QRS complex

Blood clot in the heart is?
Thrombosis

What is cleaned from the Kidneys during Dialysis?
Creatine

What can high levels of Conjunctive Billirueben in and infant cause?
Brain damage.

The pH of Blood is:
A. Slightly Acidic
B. Slightly Alkaline
C. Highly Acidic
D. Highly Alkaline
Slightly Alkaline

The Thyroid Gland is located:
A. At the base of the brain
B. The front of the neck
C. Superior to the Kidneys
D. Frontal Lobe of the Brain
The front of the neck

Systole occurs when:
A. The Ventricles depolarize
B. The Ventricles repolarize
C. The Atria depolarize
D. The Atria repolarize
The Ventricles depolarize

What is the typical expected blood volume of a normal adult?
A. 6.5 Liters
B. 6.0 Liters
C. 6.8 Liters
D. 7.4 Liters
6.0 Liters

AAMI Standard Lead 3 is:
A. White and Red Leads
B. White and Green Leads
C. Red and White Leads
D. Red and Black Leads
Red and Black leads.

The T wave represents:
A. The repolarization of the Ventricles
B. The depolarization of the Ventricles
C. The repolarization of the Atria
D. The depolarization of the Atria
The repolarization of the Ventricles

Normal placement of a catheter for IBP is:
A. The tip 1 cm above the transducer
B. The tip 2 cm below the transducer
C. The tip 1 cm below the transducer
D. The tip level with the transducer
The tip level with the transducer.

The plane that divides the superior and inferior halves of the body is:
A. Sagital Plane
B. Frontal Plane
C. Transverse Plane
D. Mid Plane
Transverse Plane

The adrenal glands are located:
A. At the base of the brain
B. The front of the neck
C. Superior to the Kidneys
D. Frontal Lobe of the Brain
Superior to the Kidneys

Normal body temperature is:
A. 36 degrees Celsius
B. 37 degrees Celsius
C. 38 degrees Celsius
D. 37.9 degrees Celsius
37 degrees Celsius

1000 mm (1 meter) equals:
A. 25.4 inches
B. 37 inches
C. 36.6 inches
D. 39.3 inches
39.3 inches

240 CC equals:
A. 2.40 mL
B. 240 mL
C. 24.0 mL
D. 2400 mL
240 ml

The radius bone is located in:
A. The upper arm
B. The forearm
C. The lower leg (shin area)
D. The foot
The forearm

The wall that divides the right and left side of the heart is called:
A. Myocardium
B. Vena Cava
C. Atrium
D. Septum
Septum

What is the name of the one-way valve that connects the right atrium to the right ventricle?
A. Tricuspid valve
B. Bicuspid valve
C. Semi-lunar valve
D. Mitral valve
Tricuspid valve

What is the only vein in the body that caries oxygenated blood?
A. Carotid vein
B. Superior vena cava
C. Inferior vena cava
D. Pulmonary vein
Pulmonary vein.

Which of these has the highest pressure?
A. ABP
B. ICP
C. CVP
D. Pulmonary pressure
ABP

What is a myocardial infarction?
A. A heart disease or arrhythmia
B. Restriction or closure of the coronary arteries
C. Restriction or closure of the Aorta
D. Restriction or closure of the Ventricles
Restriction or closure of the coronary arteries.

What type of gas is used in an intra-aortic balloon pump?
A. Helium
B. Oxygen
C. Nitrous Oxide
D. Nitrogen
Helium

What does an intra-aortic balloon pump do?
A. Helps blood circulate from the right ventricle to the body
B. Helps blood circulate from the left ventricle to the lungs through the pulmonary artery
C. Helps blood flow from the left ventricle to coronary arteries
D. Helps blood flow back from the lungs through the coronary vein
Helps blood flow from the left ventricle to the coronary arteries.

What does a balloon pump, and a defibrillator use in synch mode to trigger off of?
A. The P wave
B. The QRS complex
C. The R wave
D. The T wave
The R Wave.

If you have a low gas alarm on an intra-aortic balloon pump what should you check first?
A. The gas tank gauge to see if there is pressure in the cylinder.
B. The catheter for blood
C. The gas supply tubing for leaks
D. The balloon for a rupture
The catheter for blood.

What is a pH of 4?
A. Acidic
B. Electrolyte
C. Base
D. Alkaline
Acidic

A blood pH of 7.4 is?
A. Acidosis
B. Alkalosis
C. Normal
D. Base stabilized
Normal

When the kidneys fail and the patient needs dialysis, the blood pH would be?
A. Metabolic acidosis
B. Metabolic alkalosis
C. Metabolic stabilized
D. Metabolic neutralized
Metabolic acidosis.

What does oxygen attach to in the body?
A. Hemoglobin
B. Plasma
C. Serum
D. Carbon dioxide
Hemoglobin

If the tip of a catheter is lower than the transducer, then the blood pressure will read:
A. Too high
B. Too low
C. This is normal
D. 100 mmHg
Too low.

Cardiac output is normally measured in?
A. Volume over time
B. Liters per minute
C. Time over volume
D. mL per minute
Liters per minute.

What does a cardiac output waveform look like?
A. A saw tooth waveform
B. A bell shaped curve
C. A square wave
D. Close to a SPO2 waveform
A bell shaped curve.

What happens when a cell is depolarized?
A.Negatively charged potassium ions rush out, and positively charged sodium ions rush into the cell.
B.Negatively charged potassium ions rush in, and positively charged sodium ions rush out of the cell.
C.Positively charged potassium ions rush out, and negatively charged sodium ions rush into the cell.
D.The cell undergoes mitosis
Negatively charged potassium ions rush out, and positively charged sodium ions rush into the cell.

What is used to get rid of abnormal electrophysiological impulses in the heart?
A. Cardiac ablation
B. Heparin
C. 82 mg of aspirin per day
D. Intra-aortic balloon pump
Cardiac ablation

32. If the SA node fails (the hearts natural pacemaker). What escape rhythm takes over first?
A. Atria-ventricular rhythm
B. Atria-ventricular node rhythm
C. Ventricular rhythm
D. Coronary node rhythm
Atria-ventricular node rhythm

What cardiac rhythm is a defibrillator set to cardioversion synch mode for?
A. Atrial fibrillation
B. Ventricular fibrillation
C. Asystole
D. Atrial tachycardia
Atrial fibrillation

What cardiac rhythm would use the defibrillation (non-synch) mode on a defibrillator?
A. Atrial fibrillation
B. Ventricular fibrillation
C. Asystole
D. Atrial tachycardia
Ventricular fibrillation

2.5 Kg =
A. 5.5 lbs
B. 5.25 lbs
C. 6.00 lbs
D. 5.75 lbs
5.5 lbs

What is the main organ responsible for regulating acid/base and electrolyte balance in the body?
A. Kidneys
B. Pancreas
C. Liver
D. Gall Bladder
Kidneys

What ECG lead is used for respiration?
A. Lead 2, black and red leads
B. Lead 1, white and black leads
C. Lead 3, red and black leads
D. Lead 2, white and red leads
Lead 2, white and red leads

Which of the following is NOT part of the respiratory system?
a. Trachea
b. Mitral valve
c. Alveolar sacs
d. Larynx
. B: The upper part of the respiratory system includes the nasal and oral cavities, the epiglottis, the pharynx and larynx, which includes the vocal cords. After passing through the larynx, air moves down through the trachea and from there to the left and right bronchi, each of which divides into several branches, which themselves divide ultimately into bronchioles, finally leading air into alveolar sacs consisting of alveoli, where gas exchange takes place. Also known as the bicuspid valve, the mitral valve is located between the left atrium and left ventricle in the heart, which is part of the circulatory system.

. Regarding the levels of biological organization: cell, tissue, organ, and organ system, which of the following pairings is correct?
a. Organ: skin
b. Tissue: heart
c. Organ system: blood
d. Cell: integumentary
. A: Tissue consists of cells of a particular type. The main four types are epithelial, connective, muscle, and nerve cells. An organ is a functional entity made up of at least two different tissue types, specialized for different functions within the organ. Including, epithelial, connective, nerve, and muscle tissue, the skin constitutes an organ, as does the heart. The name of the organ system to which skin belongs is the integumentary system, which includes not only skin but also accessories such as nails and hair. Connective tissue is the most diverse type of tissue, including a range of tissue subtypes—the densest is bone, and the loosest is blood.

. Which of the following glands is both endocrine AND exocrine?
a. Adrenal
b. Pituitary
c. Pancreas
d. Prostate
C: Exocrine glands are those glands that secrete substances such as enzymes or mucous through ducts so that the destination is not the blood. Such glands include skin glands and glands of the digestive and reproductive tracts. The prostate falls into this category, as it secretes into ducts that contribute to seminal fluid. Endocrine glands, on the other hand, secrete hormones through capillaries into the blood. The pituitary and adrenal glands both fall into this category. Located in the abdominal cavity, the pancreas has an exocrine function, secreting digestive enzymes into the gastrointestinal tract. However, it is also an endocrine gland, releasing glucagon and insulin into the blood.

The right ventricle of the heart pumps blood through which of the following structures?
a. Pulmonary valve
b. Tricuspid valve
c. Bicuspid valve
d. Aortic valve
A: In mammals, the right and left sides of the heart are separated functionally, as if there were two hearts: one to pump deoxygenated blood to the lungs and the other to pump blood that has been oxygenated in the lungs to the body tissues. Each side of the heart includes an atrium, where blood returning to the heart collects, and a ventricle. Blood moves from each atrium to the corresponding ventricle on the same side of the heart, passing through the tricuspid and bicuspid (mitral) valves on the right and left, respectively. Blood from the right ventricle goes into the pulmonary artery on its way to the lungs, passing first through a valve known as the pulmonary valve. The aortic valve is the valve through which blood from the left ventricle passes going into the aorta on its way to body tissues.

Which of the following is NOT true regarding the transport of oxygen in the blood?
a. Oxygen is carried by red blood cells
b. Oxygen is attached to hemoglobin
c. Oxygen is dissolved physically in the liquid components of blood
d. Normally, most of the oxygen in blood is unloaded in body tissues
D: Most of the oxygen that is taken into the body through the lungs is carried attached to hemoglobin molecules in red blood cells (erythrocytes). However, a small amount of oxygen also is dissolved physically in the aqueous component of the blood. Arterial blood is nearly 100 percent

Advantages of biphasic waveform defibrillation over the Lown-type waveform that was used up until the late 1980s include which of the following?
a. The use of direct current, instead of alternating current
b. A reduction in the energy needed for successful defibrillation
c. Biphasic defibrillation allowed for the introduction of portable units
d. All of the above
B: The defibrillation technique developed by Bernard Lown in the 1950s used a strongly damped sinusoidal wave with a duration of approximately 5 milliseconds. This was supplied by a bank of capacitors that were charged to approximately 1 kilovolt that could deliver 100 to 200 joules of energy, with the power supplied as direct current. This was a big improvement compared with earlier methods that had used alternating current and could be performed only internally, with paddles placed on the heart during surgery. The Lown method also allowed units to become a lot smaller as the technology advanced in increments, so that they could be portable and carried in ambulances. The main advantage of the biphasic waveform that replaced the Lown approach is that the energy needed for successful defibrillation was reduced sharply. This reduces the risk of damage to the myocardium and burns on the skin.

An electrocardiograph is malfunctioning. The power LED and the LCD backlight both are on, but there is no LCD display. Which of the following might be the cause of these observations?
a. A problem in a cable connection to the ECG control board
b. A defective LCD
c. A defective ECG control board
d. All of the above
D: Since the power LED is on, the machine is getting electrical power. Since the LCD backlight is on, the LCD is getting power, but one of the cables connecting to the ECG control board could be loose. If not, then either the LCD itself, or the ECG control board could be the source of the problem, and thus would need to be replaced. Before coming to this conclusion, check whether there is any response at all when any switches are pressed. If there is no response at all when any switch is pressed, then the ECG control board is the source of the problem.

A suspected problem with the thermal head of an electrocardiograph might be checked by performing which of the following procedures?
a. Printing out the letters “H” and “X” repeatedly
b. Running the paper roll at 10, 12.5, 25, and 50 millimeters per second
c. Running a demonstration
d. All of the above
A: The thermal head of an electrocardiograph (ECG) can be tested by having the machine print basic patterns. These can be letters, such as “H” and “X,” or diagonal lines. Running the paper roll at 10, 12.5, 25, and 50 millimeters per second is performed to test the motor, gears, and sensors. A demonstration is a dummy ECG that is generated by the machine. This is not actually a test, but it is performed for educational purposes, for instance, to show people the basic features of a normal ECG reading.

A flow cytometer is providing a weak fluorescence intensity. This could be due to which of the following problems?
a. Excess antibody has been trapped
b. Several populations of cells are present in the sample, instead of one
c. The primary antibody and the secondary antibody are not compatible
d. The sample is contaminated with bacteria
C: Flow cytometers are used to count tiny particles, such as cells and chromosomes. The particles are suspended in a stream of liquid and recognized by fluorescent tags that are attached to the particles through antibodies. To amplify the signal, two antibodies are used. The primary antibody recognizes antigens on the particles themselves. In the case of cells, such antigens are molecules displayed on the cell surface. The primary antibody is made by, or using information from, the immune system of any of several animals, including humans. While the area of the primary antibody that binds the antigen on the cell is very specific to that antigen, the opposite end of the antibody is common to other members of the species from which the antibody was made. The fluorescent dye is attached to secondary antibodies, which attach to the species-specific antigens on the primary antibodies. The primary antibodies made from a mouse, for instance, need to be labeled with secondary antibodies that are “antimouse.” If the labeled secondary antibody in this case were “antihuman,” it would attach poorly to the primary antibody, so the signal would be absent, or reduced. Excess antibody being trapped would cause unusually high fluorescence, not a weak signal, while bacterial contamination would cause a scattering effect, because bacteria tend to autofluoresce at low levels. More than one population of cells present in a sample would show up as such on readings.

Regarding the upkeep of medical ventilators, which of the following statements is MOST accurate?
a. Biomedical equipment technicians are responsible only for the maintenance of the units
b. Biomedical equipment technicians are responsible mostly for tuning the various settings
c. Biomedical equipment technicians are responsible for tuning the various settings and for maintenance of the units
d. Both tuning of settings and maintenance are the responsibility of respiratory therapists
A: In the case of most biomedical equipment, various specialists are responsible for the day-to-day operation of the equipment, while the biomedical technician is called to see that it works properly. In the case of ventilators, the various settings have a direct influence on the patient’s comfort level, so adjusting these settings falls within the job description of the respiratory therapist. A ventilator is an example of a device that must be able to continue operating in the event of a power failure, which is to say a life-critical system. A biomedical technician is responsible for making sure that all backup systems are operating and that the various settings are calibrated.

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